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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (13)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Biomechanics
- Journal of Biomechanics
- Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
- Biotechnology Journal
- Biophysical Journal
- Biophysical Journal
- Biophysical Journal
- Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
- Biotechnology and Bioengineering
- Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
Articles by Delphine Dean in JoVE
Creating Transient Cell Membrane Pores Using a Standard Inkjet Printer
Alexander B. Owczarczak, Stephen O. Shuford, Scott T. Wood, Sandra Deitch, Delphine Dean
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University
A description of the methods used to convert an HP DeskJet 500 printer into a bioprinter. The printer is capable of processing living cells, which causes transient pores in the membrane. These pores can be utilized to incorporate small molecules, including fluorescent G-actin, into the printed cells.
Other articles by Delphine Dean on PubMed
Mechanical Compression of Cartilage Explants Induces Multiple Time-dependent Gene Expression Patterns and Involves Intracellular Calcium and Cyclic AMP
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14960571
Chondrocytes are influenced by mechanical forces to remodel cartilage extracellular matrix. Previous studies have demonstrated the effects of mechanical forces on changes in biosynthesis and mRNA levels of particular extracellular matrix molecules, and have identified certain signaling pathways that may be involved. However, the broad extent and kinetics of mechano-regulation of gene transcription has not been studied in depth. We applied static compressive strains to bovine cartilage explants for periods between 1 and 24 h and measured the response of 28 genes using real time PCR. Compression time courses were also performed in the presence of an intracellular calcium chelator or an inhibitor of cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase A. Cluster analysis of the data revealed four main expression patterns: two groups containing either transiently up-regulated or duration-enhanced expression profiles could each be subdivided into genes that did or did not require intracellular calcium release and cyclic AMP-activated protein kinase A for their mechano-regulation. Transcription levels for aggrecan, type II collagen, and link protein were up-regulated approximately 2-3-fold during the first 8 h of 50% compression and subsequently down-regulated to levels below that of free-swelling controls by 24 h. Transcription levels of matrix metalloproteinases-3, -9, and -13, aggrecanase-1, and the matrix protease regulator cyclooxygenase-2 increased with the duration of 50% compression 2-16-fold by 24 h. Thus, transcription of proteins involved in matrix remodeling and catabolism dominated over anabolic matrix proteins as the duration of static compression increased. Immediate early genes c-fos and c-jun were dramatically up-regulated 6-30-fold, respectively, during the first 8 h of 50% compression and remained up-regulated after 24 h.
Nanoscale Variation in Surface Charge of Synthetic Hydroxyapatite Detected by Chemically and Spatially Specific High-resolution Force Spectroscopy
Biomaterials. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15262469
The normal intersurface forces between nanosized probe tips functionalized with COO-- and NH3+-terminated alkanethiol self-assembling monolayers and dense polycrystalline phase pure synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) were measured via a powerful nanomechanical technique called chemically specific high-resolution force spectroscopy. The data taken on approach of the probe tip to the HA surface was compared to the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann-based electrostatic double layer theory to predict the surface charge per unit area of the HA, sigmaHA (C/m2), as a function of ionic strength, position within a variety of grains, and across grain boundaries. The average sigmaHA was found to be approximately -0.02 C/m2 and to vary from -0.0037 to -0.072 C/m2 with nanoscale position in relation to grain boundaries and crystal planes up to -0.19 C/m2/microm. Positional measurement of nanoscale surface properties holds great promise in elucidating the molecular origins of physicochemical processes occurring at the biomaterial interface.
Journal of Biomechanics. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16023465
In this study, the net intermolecular interaction force between a chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-functionalized probe tip and an opposing GAG-functionalized planar substrate was measured as a function of probe tip-substrate separation distance in aqueous electrolyte solutions using the technique of high resolution force spectroscopy. A range of GAG grafting densities as near as possible to native cartilage was used. A long-range repulsive force between GAGs on the probe tip and substrate was observed, which increased nonlinearly with decreasing separation distance between probe tip and substrate. Data obtained in 0.1 M NaCl was well predicted by a recently developed Poisson-Boltzmann-based theoretical model that describes normal electrostatic double layer interaction forces between two opposing surfaces of end-grafted, cylindrical rods of constant volume charge density and finite length, which interdigitate upon compression. Based on these results, the nanomechanical data and interdigitated rod model were used together to estimate the electrostatic component of the equilibrium modulus of cartilage tissue, which was then compared to that of normal adult human ankle cartilage measured in uniaxial confined compression.
Journal of Biomechanics. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16289077
In this study, we have measured the nanoscale compressive interactions between opposing aggrecan macromolecules in near-physiological conditions, in order to elucidate the molecular origins of tissue-level cartilage biomechanical behavior. Aggrecan molecules from fetal bovine epiphyseal cartilage were chemically end-grafted to planar substrates, standard nanosized atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tips (R(tip) approximately 50 nm), and larger colloidal probe tips (R(tip) approximately 2.5 microm). To assess normal nanomechanical interaction forces between opposing aggrecan layers, substrates with microcontact printed aggrecan were imaged using contact mode AFM, and aggrecan layer height (and hence deformation) was measured as a function of solution ionic strength (IS) and applied normal load. Then, using high-resolution force spectroscopy, nanoscale compressive forces between opposing aggrecan on the tip and substrate were measured versus tip-substrate separation distance in 0.001-1M NaCl. Nanosized tips enabled measurement of the molecular stiffness of 2-4 aggrecan while colloidal tips probed the nanomechanical properties of larger assemblies (approximately 10(4) molecules). The compressive stiffness of aggrecan was much higher when using a densely packed colloidal tip than the stiffness measured for using the nanosized tip with a few aggrecan, demonstrating the importance of lateral interactions to the normal nanomechanical properties. The measured stress at 0.1M NaCl (near-physiological ionic strength) increased sharply at aggrecan densities under the tip of approximately 40 mg/ml (physiological densities are approximately 20-80 mg/ml), corresponding to an average inter-GAG spacing of 4-5 Debye lengths (4-5 nm); this characteristic spacing is consistent with the onset of significant electrostatic interactions between GAG chains of opposing aggrecan molecules. Comparison of nanomechanical data to the predictions of Poisson-Boltzmann-based models further elucidated the regimes over which electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions affect aggrecan stiffness in compression. The most important aspects of this study include: the incorporation of experiments at two different length scales, the use of microcontact printing to enable quantification of aggrecan deformation and the corresponding nanoscale compressive stress vs. strain curve, the use of tips of differing functionality to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of deformation, and the comparison of experimental data to the predictions of three increasingly refined Poisson-Boltzmann (P-B)-based theoretical models for the electrostatic double layer component of the interaction.
Silicon Addition to Hydroxyapatite Increases Nanoscale Electrostatic, Van Der Waals, and Adhesive Interactions
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16646067
The normal intersurface forces between nanosized probe tips functionalized with COO(-)-terminated alkanethiol self-assembling monolayers and dense, polycrystalline silicon-substituted synthetic hydroxyapatite (SiHA) and phase pure hydroxyapatite (HA) were measured via a nanomechanical technique called chemically specific high-resolution force spectroscopy. A significantly larger van der Waals interaction was observed for the SiHA compared to HA; Hamaker constants (A) were found to be A(SiHA) = 35 +/- 27 zJ and A(HA) = 13 +/- 12 zJ. Using the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek approximation, which assumes linear additivity of the electrostatic double layer and van der Waals components, and the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann surface charge model for electrostatic double-layer forces, the surface charge per unit area, sigma (C/m(2)), was calculated as a function of position for specific nanosized areas within individual grains. SiHA was observed to be more negatively charged than HA with sigma(SiHA) = -0.024 +/- 0.013 C/m(2), two times greater than sigma(HA) = -0.011 +/- 0.006 C/m(2). Additionally, SiHA was found to have increased surface adhesion (0.7 +/- 0.3 nN) compared to HA (0.5 +/- 0.3 nN). The characterization of the nanoscale variations in surface forces of SiHA and HA will enable an improved understanding of the initial stages of bone-biomaterial bonding.
Biotechnology Journal. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16941447
We have designed a laser cell deposition system that employs the phenomenon of laser guidance to place single cells at specific points in a variety of in vitro environments. Here, we describe the components of the system: the laser optics, the deposition chamber, the microinjection cell feeding system and our custom system control software application. We discuss the requirements and challenges involved in laser guidance of cells and how our present system overcomes these challenges. We demonstrate that the patterning system is accurate within one micrometer by repeatedly depositing polymer microspheres and measuring their position. We demonstrate its ability to create highly defined living patterns of cells by creating a defined pattern of neurons with neurite extensions displaying normal function. We found that the positional accuracy of our system is smaller than the variations in cell size and pattern disruptions that occur from normal cell movement during substrate adhesion. The laser cell deposition system is a potentially useful tool that can be used to achieve site- and time-specific placement of an individual cell in a cell culture for the systematic investigation of cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions.
Biophysical Journal. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17142289
To explore the role of the brush-like proteoglycan, aggrecan, in the shear behavior of cartilage tissue, we measured the lateral resistance to deformation of a monolayer of chemically end-attached cartilage aggrecan on a microcontact printed surface in aqueous NaCl solutions via lateral force microscopy. The effects of bath ionic strength (IS, 0.001-1.0 M) and lateral displacement rate (approximately 1-100 microm/s) were studied using probe tips functionalized with neutral hydroxyl-terminated self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers. Probe tips having two different end-radii (R approximately 50 nm and 2.5 microm) enabled access to different length-scales of interactions (nano and micro). The measured lateral force was observed to depend linearly on the applied normal force, and the lateral force to normal force proportionality constant, mu, was calculated. The value mu increased (from 0.03 +/- 0.01 to 0.11 +/- 0.01) with increasing bath IS (0.001-1.0 M) for experiments using the microsized tip due to the larger compressive strain of aggrecan that resulted from increased IS at constant compressive force. With the nanosized tip, mu also increased with IS but by a smaller amount due to the fewer number of aggrecan involved in shear deformation. The variations in lateral force as a function of applied compressive strain epsilon(n) and changes in bath IS suggested that both electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions contributed significantly to the shear deformational behavior of the aggrecan layers. While lateral force did not vary with lateral displacement rate at low IS, where elastic-like electrostatic interactions between aggrecan dominated, lateral force increased significantly with displacement rate at physiological and higher IS, suggestive of additional viscoelastic and/or poroelastic interactions within the aggrecan layer. These data provide insights into molecular-level deformation of aggrecan macromolecules that are important to the understanding of cartilage behavior.
Biophysical Journal. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17586571
The nanoscale shear deformation behavior of two opposing end-grafted aggrecan layers was studied in aqueous solutions using atomic force microscopy, and was observed to depend markedly on bath ionic strength, the presence of calcium ions, and the applied lateral displacement rate. These results provide molecular-level insights into the contribution of aggrecan deformation mechanisms to cartilage tissue-level material properties.
Biophysical Journal. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18676640
Here it is reported that aggrecan, the highly negatively charged macromolecule in the cartilage extracellular matrix, undergoes Ca(2+)-mediated self-adhesion after static compression even in the presence of strong electrostatic repulsion in physiological-like solution conditions. Aggrecan was chemically end-attached onto gold-coated planar silicon substrates and gold-coated microspherical atomic force microscope probe tips (end radius R approximately 2.5 mum) at a density ( approximately 40 mg/mL) that simulates physiological conditions in the tissue ( approximately 20-80 mg/mL). Colloidal force spectroscopy was employed to measure the adhesion between opposing aggrecan monolayers in NaCl (0.001-1.0 M) and NaCl + CaCl(2) ([Cl(-)] = 0.15 M, [Ca(2+)] = 0 - 75 mM) aqueous electrolyte solutions. Aggrecan self-adhesion was found to increase with increasing surface equilibration time upon compression (0-30 s). Hydrogen bonding and physical entanglements between the chondroitin sulfate-glycosaminoglycan side chains are proposed as important factors contributing to aggrecan self-adhesion. Self-adhesion was found to significantly increase with decreasing bath ionic strength (and hence, electrostatic double-layer repulsion), as well as increasing Ca(2+) concentration due to the additional ion-bridging effects. It is hypothesized that aggrecan self-adhesion, and the macromolecular energy dissipation that results from this self-adhesion, could be important factors contributing to the self-assembled architecture and integrity of the cartilage extracellular matrix in vivo.
Role of Cytoskeletal Components in Stress-relaxation Behavior of Adherent Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19275430
A number of recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of atomic force microscopy (AFM) for characterization of cellular stress-relaxation behavior. However, this technique's recent development creates considerable need for exploration of appropriate mechanical models for analysis of the resultant data and of the roles of various cytoskeletal components responsible for governing stress-relaxation behavior. The viscoelastic properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are of particular interest due to their role in the development of vascular diseases, including atherosclerosis and restenosis. Various cytoskeletal agents, including cytochalasin D, jasplakinolide, paclitaxel, and nocodazole, were used to alter the cytoskeletal architecture of the VSMCs. Stress-relaxation experiments were performed on the VSMCs using AFM. The quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) reduced-relaxation function, as well as a simple power-law model, and the standard linear solid (SLS) model, were fitted to the resultant stress-relaxation data. Actin depolymerization via cytochalasin D resulted in significant increases in both rate of relaxation and percentage of relaxation; actin stabilization via jasplakinolide did not affect stress-relaxation behavior. Microtubule depolymerization via nocodazole resulted in nonsignificant increases in rate and percentage of relaxation, while microtubule stabilization via paclitaxel caused significant decreases in both rate and percentage of relaxation. Both the QLV reduced-relaxation function and the power-law model provided excellent fits to the data (R(2)=0.98), while the SLS model was less adequate (R(2)=0.91). Data from the current study indicate the important role of not only actin, but also microtubules, in governing VSMC viscoelastic behavior. Excellent fits to the data show potential for future use of both the QLV reduced-relaxation function and power-law models in conjunction with AFM stress-relaxation experiments.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20589673
Thermal inkjet printing technology has been applied successfully to cell printing. However, there are concerns that printing process may cause cell damages or death. We conducted a comprehensive study of thermal inkjet printed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by evaluating cell viability and apoptosis, and possible cell membrane damages. Additionally, we studied the cell concentration of bio-ink and found optimum printing of concentrations around 8 million cells per mL. Printed cell viability was 89% and only 3.5% apoptotic cells were observed after printing. Transient pores were developed in the cell membrane of printed cells. Cells were able to repair these pores within 2 h after printing. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) DNA plasmids were delivered to CHO-S cells by co-printing. The transfection efficiency is above 30%. We conclude that thermal inkjet printing technology can be used for precise cell seeding with minor effects and damages to the printed mammalian cells. The printing process causes transient pores in cell membranes, a process which has promising applications for gene and macroparticles delivery to induce the biocompatibility or growth of engineered tissues.
Materials. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21686041
With the advancement of the field of biotribology, considerable interest has arisen in the study of cell and tissue frictional properties. From the perspective of medical device development, the frictional properties between a rigid surface and underlying cells and tissues are of a particular clinical interest. As with many bearing surfaces, it is likely that contact asperities exist at the size scale of single cells and below. Thus, a technique to measure cellular frictional properties directly would be beneficial from both a clinical and a basic science perspective. In the current study, an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a 5 μm diameter borosilicate spherical probe simulating endovascular metallic stent asperities was used to characterize the surface frictional properties of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in contact with a metallic endovascular stent. Various treatments were used to alter cell structure, in order to better understand the cellular components and mechanisms responsible for governing frictional properties. The frictional coefficient of the probe on VSMCs was found to be approximately 0.06. This frictional coefficient was significantly affected by cellular crosslinking and cytoskeletal depolymerization agents. These results demonstrate that AFM-based lateral force microscopy is a valuable technique to assess the friction properties of individual single cells on the micro-scale.
Variation of Surface Charge Along the Surface of Wool Fibers Assessed by High-Resolution Force Spectroscopy
Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21866220
In this study, we have mapped the surface charge of wool fibers using chemically specific high-resolution force spectroscopy in order to better understand the dispersion of amino acids in relation to fiber morphology. The inter-surface forces between standard atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tips (tip radius ~ 50 nm) functionalized with COOH and NH(3) terminated alkanethiol self assembling monolayers and the wool surface were used to estimate the surface charge per unit area using linear Poisson-Boltzmann-based electrostatic double layer theory. The positional measurement of nano-scale surface charge showed a correlation between the surface charge and fiber morphology, indicated that basic amino acids are located near the scale edges.