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In JoVE (1)
- Yılları arasında sinerjistik Araştırma Bioluminescent Görüntüleme kullanma Streptococcus pneumoniae Bebek Fare ve İnfluenza A Virüsü
Other Publications (6)
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Articles by Dimitri A. Diavatopoulos in JoVE
Yılları arasında sinerjistik Araştırma Bioluminescent Görüntüleme kullanma Streptococcus pneumoniae Bebek Fare ve İnfluenza A Virüsü
Kirsty R. Short1, Dimitri A. Diavatopoulos2, Patrick C. Reading1, Lorena E. Brown1, Kelly L. Rogers3, Richard A. Strugnell1, Odilia L.C. Wijburg1
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, 2Laboratory of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, 3The Centre for Dynamic Imaging, The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research
Influenza A virusu ile aynı anda enfeksiyon asemptomatik sırasında invazif pnömokok hastalığına indüksiyonu karıştığı faktörlerden biridir
Other articles by Dimitri A. Diavatopoulos on PubMed
Bordetella Pertussis, the Causative Agent of Whooping Cough, Evolved from a Distinct, Human-associated Lineage of B. Bronchiseptica
PLoS Pathogens. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16389302
Bordetella pertussis, B. bronchiseptica, B. parapertussis(hu), and B. parapertussis(ov) are closely related respiratory pathogens that infect mammalian species. B. pertussis and B. parapertussis(hu) are exclusively human pathogens and cause whooping cough, or pertussis, a disease that has resurged despite vaccination. Although it most often infects animals, infrequently B. bronchiseptica is isolated from humans, and these infections are thought to be zoonotic. B. pertussis and B. parapertussis(hu) are assumed to have evolved from a B. bronchiseptica-like ancestor independently. To determine the phylogenetic relationships among these species, housekeeping and virulence genes were sequenced, comparative genomic hybridizations were performed using DNA microarrays, and the distribution of insertion sequence elements was determined, using a collection of 132 strains. This multifaceted approach distinguished four complexes, representing B. pertussis, B. parapertussis(hu), and two distinct B. bronchiseptica subpopulations, designated complexes I and IV. Of the two B. bronchiseptica complexes, complex IV was more closely related to B. pertussis. Of interest, while only 32% of the complex I strains were isolated from humans, 80% of the complex IV strains were human isolates. Comparative genomic hybridization analysis identified the absence of the pertussis toxin locus and dermonecrotic toxin gene, as well as a polymorphic lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis locus, as associated with adaptation of complex IV strains to the human host. Lipopolysaccharide structural diversity among these strains was confirmed by gel electrophoresis. Thus, complex IV strains may comprise a human-associated lineage of B. bronchiseptica from which B. pertussis evolved. These findings will facilitate the study of pathogen host-adaptation. Our results shed light on the origins of the disease pertussis and suggest that the association of B. pertussis with humans may be more ancient than previously assumed.
Secretory Antibodies Reduce Systemic Antibody Responses Against the Gastrointestinal Commensal Flora
International Immunology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17255112
The humoral response to the gastrointestinal (GI) flora was analyzed in secretory Ig (sIg)-deficient polymeric IgR (pIgR)(-/-) mice and otherwise congenic C57BL/6 mice. While both strains carried an ileal flora of similar size and composition, increased bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph node was demonstrated in pIgR(-/-) mice. Serum IgA was greatly increased in pIgR(-/-) mice compared with C57BL/6 mice and reacted with commensal organisms and food. Serum IgG levels in pIgR(-/-) mice were increased to 6-fold above that of C57BL/6 mice and included specificities that bound to selected flora antigens. The enhanced recognition of flora antigens in pIgR(-/-) mice was explored using ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4(+) T cells and feeding of low concentrations of OVA. Increased proliferation of transgenic T cells was observed in pIgR(-/-) mice, relative to C57BL/6 mice, suggesting elevated net uptake of protein antigens from the GI tract in the absence of sIg. These studies suggest that there is increased recognition of GI flora antigens by systemic antibodies in pIgR(-/-) mice, most probably as a result of increased access of antigens from the GI flora to the systemic immune compartment, and support the hypothesis that a major function of the secretory immune system is to return environmental antigens to mucosal surfaces.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20097876
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) kills approximately 1.6 million people annually. Pneumococcal infections predominantly manifest as pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis, and otitis media. S. pneumoniae is also a member of the normal nasopharyngeal flora, colonizing up to 80% of children. Infection with influenza A virus (IAV) has been associated with both pneumococcal disease and transmission. However, to date no animal model has been available to investigate the role of IAV in the spread of S. pneumoniae. Here we investigate pneumococcal-influenza synergism with a particular focus on the role of IAV on pneumococcal transmission. Infant mice were colonized with S. pneumoniae and subsequently infected with IAV 3 d later. Using this novel model we show increased pneumococcal colonization and disease in the presence of IAV. Notably, in vivo imaging showed that IAV was essential for the transmission of S. pneumoniae from colonized ("index") mice to their naive cohoused littermates ("contacts"). Transmission occurred only when all mice were infected with IAV and was prevented when an IAV-neutralizing antibody was used to inhibit IAV replication in either index mice or contact mice. Together, these data provide novel insights into pneumococcal-influenza synergism and may indicate a previously unappreciated role of IAV in the spread of S. pneumoniae.
FEMS Microbiology Reviews. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21204863
Pertussis, or whooping cough, is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease of humans that is caused by the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis. In the face of extensive global vaccination, this extremely monomorphic pathogen has persisted and re-emerged, causing approximately 300,000 deaths each year. In this review, we discuss the interaction of B. pertussis with the host mucosal epithelium and immune system. Using a large number of virulence factors, B. pertussis is able to create a niche for colonization in the human respiratory tract. The successful persistence of this pathogen is mainly due to its ability to interfere with almost every aspect of the immune system, from the inhibition of complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing to the suppression of T- and B-cell responses. Based on these insights, we delineate ideas for the rational design of improved vaccines that can target the 'weak spots' in the pathogenesis of this highly successful pathogen.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21930608
Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common childhood diseases. OM can arise when a viral infection enables bacteria to disseminate from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Here, we provide the first infant murine model for disease. Mice coinfected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus had high bacterial load in the middle ear, middle ear inflammation, and hearing loss. In contrast, mice colonized with S. pneumoniae alone had significantly less bacteria in the ear, minimal hearing loss, and no inflammation. Of interest, infection with influenza virus alone also caused some middle ear inflammation and hearing loss. Overall, this study provides a clinically relevant and easily accessible animal model to study the pathogenesis and prevention of OM. Moreover, we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that influenza virus alone causes middle ear inflammation in infant mice. This inflammation may then play an important role in the development of bacterial OM.
NLRC4 Inflammasomes in Dendritic Cells Regulate Noncognate Effector Function by Memory CD8(+) T Cells
Nature Immunology. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22231517
Memory T cells exert antigen-independent effector functions, but how these responses are regulated is unclear. We discovered an in vivo link between flagellin-induced NLRC4 inflammasome activation in splenic dendritic cells (DCs) and host protective interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by noncognate memory CD8(+) T cells, which could be activated by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that CD8α(+) DCs were particularly efficient at sensing bacterial flagellin through NLRC4 inflammasomes. Although this activation released interleukin 18 (IL-18) and IL-1β, only IL-18 was required for IFN-γ production by memory CD8(+) T cells. Conversely, only the release of IL-1β, but not IL-18, depended on priming signals mediated by Toll-like receptors. These findings provide a comprehensive mechanistic framework for the regulation of noncognate memory T cell responses during bacterial immunity.