Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (55)
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
- FEBS Letters
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
- PLoS Biology
- Current Opinion in Lipidology
- PLoS Medicine
- Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
- Cardiovascular Research
- Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
- Analytical Biochemistry
- Diabetes Care
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- Journal of Lipid Research
- PLoS Genetics
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Circulation Research
- Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
- Journal of the American College of Cardiology
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Journal of HIV Therapy
- Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
- Molecular Pharmacology
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- Circulation Research
- The Journal of Infectious Diseases
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Journal of Leukocyte Biology
- Pharmacology & Therapeutics
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Journal of Clinical Lipidology
- Journal of Lipid Research
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- European Heart Journal
Articles by Dmitri Sviridov in JoVE
Cholesterol Efflux Assay
Hann Low, Anh Hoang, Dmitri Sviridov
Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute
The cholesterol assay is designed to quantitate the rate of cholesterol efflux from cultured cells and the capacity of plasma acceptors to accept cholesterol released from cells. The assay consists of labelling cells with cholesterol, equilibration of cholesterol among intracellular pools and release of cholesterol to an extracellular acceptor.
Other articles by Dmitri Sviridov on PubMed
Atherosclerosis. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11888506
This review considers the antiatherogenic function of high density lipoprotein (HDL) from the point of view of its dynamics within the sequential steps of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). It is postulated that the efficiency of cholesterol flux through the RCT pathways is clinically more relevant than the HDL cholesterol concentration. The particular role of pre-beta(1)-HDL is reviewed drawing attention to the relationship between its concentration and the flux of cholesterol through the RCT system.
Journal of Lipid Research. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12177172
Five mutants of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoA-I(Delta63-73), apoA-I(Delta140-150), apoA-I(63-73@140-150), apoA-I(R149V), and apoA-I(P143A) were compared with human plasma apoA-I for their ability to promote cholesterol and phospholipid efflux from HepG2 cells. A significantly lower capacity to promote cholesterol and phospholipid efflux was observed with lipid-free apoA-I(Delta63-73), while mutations apoA-I(Delta140-150) and apoA-I(P143A) affected phospholipid efflux only. When added as apoA-I/palmitoyloleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) complex, mutations apoA-I(63-73@140-150) and apoA-I(Delta140-150) affected cholesterol efflux. None of the mutations affected alpha-helicity of the lipid-free mutants or their self-association. Five natural mutations of apoA-I, apoA-I(A95D), apoA-I (Y100H), apoA-I(E110K), apoA-I(V156E), and apoA-I (H162Q) were studied for their ability to bind lipids and promote cholesterol efflux. None of the mutations affected lipid-binding properties, cholesterol efflux, or alpha-helicity of lipid-free mutants. Two mutations affected self-association of apoA-I: apoA-I(A95D) was more prone to self-association, while apoA-I(E100H) did not self-associate. The following conclusions could be made from the combined data: i) regions 210-243 and 63-100 are the lipid-binding sites of apoA-I and are also required for the efflux of lipids to lipid-free apoA-I, suggesting that initial lipidation of apoA-I is rate limiting in efflux; ii) in addition to the lipid-binding regions, the central region is important for cholesterol efflux to lipidated apoA-I, suggesting its possible involvement in interaction with cells.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12231570
The role of pre-beta1-high density lipoprotein (pre-beta1-HDL) in cholesterol efflux was investigated by separating human plasma into purified pre-beta1-HDL and pre-beta1-HDL-deficient plasma by using a monoclonal antibody specifically reacting with pre-beta1-HDL.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12531903
Cholesterol efflux from CHOP cells transfected with sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) was compared with non-transfected and mock-transfected cells. Transfection caused expression of CYP27A1, formation of 27-hydroxycholesterol, and inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis. Transfection enhanced cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I or human plasma by 2-3-fold but did not affect the efflux in the absence of acceptor. The analysis of released sterols revealed that 27-hydroxycholesterol represented only a small proportion of sterols, most of which was non-oxidized cholesterol. Time course and dose dependence studies showed that expression of CYP27A1 in CHOP cells mostly affected the efflux of the "fast" cholesterol pool, and relatively more cholesterol was released with low concentrations of an acceptor. Preincubation of non-transfected cells with exogenous 27-hydroxycholesterol (10(-9) and 10(-7) m) led to the stimulation of cholesterol efflux by 24-60%. Expression of CYP27A1 in CHOP cells did not affect ABCA1 expression and abundance of ABCA1 protein. Thus, introduction of CYP27A1 into cells stimulates cholesterol efflux and therefore may increase protection against atherosclerosis.
Journal of Lipid Research. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12562839
Physical activity can raise the level of circulating HDL cholesterol. Pre beta 1-HDL is thought to be either the initial acceptor of cellular cholesterol or virtually the first particle in the pathway of the formation of HDL from apolipoprotein A-I and cellular lipids. We have therefore sought to identify pre beta 1-HDL in arterial and venous circulations of exercising legs in healthy individuals and in subjects with stable Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Blood samples were taken simultaneously from the femoral artery and vein before and after 25 min cycling exercise. The major findings were, first, that exercise significantly increased plasma concentration of pre beta 1-HDL (20% increase, P < 0.05) and second, that the pre beta 1-HDL concentration was significantly higher in the venous compared with the arterial blood both before and after exercise in both diabetics and controls. In the combined population, formation of pre beta 1-HDL at rest was 9.9 +/- 5.2 mg/min and exercise enhanced pre beta 1-HDL formation 6.6-fold in both groups.
Natural Mutations of Apolipoprotein A-I Impairing Activation of Lecithin:cholesterol Acyltransferase
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12573451
Five natural mutations of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apoA-I(A95D), apoA-I(Y100H), apoA-I(E110K), apoA-I(V156E) and apoA-I(H162Q), were studied for their ability to activate lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Mutants apoA-I(E110K), apoA-I(V156E) and apoA-I(H162Q) had an impaired ability to activate LCAT. Combined with data on other apoA-I mutants this finding is consistent with the idea that the central region between amino acids 110 and 160 is likely to be the "active site" of apoA-I involved in the interaction with LCAT and that a specific sequence of apoA-I is required for activation of the enzyme.
Digestion. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12743443
Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) was found to be expressed in human small intestine epithelial cells, enterocytes. The relative abundance of LDL-R mRNA and protein was compared with that of apolipoproteins A-I (apoA-I) and B (apoB) in enterocytes and two other cell types: CaCo-2 and HepG2. The LDL-R mRNA content was comparable in three cell types. Human enterocytes expressed 5.2- to 14-fold more apoA-I mRNA than the other cells. In contrast, HepG2 cells expressed 10-to 19-fold more apoB mRNA than CaCo-2 cells and human enterocytes. Immunoprecipitation of [(35)S]methionine pulse-labeled intracellular proteins from these cell types demonstrated that human enterocytes synthesize more apoA-I and apoB, while HepG2 cells synthesize a slightly higher amount of LDL-R.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14729661
HepG2 cells were stably transfected with human caveolin-1 (HepG2/cav cells). Transfection resulted in expression of caveolin-1 mRNA, a high abundance of caveolin-1 protein, and the formation of caveolae on the plasma membrane. Cholesterol efflux from HepG2/cav cells was 280 and 45% higher than that from parent HepG2 cells when human plasma and human apoA-I, respectively, were used as acceptors. The difference in efflux was eliminated by treatment of cells with progesterone. There was no difference in cholesterol efflux to cyclodextrin. Cholesterol efflux from plasma membrane vesicles was similar for the two cell types. Transfection led to a 40% increase in the amount of plasma membrane cholesterol in cholesterol-rich domains (caveolae and/or rafts) and a 67% increase in the rate of cholesterol trafficking from intracellular compartments to these domains. Cholesterol biosynthesis in HepG2/cav cells was increased by 2-fold, and cholesterol esterification was reduced by 50% compared with parent HepG2 cells. The proliferation rate of transfected cells was significantly lower than that of non-transfected cells. Transfection did not affect expression of ABCA1 or the abundance of ABCA1 protein, but decreased secretion of apoA-I. We conclude that overexpression of caveolin-1 in hepatic cells stimulates cholesterol efflux by enhancing transfer of cholesterol to cholesterol-rich domains in the plasma membrane.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15072992
Physical exercise is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, which may be partly caused by the effect of exercise on the lipoprotein profile. The most consistent effect of exercise on lipoprotein metabolism is an increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
Demethylation Using the Epigenetic Modifier, 5-azacytidine, Increases the Efficiency of Transient Transfection of Macrophages
Journal of Lipid Research. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15520456
This study was aimed at developing a method for high-efficiency transient transfection of macrophages. Seven methods were evaluated for transient transfection of murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. The highest transfection efficiency was achieved with DEAE-dextran, although the proportion of cells expressing the reporter gene did not exceed 20%. It was subsequently found that the cytomegalovirus plasmid promoter in these cells becomes methylated. When cells were treated with the methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine, methylation of the plasmid promoter was abolished and a dose-dependent stimulation of reporter gene expression was observed with expression achieved in more than 80% of cells. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine also caused increased efficiency of transfection of macrophages with plasmids driven by RSV, SV40, and EF-1alpha promoters and transient transfection of human HepG2 cells. Inhibition of methylation also increased the amount and activity of sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) detected in RAW 264.7 cells transfected with a CYP27A1 expression plasmid. Treatment of cells with 5-azacytidine alone did not affect either cholesterol efflux from nontransfected cells or expression of ABCA1 and CYP27A1. However, transfection with CYP27A1 led to a 2- to 4-fold increase of cholesterol efflux. We conclude that treatment with 5-azacytidine can be used for high-efficiency transient transfection of macrophages.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16324925
HIV infection is commonly associated with hypoalphalipoproteinemia. It is not clear how much the HIV infection and/or treatment contribute to the changes in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. Blood lipids of HIV-positive males were assessed in a retrospective study. The following groups of patients were studied: (1) untreated for at least 6 months; (2) treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) without protease inhibitor (PI); (3) treatment with a HAART regimen that includes a PI (HAART/PI); (4) treatment with HAART that includes low-dose ritonavir and a PI (HAART/PI/boost). Lipoprotein levels were compared with those of age-matched HIV-negative healthy subjects. Compared with the control group, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were 22%, 11%, 14%, and 11% lower for currently untreated HIV, HAART, HAART/PI, and HAART/PI/boost groups, respectively. Negative correlations were found among HDL-C level, peak and current viral load, and duration of the disease and the treatment. A positive correlation was found between HDL-C and current and nadir CD4 cell count and CD4 percentage. When patients were divided into subgroups based on duration of antiretroviral therapy, patients treated with HAART and HAART/PI for 3 to 6 years were significantly less likely to have high HDL-C levels compared with the control group and patients treated for 1 to 3 years. A 5-fold decrease in the proportion of subjects with high HDL-C and a 3-fold increase in those with low HDL-C were found in the group treated with HAART/PI/boost. These data suggest that hypoalphalipoproteinemia in patients with HIV is likely to be secondary to HIV infection itself.
Elevated HDL Cholesterol is Functionally Ineffective in Cardiac Transplant Recipients: Evidence for Impaired Reverse Cholesterol Transport
Transplantation. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16477221
Cardiac transplant recipients frequently have high plasma HDL levels but it is unclear whether these promote a cardioprotective profile.
Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule is a Component of the Endothelial Junction Involved in Transendothelial Monocyte Migration
FEBS Letters. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16650408
Transendothelial leukocyte migration is a major aspect of the innate immune response. It is essential in repair and regeneration of damaged tissues and is regulated by multiple cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) including members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is an Ig CAM expressed by activated monocytes and endothelial cells. Hitherto, the functional relevance of ALCAM expression by endothelial cells and activated monocytes remained unknown. In this report, we demonstrate soluble recombinant human ALCAM significantly inhibited the rate of transendothelial migration of monocyte cell lines. Direct involvement of ALCAM in transendothelial migration was evident from the robust inhibition of this process by ALCAM blocking antibodies. However, soluble recombinant ALCAM had no impact on monocyte migration or adhesion to endothelium. Localization of ALCAM specifically at cell-cell junctions in endothelial cells supported its role in transendothelial migration. This study is the first to localize ALCAM to endothelial cell junctions and demonstrate a functional relevance for co-expression of ALCAM by activated monocytes and endothelial cells.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17056763
Macrophages play a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and are also a host for a number of viruses, most importantly, HIV. Many viruses, including HIV, require cholesterol for their replication and as a structural element. Cholesterol also plays a pivotal role in innate antiviral immune responses. Although impairing innate immune response by increasing cell cholesterol content may be a deliberate strategy used by a pathogen to improve its infectivity, enhancing the risk of atherosclerosis is likely a byproduct. Consistent association between HIV infection and elevated risk of atherosclerosis suggested a connection between virus-induced changes in cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis, but the mechanisms of such connection have not been identified. We describe in this review various mechanisms enabling viruses to exploit macrophage pathways of cholesterol metabolism, thus diverting cholesterol for a purpose of increasing viral replication and/or for altering innate immune responses. To alter the cellular cholesterol content, viruses "hijack" the pathways responsible for maintaining intracellular cholesterol metabolism. The damage to these pathways by viral infection may result in the inability of macrophages to control cholesterol accumulation and may lead to formation of foam cells, a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis. Further elucidation of the mechanisms connecting viral infection and macrophage cholesterol metabolism may be fruitful for developing approaches to treatment of atherosclerosis and viral diseases.
PLoS Biology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17076584
Several steps of HIV-1 replication critically depend on cholesterol. HIV infection is associated with profound changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Whereas numerous studies have investigated the role of anti-HIV drugs in lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia, the effects of HIV infection on cellular cholesterol metabolism remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1 impairs ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-dependent cholesterol efflux from human macrophages, a condition previously shown to be highly atherogenic. In HIV-1-infected cells, this effect was mediated by Nef. Transfection of murine macrophages with Nef impaired cholesterol efflux from these cells. At least two mechanisms were found to be responsible for this phenomenon: first, HIV infection and transfection with Nef induced post-transcriptional down-regulation of ABCA1; and second, Nef caused redistribution of ABCA1 to the plasma membrane and inhibited internalization of apolipoprotein A-I. Binding of Nef to ABCA1 was required for down-regulation and redistribution of ABCA1. HIV-infected and Nef-transfected macrophages accumulated substantial amounts of lipids, thus resembling foam cells. The contribution of HIV-infected macrophages to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis was supported by the presence of HIV-positive foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques of HIV-infected patients. Stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophages significantly reduced infectivity of the virions produced by these cells, and this effect correlated with a decreased amount of virion-associated cholesterol, suggesting that impairment of cholesterol efflux is essential to ensure proper cholesterol content in nascent HIV particles. These results reveal a previously unrecognized dysregulation of intracellular lipid metabolism in HIV-infected macrophages and identify Nef and ABCA1 as the key players responsible for this effect. Our findings have implications for pathogenesis of both HIV disease and atherosclerosis, because they reveal the role of cholesterol efflux impairment in HIV infectivity and suggest a possible mechanism by which HIV infection of macrophages may contribute to increased risk of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected patients.
Current Opinion in Lipidology. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17353664
HDL is a recognized negative risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. Establishing the genetic determinants of HDL concentration and functions would add to the prediction of cardiovascular risk and point to the biochemical mechanisms underlying this risk. The present review focuses on various approaches to establish genetic determinants of the HDL concentration, structure and function.
HIV and Cardiovascular Disease: Contribution of HIV-infected Macrophages to Development of Atherosclerosis
PLoS Medicine. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17411317
Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17630948
Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. Statins are widely and successfully used for lowering plasma cholesterol levels causing up to 45% reduction of plasma cholesterol and considerable reduction in risk of cardiovascular diseases. The main atheroprotective action of statins is reduction of plasma low density lipoprotein levels due to improved clearance of this lipoprotein by the liver. In addition, statins cause mild elevation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration, but the mechanism responsible for this effect of statins on HDL metabolism is not well understood. It has been hypothesized that statins affect the HDL level through inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity or by stimulating apolipoprotein A-I synthesis. Increased cholesterol efflux from liver due to raised expression of the ABCA1 transporter may also elevate HDL levels. Whereas raising the plasma HDL-C concentration may contribute to the atheroprotective effect of statins, its magnitude is uncertain and additional mechanisms that improve the functionality of HDL may be equally or more important. In this review we analyze what is currently known about effect of statins on HDL metabolism and on reverse cholesterol transport in particular.
Biochemistry. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17655203
ABCA1 is a key element of cholesterol efflux, but the mechanism of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux is still unclear. Monoclonal antibodies against ABCA1 were used to map functional domains of ABCA1. Two antibodies were directed against a fragment of the first extracellular loop of ABCA1, and the third antibody was directed against a fragment of the fourth extracellular loop. One antibody against the first loop inhibited cholesterol efflux from human macrophages without inhibiting apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) binding and internalization. Another antibody against the first loop inhibited apoA-I binding and internalization without inhibiting cholesterol efflux. The antibody against the fourth loop inhibited apoA-I binding to ABCA1 but enhanced cholesterol efflux from macrophages and reduced intracellular cholesterol content. This antibody also increased cholesterol efflux from HeLa cells transfected with ABCA1 but not from cells with DeltaPEST-ABCA1. The mechanism of the stimulating effect of this antibody on cholesterol efflux was found to be stabilization of ABCA1 leading to the increase in abundance of cell surface ABCA1. We conclude that a site on the first extracellular loop is required for cholesterol efflux, whereas a site on the fourth extracellular loop may be responsible for ABCA1 stability.
Indices of Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome After Treatment with Rosuvastatin
Atherosclerosis. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17709109
The effects of the statin, rosuvastatin on indices of reverse cholesterol transport were studied in a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial in 25 overweight subjects with defined metabolic syndrome.
Dose-dependent Regulation of High-density Lipoprotein Metabolism with Rosuvastatin in the Metabolic Syndrome
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18029469
Low plasma concentration of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and a feature of the metabolic syndrome. Rosuvastatin has been shown to increase HDL cholesterol concentration, but the mechanisms remain unclear.
Atherosclerosis. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18054941
HIV infection and its treatment are associated with dyslipidemia, including hypoalphalipoproteinemia, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Parameters of HDL metabolism in HIV-positive patients were investigated in a cross-sectional study. The following groups of subjects were selected: (i) 25 treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients or HIV-infected patients on long therapy break, (ii) 28 HIV-infected patients currently treated with protease inhibitors, and (iii) 33 HIV-negative subjects. Compared to the HIV-negative group, all groups of HIV-infected patients were characterized by significantly elevated triglyceride and apolipoprotein B levels, mass and activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (p<0.01). Total and LDL cholesterol was lower in treatment-naïve HIV-infected group only. HDL cholesterol and prebeta(1)-HDL were significantly lower in all HIV-infected groups (p<0.05), while mean levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and ability of plasma to promote cholesterol efflux were similar in all groups. We found a positive correlation between apoA-I and levels of CD4+ cells (r(2)=0.3, p<0.001). Plasma level of phospholipid transfer protein was reduced in the group on antiretroviral therapy. Taken together these results suggest that HIV infection is associated with modified HDL metabolism re-directing cholesterol to the apoB-containing lipoproteins and likely reducing the functionality of reverse cholesterol transport.
The Effect of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Overexpression and Inhibition on Reverse Cholesterol Transport
Cardiovascular Research. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18056760
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) has a well-established role in lipoprotein metabolism, but the effect of its overexpression or inhibition on the efficiency of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) is unclear.
Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18385533
Plasma concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is one of the most reliable negative risk factors for CVD. There is however convincing experimental and clinical evidence that plasma concentration of HDL does not convey the full picture of atheroprotective properties of HDL. HDL functionality, i.e. the ability of HDL to perform its many atheroprotective functions, is partly independent of HDL concentration and may be as important, if not more important, in determining the atheroprotective capacity of HDL. The capacity of HDL to support cholesterol efflux, its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-thrombotic and other atheroprotective functions are affected dramatically in conditions like coronary artery disease, chronic and acute inflammation, diabetes as well as through various interventions. The mechanisms connecting changes in HDL functionality to HDL structure are only beginning to emerge. Modifications of HDL proteins and lipids, such as advanced glycation and oxidation, changes in HDL composition and size of HDL particles, changes in abundance of various proteins and lipids carried by HDL are among factors affecting HDL functionality. A single common denominator reflecting the multiple HDL functions is yet to be found and may not exist leaving direct measurements of each HDL function as the way to assess atheroprotective capacity of HDL.
Analytical Biochemistry. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18503744
Structural and functional properties of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) after short-term freezing in the presence or absence of 10% sucrose were compared with HDL stored at 4 degrees C. Freezing did not affect the size of HDL particles or their antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties. Freezing slightly impaired the ability of HDL to support cholesterol efflux from human macrophages, but this property was preserved when HDL was frozen in the presence of sucrose. Freezing also resulted in approximately 10% loss of HDL in the samples. We conclude that freezing HDL in the presence of 10% sucrose preserves its structural and functional properties.
Dose-dependent Effect of Rosuvastatin on VLDL-apolipoprotein C-III Kinetics in the Metabolic Syndrome
Diabetes Care. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18509206
Dysregulated apolipoprotein (apo)C-III metabolism may account for hypertriglyceridemia and increased cardiovascular risk in the metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the dose-dependent effect of rosuvastatin on VLDL apoC-III transport in men with the metabolic syndrome.
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18617650
Whereas the anti-inflammatory effects of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on endothelial cells are well described, such effects on monocytes are less studied.
Enhancing Apolipoprotein A-I-dependent Cholesterol Efflux Elevates Cholesterol Export from Macrophages in Vivo
Journal of Lipid Research. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18622028
Eight proteins potentially involved in cholesterol efflux [ABCA1, ABCG1, CYP27A1, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), scavenger receptor type BI (SR-BI), caveolin-1, cholesteryl ester transfer protein, and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)] were overexpressed alone or in combination in RAW 264.7 macrophages. When apoA-I was used as an acceptor, overexpression of the combination of ABCA1, CYP27A1, PLTP, and SR-BI (Combination I) enhanced the efflux by 4.3-fold. It was established that the stimulation of efflux was due to increased abundance of ABCA1 and increased apoA-I binding to non-ABCA1 sites on macrophages. This combination caused only a small increase of the efflux to isolated HDL. When HDL was used as an acceptor, overexpression of caveolin-1 or a combination of caveolin-1 and SR-BI (Combination II) was the most active, doubling the efflux to HDL, without affecting the efflux to apoA-I. When tested in the in vivo mouse model of cholesterol efflux, overexpression of ABCA1 and Combination I elevated cholesterol export from macrophages to plasma, liver, and feces, whereas overexpression of caveolin-1 or Combination II did not have an effect. We conclude that pathways of cholesterol efflux using apoA-I as an acceptor make a predominant contribution to cholesterol export from macrophages in vivo.
PLoS Genetics. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18802465
Harlequin Ichthyosis (HI) is a severe and often lethal hyperkeratotic skin disease caused by mutations in the ABCA12 transport protein. In keratinocytes, ABCA12 is thought to regulate the transfer of lipids into small intracellular trafficking vesicles known as lamellar bodies. However, the nature and scope of this regulation remains unclear. As part of an original recessive mouse ENU mutagenesis screen, we have identified and characterised an animal model of HI and showed that it displays many of the hallmarks of the disease including hyperkeratosis, loss of barrier function, and defects in lipid homeostasis. We have used this model to follow disease progression in utero and present evidence that loss of Abca12 function leads to premature differentiation of basal keratinocytes. A comprehensive analysis of lipid levels in mutant epidermis demonstrated profound defects in lipid homeostasis, illustrating for the first time the extent to which Abca12 plays a pivotal role in maintaining lipid balance in the skin. To further investigate the scope of Abca12's activity, we have utilised cells from the mutant mouse to ascribe direct transport functions to the protein and, in doing so, we demonstrate activities independent of its role in lamellar body function. These cells have severely impaired lipid efflux leading to intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids. Furthermore, we identify Abca12 as a mediator of Abca1-regulated cellular cholesterol efflux, a finding that may have significant implications for other diseases of lipid metabolism and homeostasis, including atherosclerosis.
Asymmetry in the Lipid Affinity of Bihelical Amphipathic Peptides. A Structural Determinant for the Specificity of ABCA1-dependent Cholesterol Efflux by Peptides
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18805791
ApoA-I contains a tandem array of amphipathic helices with varying lipid affinity, which are critical in its ability to bind and remove lipids from cells by the ABCA1 transporter. In this study, the effect of asymmetry in the lipid affinity of amphipathic helices in a bihelical apoA-I mimetic peptide, 37pA, on lipid efflux by the ABCA1 transporter was examined. Seven peptide variants of 37pA were produced by substituting a varying number of hydrophobic amino acids for alanine on either one or both helices. The 5A peptide with five alanine substitutions in the second helix had decreased helical content compared with 37pA (5A, 12+/-1% helicity; 37pA, 28+/-2% helicity) and showed less self-association but, similar to the parent peptide, was able to readily solubilize phospholipid vesicles. Furthermore, 5A, unlike the parent peptide 37pA, was not hemolytic (37pA, 27+/-2% RBC lysis, 2 h, 18 microm). Finally, the 5A peptide stimulated cholesterol and phospholipid efflux by the ABCA1 transporter with higher specificity (ABCA1-transfected versus untransfected cells) than 37pA (5A, 9.7+/-0.77%, 18 h, 18 microm versus 1.5+/-0.27%, 18 h, 18 microm (p<0.0001); 37pA, 7.4+/-0.85%, 18 h, 18 microm versus 5.8+/-0.20%, 18 h, 18 microm (p=0.03)). In summary, we describe a novel bihelical peptide with asymmetry in the lipid affinity of its helices and properties similar to apoA-I in terms of specificity for cholesterol efflux by the ABCA1 transporter and low cytotoxicity.
Infusion of Reconstituted High-density Lipoprotein Leads to Acute Changes in Human Atherosclerotic Plaque
Circulation Research. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18832751
Studies have shown a reduction in plaque volume and change in plaque ultrasound characteristics after 4 infusions of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL). Whether rHDL infusion leads to acute changes in plaque characteristics in humans is not known. Patients with claudication scheduled for percutaneous superficial femoral artery revascularization were randomized to receive 1 intravenous infusion of either placebo or rHDL (80 mg/kg given over 4 hours). Five to 7 days following the infusion, patients returned and revascularization was performed including atherectomy to excise plaque from the superficial femoral artery. Twenty patients (17 males) average age, 68+/-10 years (mean+/-SD) were recruited. Eleven patients had a history of documented coronary artery disease, all patients were on aspirin, and 18 were on statins. Ten of the patients received rHDL and 10 placebo. There was significantly less vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression (28+/-3% versus 50+/-3%; P<0.05) and a reduction in lipid content in the plaque of HDL-treated subjects compared to placebo. The level of HDL cholesterol increased by 20% after infusion of rHDL and the capacity of apolipoprotein B-depleted plasma to support cholesterol efflux increased. Intravenous infusion of a single dose of reconstituted HDL led to acute changes in plaque characteristics with a reduction in lipid content, macrophage size, and measures of inflammation. These changes may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of HDL.
Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18939908
HDL-replacement therapy is a promising new treatment strategy involving the acute administration of HDL to rapidly stabilize patients at imminent risk for developing a myocardial infarction, such as those with acute coronary syndrome. This review will first focus on the anti-atherogenic mechanisms for HDL, such as the stimulation of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway, and then discuss the other potential beneficial biological effects of HDL on atherosclerosis. The various types of HDL-replacement therapies that are being investigated and developed will be reviewed and ongoing clinical trials and other possible clinical indications for HDL-replacement therapy besides the prevention of myocardial infarction will also be described. Finally, HDL-replacement therapy will be put into perspective by summarizing the current gaps in our knowledge of HDL metabolism and identifying challenges for future research in this area.
Atherosclerosis. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17481640
Genetic variation in ABCA1 significantly affects HDL levels and atherosclerotic risk. The aim of this study was to examine lifestyle factors influencing ABCA1 expression in human leukocytes and skeletal muscle. A fasting venous blood sample and a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy were taken from 30 volunteers (53+/-1 years; mean+/-S.E.M.). Levels of ABCA1 mRNA were measured in blood leukocytes and muscle biopsies. Plasma-induced cholesterol efflux from THP-1 human macrophages as well as plasma lipids and lipid-related parameters were also measured. The amount of alcohol consumed per week correlated strongly with both muscle ABCA1 expression (r(2)=+0.37, p<0.001) and cholesterol efflux (r(2)=+0.41, p<0.001). Higher levels of physical exercise were associated with higher leukocyte ABCA1 expression (p<0.005), and higher concentrations of plasma apoA-I (p<0.05) and pre beta(1)-HDL (p<0.001). All these relationships were independent of diabetic status on multivariate analysis. ABCA1 expression in leukocytes and skeletal muscle was not related, suggesting different regulatory mechanisms. In conclusion, ABCA1 expression in human leukocytes and muscle is associated with physical activity and alcohol consumption, respectively.
Reconstituted High-density Lipoprotein Increases Plasma High-density Lipoprotein Anti-inflammatory Properties and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19281927
Our aim was to investigate the effects of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) infusions on plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) anti-inflammatory properties and ex vivo cholesterol efflux in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Journal of Lipid Research. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19332654
Circulation. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19349317
Low plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is associated with elevated cardiovascular risk and aspects of the metabolic syndrome. We hypothesized that HDL modulates glucose metabolism via elevation of plasma insulin and through activation of the key metabolic regulatory enzyme, AMP-activated protein kinase, in skeletal muscle.
Atherosclerosis. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19356757
HIV infection is associated with elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. The effect of antiretroviral drugs on metabolism of atherogenic very low and low density lipoproteins is well studied, but a possible effect of these drugs on reverse cholesterol transport is still unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of various classes of anti-HIV drugs on cellular cholesterol efflux.
Reconstituted High-density Lipoprotein Attenuates Platelet Function in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Promoting Cholesterol Efflux
Circulation. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19901191
Individuals with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and exhibit platelet hyperreactivity, increasing their resistance to antithrombotic therapies such as aspirin and clopidogrel. Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) has short-term beneficial effects on atherosclerotic plaques, but whether it can effectively reduce the reactivity of diabetic platelets is not known.
Journal of HIV Therapy. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20218241
Frontiers in Research Series: Physiological and Pathological Functions of High-density Lipoprotein. Introduction
Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20374253
Stimulation of the Liver X Receptor Pathway Inhibits HIV-1 Replication Via Induction of ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1
Molecular Pharmacology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20479131
Cholesterol plays an important role in the HIV life cycle, and infectivity of cholesterol-depleted HIV virions is significantly impaired. Recently, we demonstrated that HIV-1, via its protein Nef, inhibits the activity of the major cellular cholesterol transporter ATP binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), suggesting that the virus may use this mechanism to get access to cellular cholesterol. In this study, we investigated the effect on HIV infection of a synthetic liver X receptor (LXR) ligand, N-(2,2,2-trifluoro-ethyl)-N-[4-(2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1-trifluoromethyl-ethyl)-phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide (TO-901317), which is a potent stimulator of ABCA1 expression. We demonstrate that TO-901317 restores cholesterol efflux from HIV-infected T lymphocytes and macrophages. TO-901317 potently suppressed HIV-1 replication in both cell types and inhibited HIV-1 replication in ex vivo cultured lymphoid tissue and in RAG-hu mice infected in vivo. This anti-HIV activity was dependent on ABCA1, because the effect of the drug was significantly reduced in ABCA1-defective T cells from a patient with Tangier disease, and RNA interference-mediated inhibition of ABCA1 expression eliminated the effect of TO-901317 on HIV-1 replication. TO-901317-mediated inhibition of HIV replication was due to reduced virus production and reduced infectivity of produced virions. The infectivity defect was in part due to reduced fusion activity of the virions, which was directly linked to reduced viral cholesterol. These results describe a novel approach to inhibiting HIV infection by stimulating ABCA1 expression.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20484557
Intravenous administration of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I complexed with phospholipid has been shown to rapidly reduce plaque size in both animal models and humans. Short synthetic amphipathic peptides can mimic the antiatherogenic properties of apoA-I and have been proposed as alternative therapeutic agents. In this study, we investigated the atheroprotective effect of the 5A peptide, a bihelical amphipathic peptide that specifically effluxes cholesterol from cells by ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABCA1). 5A stimulated a 3.5-fold increase in ABCA1-mediated efflux from cells and an additional 2.5-fold increase after complexing it with phospholipid (1:7 mol/mol). 5A-palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidyl choline (POPC), but not free 5A, was also found to promote cholesterol efflux by ABCG1. When incubated with human serum, 5A-POPC bound primarily to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) but also to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and promoted the transfer of cholesterol from LDL to HDL. Twenty-four hours after intravenous injection of 5A-POPC (30 mg/kg) into apoE-knockout (KO) mice, both the cholesterol (181%) and phospholipid (219%) content of HDL significantly increased. By an in vivo cholesterol isotope dilution study and monitoring of the flux of cholesterol from radiolabeled macrophages to stool, 5A-POPC treatment was observed to increase reverse cholesterol transport. In three separate studies, 5A when complexed with various phospholipids reduced aortic plaque surface area by 29 to 53% (n = 8 per group; p < 0.02) in apoE-KO mice. No signs of toxicity from the treatment were observed during these studies. In summary, 5A promotes cholesterol efflux both in vitro and in vivo and reduces atherosclerosis in apoE-KO mice, indicating that it may be a useful alternative to apoA-I for HDL therapy.
Structure/function Relationships of Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptides: Implications for Antiatherogenic Activities of High-density Lipoprotein
Circulation Research. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20508181
Apolipoprotein (apoA)-I mimetic peptides are a promising type of anti-atherosclerosis therapy, but how the structural features of these peptides relate to the multiple antiatherogenic functions of HDL is poorly understood.
Circulating Nef Induces Dyslipidemia in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Macaques by Suppressing Cholesterol Efflux
The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20617930
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and subsequent antiretroviral therapy have been associated with an increased incidence of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease and has been shown to suppress cholesterol efflux from virus-infected macrophages by inducing Nef-dependent down-regulation of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1). Here, the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaque model was used to examine the consequences and mechanisms involved. SIV infection drove a significant remodeling of high-density lipoprotein profiles, suggesting that systemic inhibition of the ABCA1-dependent reverse cholesterol transport pathway occurred. The ABCA1 cholesterol transporter was significantly down-regulated in the livers of the SIV-infected macaques, and the viral protein Nef could be detected in the livers as well as in the plasma of infected animals. Extracellular myristoylated HIV Nef inhibited cholesterol efflux from macrophages and hepatocytes. Moreover, serum samples from SIV-infected macaques also suppressed cholesterol efflux in a Nef-dependent fashion. These results indicate that SIV infection is a significant contributor to primary dyslipidemia, likely through the ability of Nef to suppress ABCA1-dependent reverse cholesterol transport.
Journal of Lipid Research. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20667818
We present here a gel-based method for rapid purification of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) from small volumes of human plasma. After isolation of high density lipoprotein from plasma, the apoA-I protein was separated by electrophoresis and the apoA-I band excised from the gel. The apoA-I was then eluted from the gel strip, concentrated, and delipidated ready for use. The structure and function of the gel-purified apoA-I protein was compared against apoA-I purified by the traditional size-exclusion chromatography method. The α-helical content of the gel-purified apoA-I as determined by circular dichroism was similar to chromatography-purified apoA-I. The functional activity of gel-purified apoA-I, as determined by cholesterol efflux assays in primary human fibroblasts and RAW264.7 macrophages, was also comparable with chromatography-purified apoA-I. This method is a valid alternative for apoA-I purification with some advantages over traditional chromatography purification including a much reduced plasma volume requirement, less time and cost, and a higher percentage protein recovery. The method is particularly suitable for applications requiring the purification of apoA-I from multiple human or animal samples of interest.
Mutation of the ATP Cassette Binding Transporter A1 (ABCA1) C-terminus Disrupts HIV-1 Nef Binding but Does Not Block the Nef Enhancement of ABCA1 Protein Degradation
Biochemistry. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20731376
HIV-1 infection and antiretroviral therapy are associated with a dyslipidemia marked by low levels of high-density lipoprotein and increased cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether virion replication plays a causative role in these changes. The HIV-1 Nef protein can impair ATP cassette binding transporter A1 (ABCA1) cholesterol efflux from macrophages, a potentially pro-atherosclerotic effect. This viral inhibition of efflux was correlated with a direct interaction between ABCA1 and Nef. Here, we defined the ABCA1 domain required for the Nef-ABCA1 protein-protein interaction and determined whether this interaction mediates the ability of Nef to downregulate ABCA1. Nef expressed in HEK 293 cells strongly inhibited ABCA1 efflux and protein levels but did not alter levels of cMIR, another transmembrane protein. Analysis of a panel of ABCA1 C-terminal mutants showed Nef binding required the ABCA1 C-terminal amino acids between positions 2225 and 2231. However, the binding of Nef to ABCA1 was not required for inhibition because the C-terminal ABCA1 mutants that did not bind Nef were still downregulated by Nef. Given this discordance, the mechanism of downregulation was investigated and was found to involve the acceleration of ABCA1 protein degradation but did not to depend upon the ABCA1 PEST sequence, which mediates the calpain proteolysis of ABCA1. Furthermore, it did not associate with a Nef-dependent induction of signaling through the unfolded protein response but was significantly dependent upon proteasomal function and could act on an ABCA1 mutant that fails to exit the endoplasmic reticulum. In summary, we show that Nef downregulates ABCA1 function by a post-translational mechanism that stimulates ABCA1 degradation but does not require the ability of Nef to bind ABCA1.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19952353
HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) with underlying mechanisms including chronic immune activation and inflammation secondary to HIV-induced microbial translocation and low-grade endotoxemia; direct effects of HIV and viral proteins on macrophage cholesterol metabolism; and dyslipidemia related to HIV infection and specific antiretroviral therapies. Monocytes are the precursors of the lipid-laden foam cells within the atherosclerotic plaque and produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. The minor CD14+/CD16+ "proinflammatory" monocyte subpopulation is preferentially susceptible to HIV infection and may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related CAD. In this review, the central role of monocytes/macrophages in HIV-related CAD and the importance of inflammation and cholesterol metabolism are discussed.
Pharmacology & Therapeutics. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21172387
Apolipoprotein mimetic peptides are short synthetic peptides that share structural, as well as biological features of native apolipoproteins. The early positive clinical trials of intravenous preparations of apoA-I, the main protein component of high density lipoproteins (HDL), have stimulated great interest in the use of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides as possible therapeutic agents. Currently, there are a wide variety of apolipoprotein mimetic peptides at various stages of drug development. These peptides typically have been designed to either promote cholesterol efflux or act as anti-oxidants, but they usually exert other biological effects, such as anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects. Uncertainty about which of these biological properties is the most important for explaining their anti-atherogenic effect is a major unresolved question in the field. Structure-function studies relating the in vitro properties of these peptides to their ability to reduce atherosclerosis in animal models may uncover the best rationale for the design of these peptides and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms behind the atheroprotective effect of HDL.
Neutrophil Activation is Attenuated by High-density Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein A-I in in Vitro and in Vivo Models of Inflammation
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21474825
Neutrophils play a key role in the immune response but can undesirably exacerbate inflammation. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are antiinflammatory particles, exerting beneficial cardiovascular influences. We determined whether HDL exerts antiinflammatory effects on neutrophils and explored the mechanisms by which these occur.
Atherosclerosis. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21752378
Global Functional Knockdown of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter A1 Stimulates Development of Atherosclerosis in ApoE K/O Mice
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21839726
ABCA1 is a key element of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. ApoE K/O mice fed with high-fat diet were infused with anti-ABCA1 antibody or control IgM. Infusion of anti-ABCA1 antibody led to 72% increase in the area of atherosclerotic plaque in aorta. After 16 weeks on high-fat diet plasma level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was reduced in control group, but was unchanged in mice infused with anti-ABCA1 antibody. Total plasma cholesterol level was elevated while the capacity of plasma to support cholesterol efflux ex vivo was reduced after 16 weeks on high-fat diet; the effects were similar in the two groups. We conclude that functional blocking of ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux stimulates development of atherosclerosis in apoE K/O mice independently from HDL-C levels.
Relationships Between Cholesterol Efflux and High-density Lipoprotein Particles in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Journal of Clinical Lipidology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22108150
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) encompasses a heterogeneous population of lipoproteins with differences in functionality. The impact of HDL heterogeneity on its ability to support HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux has not been previously studied in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
HIV-1 Nef Mobilizes Lipid Rafts in Macrophages Through a Pathway That Competes with ABCA1-dependent Cholesterol Efflux
Journal of Lipid Research. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22262807
HIV infection, through the actions of viral accessory protein Nef, impairs activity of cholesterol transporter ABCA1 inhibiting cholesterol efflux from macrophages and elevating the risk of atherosclerosis. Nef also induces lipid raft formation. In this study, we demonstrate that these activities are tightly linked and affect macrophage function and HIV replication. Nef stimulated lipid raft formation in macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, and lipid rafts were also mobilized in HIV-1-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages. Nef-mediated transfer of cholesterol to lipid rafts competed with the ABCA1-dependent pathway of cholesterol efflux, and pharmacological inhibition of ABCA1 functionality or suppression of ABCA1 expression by RNAi increased Nef-dependent delivery of cholesterol to lipid rafts. Nef reduced cell-surface accessibility of ABCA1 and induced ABCA1 catabolism via the lysosomal pathway. Despite increasing the abundance of lipid rafts, expression of Nef impaired phagocytic functions of macrophages. The infectivity of the virus produced in natural target cells of HIV-1 negatively correlated with the level of ABCA1. These findings demonstrate that Nef-dependent inhibition of ABCA1 is an essential component of the viral replication strategy and underscore the role of ABCA1 as an innate anti-HIV factor.
Liver X Receptor Agonist Inhibits HIV-1 Replication and Prevents HIV-induced Reduction of Plasma HDL in Humanized Mouse Model of HIV Infection
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22326260
HIV-infected subjects are at high risk of developing atherosclerosis, in part due to virus-induced impairment of HDL metabolism. Here, using as a model of HIV infection the NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)IL2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) mice humanized by human stem cell transplantation, we demonstrate that LXR agonist TO901317 potently reduces viral replication and prevents HIV-induced reduction of plasma HDL. These results establish that humanized mice can be used to investigate the mechanisms of HIV-induced impairment of HDL formation, a major feature of dyslipidemia associated with HIV-1 infection, and show potential benefits of developing LXR agonists for treatment of HIV-associated cardio-vascular disease.
European Heart Journal. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21498847
Objectives Infusion of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) leads to changes in HDL metabolism as well as to an increased capacity of plasma to support cholesterol efflux providing an opportunity to investigate mechanisms linking cholesterol efflux to changes in plasma HDL. Methods and results Patient plasmas after infusion of rHDL were tested ex vivo for their capacity to stimulate cholesterol efflux. Reconstituted HDL enhanced mobilization of cholesterol from tissues in vivo as shown by rising HDL cholesterol concentrations over the infusion period. Infusion of rHDL in vivo led to increased cholesterol efflux ex vivo; surprisingly, removing apoB-containing lipoproteins while preserving all HDL subfractions eliminated this increase. Infusion of rHDL led to the remodelling of plasma HDL; however, the capacity of plasma to support cholesterol efflux did not correlate with changes in the concentrations of any of HDL subfractions. Unmodified rHDL accounted for only a proportion of the increment in cholesterol efflux capacity. Furthermore, studies using HeLa and BHK cells overexpressing ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-B1 showed that the contribution of these cellular mediators of cholesterol efflux to the enhanced capacity of plasma for the efflux was minimal. Conclusion Enhanced cholesterol efflux from tissues requires the presence of apoB-containing lipoproteins and may involve enhanced flow of cholesterol through multiple components of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway rather than being determined by a specific HDL subfraction.