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In JoVE (1)
- Ett mikroflödessystem enhet för att kvantifiera Bakteriella chemotaxis i stabila koncentrationsgradienter
Other Publications (5)
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Articles by Derek L. Englert in JoVE
Ett mikroflödessystem enhet för att kvantifiera Bakteriella chemotaxis i stabila koncentrationsgradienter
Derek L. Englert1, Michael D. Manson2, Arul Jayaraman1,3
1McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, 2Department of Biology, Texas A&M University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University
Detta protokoll beskriver utvecklingen av en mikroflödessystem anordning för att undersöka bakterie chemotaxis i stabila koncentrationsgradienter av chemoeffectors.
Other articles by Derek L. Englert on PubMed
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19411425
Chemotaxis is the migration of cells in gradients of chemoeffector molecules. Although multiple, competing gradients must often coexist in nature, conventional approaches for investigating bacterial chemotaxis are suboptimal for quantifying migration in response to gradients of multiple signals. In this work, we developed a microfluidic device for generating precise and stable gradients of signaling molecules. We used the device to investigate the effects of individual and combined chemoeffector gradients on Escherichia coli chemotaxis. Laminar flow-based diffusive mixing was used to generate gradients, and the chemotactic responses of cells expressing green fluorescent protein were determined using fluorescence microscopy. Quantification of the migration profiles indicated that E. coli was attracted to the quorum-sensing molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) but was repelled from the stationary-phase signal indole. Cells also migrated toward higher concentrations of isatin (indole-2,3-dione), an oxidized derivative of indole. Attraction to AI-2 overcame repulsion by indole in equal, competing gradients. Our data suggest that concentration-dependent interactions between attractant and repellent signals may be important determinants of bacterial colonization of the gut.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19763956
Anton van Leeuwenhoek first observed bacterial motility in the seventeenth century, and Wilhelm Pfeffer described bacterial chemotaxis in the late nineteenth century. A number of methods, briefly summarized here, have been developed over the years to quantify the motility and chemotaxis of bacteria, but none of them is totally satisfactory. In this chapter, we describe two new assays for chemotaxis that are based on microfabrication and microfluidic techniques. With easily culturable and manipulated bacteria like Escherichia coli, fluorescent labeling of the cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) provides a convenient method for visualizing cells and differentiating two strains in the same experiment. The methods can be extended to environmental samples and mixed bacterial populations with suitable modifications of the optical recording system. The methods are equally useful for studying random motility, attractant chemotaxis, or repellent chemotaxis. The microfluidic system also provides a straightforward way to enrich for mutants that lose or gain responses to individual chemicals. The same approaches can presumably be used to isolate bacteria from environmental samples that respond, or do not respond, to particular chemicals or mixtures of chemicals.
Repellent Taxis in Response to Nickel Ion Requires Neither Ni2+ Transport nor the Periplasmic NikA Binding Protein
Journal of Bacteriology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20233931
Ni(2+) and Co(2+) are sensed as repellents by the Escherichia coli Tar chemoreceptor. The periplasmic Ni(2+) binding protein, NikA, has been suggested to sense Ni(2+). We show here that neither NikA nor the membrane-bound NikB and NikC proteins of the Ni(2+) transport system are required for repellent taxis in response to Ni(2+).
Nature Protocols. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20431532
The plug-in-pond and capillary assays are convenient methods for measuring attractant and repellent bacterial chemotaxis. However, these assays do not provide quantitative information on the extent of migration and are not well-suited for investigating repellent taxis. Here, we describe a protocol for a flow-based microfluidic system (microFlow) to quantitatively investigate chemotaxis in response to concentration gradients of attractants and repellents. The microFlow device uses diffusive mixing to generate concentration gradients that are stable throughout the chemotaxis chamber and for the duration of the experiment. The gradients may be of any desired absolute concentration and gradient strength. GFP-expressing bacteria immediately encounter a stable concentration gradient when they enter the chemotaxis chamber, and the migration in response to the gradient is monitored by microscopy. The effects of different parameters that influence the extent of migration in the microFlow device-preparation of the motile bacterial population preparation, strength of the concentration gradient and duration of exposure to the gradient-are discussed in the context of repellent taxis of chemotactically wild-type Escherichia coli cells in a gradient of NiSO(4). Fabrication of the microfluidic device takes 1 d while preparing motile cells and carrying out the chemotaxis experiment takes 4-6 h to complete.
Chemotaxis to the Quorum-sensing Signal AI-2 Requires the Tsr Chemoreceptor and the Periplasmic LsrB AI-2-binding Protein
Journal of Bacteriology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21097621
AI-2 is an autoinducer made by many bacteria. LsrB binds AI-2 in the periplasm, and Tsr is the l-serine chemoreceptor. We show that AI-2 strongly attracts Escherichia coli. Both LsrB and Tsr are necessary for sensing AI-2, but AI-2 uptake is not, suggesting that LsrB and Tsr interact directly in the periplasm.