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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (2)
Articles by Dominic Roy in JoVE
Ex Vivo Infection of Live Tissue with Oncolytic Viruses
Jean-Simon Diallo, Dominic Roy, Hesham Abdelbary, Naomi De Silva, John C. Bell
Center for Innovative Cancer Research, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute (OHRI)
Oncolytic viruses are promising for cancer therapeutics. The ability to ascertain the infectability of live tissue specimens obtained from patients prior to treatment is a unique advantage of this therapeutic approach. This protocol describes how to process tissues for ex vivo infection with oncolytic virus and subsequent viral quantification.
Other articles by Dominic Roy on PubMed
Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Oncolysis is Potentiated by Impairing MTORC1-dependent Type I IFN Production
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20080710
Oncolytic viruses constitute a promising therapy against malignant gliomas (MGs). However, virus-induced type I IFN greatly limits its clinical application. The kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) stimulates type I IFN production via phosphorylation of its effector proteins, 4E-BPs and S6Ks. Here we show that mouse embryonic fibroblasts and mice lacking S6K1 and S6K2 are more susceptible to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection than their WT counterparts as a result of an impaired type I IFN response. We used this knowledge to employ a pharmacoviral approach to treat MGs. The highly specific inhibitor of mTOR rapamycin, in combination with an IFN-sensitive VSV-mutant strain (VSV(DeltaM51)), dramatically increased the survival of immunocompetent rats bearing MGs. More importantly, VSV(DeltaM51) selectively killed tumor, but not normal cells, in MG-bearing rats treated with rapamycin. These results demonstrate that reducing type I IFNs through inhibition of mTORC1 is an effective strategy to augment the therapeutic activity of VSV(DeltaM51).
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21364541
Oncolytic viruses (OVs) have been engineered or selected for cancer cell-specific infection however, we have found that following intravenous administration of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), tumor cell killing rapidly extends far beyond the initial sites of infection. We show here for the first time that VSV directly infects and destroys tumor vasculature in vivo but leaves normal vasculature intact. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of infected tumors revealed that the majority of the tumor mass lacks significant blood flow in contrast to uninfected tumors, which exhibit relatively uniform perfusion. VSV replication in tumor neovasculature and spread within the tumor mass, initiates an inflammatory reaction including a neutrophil-dependent initiation of microclots within tumor blood vessels. Within 6 hours of intravenous administration of VSV and continuing for at least 24 hours, we observed the initiation of blood clots within the tumor vasculature whereas normal vasculature remained clot free. Blocking blood clot formation with thrombin inhibitors prevented tumor vascular collapse. Our results demonstrate that the therapeutic activity of an OV can go far beyond simple infection and lysis of malignant cells.