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In JoVE (4)

Other Publications (2)

Articles by Delphine Psychoyos in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Method for Culture of Early Chick Embryos ex vivo (New Culture)

1Center for Environmental and Genetic Medicine, Institute of Biosciences and Technology - Texas A&M Health Science Center, 2Center for Environmental and Genetic Medicine, Texas A&M University (TAMU)


JoVE 903

This video demonstrates New culture, a method by which chick embryos are cultured outside the egg for up to 24 hr. This method enables one to study early development (primitive streak to 14 som.), a period corresponding to E7-9 in mouse. Applications of this technique include electroporation, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.

 JoVE Biology

Double Whole Mount in situ Hybridization of Early Chick Embryos

1Center for Environmental and Genetic Medicine, Institute of Biosciences and Technology - Texas A&M Health Science Center, 2Center for Environmental and Genetic Medicine, Texas A&M University (TAMU)


JoVE 904

This video demonstrates 2-color whole mount in situ hybridization, a method by which the spatial and temporal expression pattern of 2 different genes can be visualized in young chick embryos. This method was originally introduced by David Wilkinson, Domingos Henrique, Phil Ingham and David Ish -Horowicz.

 JoVE Biology

Method for Whole Mount Antibody Staining in Chick

1Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Center for Environmental and Genetic Medicine, Texas A&M University (TAMU)


JoVE 956

This video demonstrates whole mount immunohistochemistry, a method by which the spatial and temporal expression pattern of an antigen can be visualized in young chick embryos. This method was originally introduced by Jane Dodd and Tom Jessell.

 JoVE Biology

Assay for Neural Induction in the Chick Embryo

1Institute of Biosciences and Technology, Center for Environmental and Genetic Medicine, Texas A&M University (TAMU)


JoVE 1027

Neural induction is the first step in the formation of the brain. It is a mechanism by which Hensen's node (organizer), instructs adjacent tissue to adopt a neural fate, i.e. to give rise to the nervous system. This video demonstrates an assay for neural induction in chick embryo.

Other articles by Delphine Psychoyos on PubMed

A Cannabinoid Analogue of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol Disrupts Neural Development in Chick

Marijuana is the most commonly abused illicit drug by pregnant women. Its major psychoactive constituent, Delta(9)-THC (Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol), crosses the placenta and accumulates in the foetus, potentially harming its development. In humans, marijuana use in early pregnancy is associated with miscarriage, a fetal alcohol-like syndrome, as well as learning disabilities, memory impairment, and ADHD in the offspring. Classical studies in the 1970 s have reached disparate conclusions as to the teratogenic effects of cannabinoids in animal models. Further, there is very little known about the immediate effects of Delta(9)-THC on early embryogenesis. We have used the chick embryo as a model in order to characterize the effects of a water-soluble Delta(9)-THC analogue, O-2545, on early development. Embryos were exposed to the drug (0.035 to 0.35 mg/ml) at gastrulation and assessed for morphological defects at stages equivalent to 9-14 somites. We report that O-2545 impairs the formation of brain, heart, somite, and spinal cord primordia. Shorter incubation times following exposure to the drug show that O-2545 interferes with the initial steps of head process and neural plate formation. Our results indicate that the administration of the cannabinoid O-2545 during early embryogenesis results in embryotoxic effects and serves to illuminate the risks of marijuana exposure during the second week of pregnancy, a time point at which most women are unaware of their pregnancies.

Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Signaling in Embryo Neurodevelopment

In utero exposure to tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of marijuana, is associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental defects in the offspring by interfering with the functioning of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. At the present time, it is not clearly known whether the eCB system is present before neurogenesis. Using an array of biochemical techniques, we analyzed the levels of CB1 receptors, eCBs (AEA and 2-AG), and the enzymes (NAPE-PLD, DAGLα, DAGLβ, MAGL, and FAAH) involved in the metabolism of the eCBs in chick and mouse models during development. The findings demonstrate the presence of eCB system in early embryo before neurogenesis. The eCB system might play a critical role in early embryogenesis and there might be adverse developmental consequences of in utero exposure to marijuana and other drugs of abuse during this period.

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