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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
Articles by Edward N. Harris in JoVE
In vivo Liver Endocytosis Followed by Purification of Liver Cells by Liver Perfusion
Sandhya Gopalakrishnan, Edward N. Harris
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nebraska, Lincoln
The study of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) must be performed with primary cells obtained from the animal as no cell lines exist. This method relies on liver digestion and differential centrifugation for SEC purification for subsequent culturing and experimentation.
Other articles by Edward N. Harris on PubMed
Endocytic Function, Glycosaminoglycan Specificity, and Antibody Sensitivity of the Recombinant Human 190-kDa Hyaluronan Receptor for Endocytosis (HARE)
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15208308
The human hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis (hHARE) mediates the endocytic clearance of hyaluronan (HA) and chondroitin sulfate from lymph fluid and blood. Two hHARE isoforms (190 and 315 kDa) are present in sinusoidal endothelial cells of liver, spleen, and lymph nodes (Zhou, B., McGary, C. T., Weigel, J. A., Saxena, A., and Weigel, P. H. (2003) Glycobiology 13, 339-349). Here we report the specificity and function of the 190-kDa HARE, expressed without the larger isoform, in Flp-In 293 cell lines (190hHARE cells). Like the native protein, recombinant hHARE contains approximately 25 kDa of N-linked oligosaccharides, binds HA in a ligand blot assay, cross-reacts with three anti-rat HARE monoclonal antibodies, and is inactivated by reduction. The 190hHARE cell lines mediated rapid, continuous (125)I-HA endocytosis and degradation for >1 day. About 30-50% of the total cellular receptors were on the cell surface, and their recycling time for reutilization was approximately 8.5 min. The average K(d) for the binding of HA to the 190-kDa hHARE at 4 degrees C was 7 nm with 118,000 total HA binding sites per cell. Competition studies at 37 degrees C indicated that the 190-kDa hHARE binds HA and chondroitin better than dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfates A, C, D, and E, but it does not bind to heparin, heparan sulfate, or keratan sulfate. Although competition was observed at 37 degrees C, none of the glycosaminoglycans tested, except HA, competed for (125)I-HA binding by 190hHARE cells at 4 degrees C. Anti-HARE monoclonal antibodies #30 and #154, which do not inhibit (125)I-HA uptake mediated by the 175-kDa rat HARE, partially blocked HA endocytosis by the 190-kDa hHARE. We conclude that the 190-kDa hHARE can function independently of other hHARE isoforms to mediate the endocytosis of multiple glycosaminoglycans. Furthermore, the rat and human small HARE isoforms have different glycosaminoglycan specificities and sensitivities to inhibition by cross-reacting antibodies.
Expression, Processing, and Glycosaminoglycan Binding Activity of the Recombinant Human 315-kDa Hyaluronic Acid Receptor for Endocytosis (HARE)
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17145755
The hyaluronic acid (HA) receptor for endocytosis (HARE; also designated stabilin-2 and FEEL-2) mediates systemic clearance of glycosaminoglycans from the circulatory and lymphatic systems via coated pit-mediated uptake. HARE is primarily found as two isoforms (315- and 190-kDa) in sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver, lymph node, and spleen. Here we characterize the ligand specificity and function of the large stably expressed 315-HARE isoform in Flp-In 293 cell lines. Like human spleen sinusoidal endothelial cells, Flp-In 293 cell lines transfected with a single cDNA encoding the full-length 315-HARE express both the 315-kDa and the proteolytically truncated 190-kDa isoforms in a ratio of approximately 3-4:1. The 190-kDa HARE isoform generated from the 315-kDa HARE and the 315-kDa HARE specifically bound 125I-HA. Like the 190-kDa HARE expressed alone (Harris, E. N., Weigel, J. A., and Weigel, P. H. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 36201-36209), the 190- and 315-kDa HARE isoforms expressed in 315-HARE cell lines were recognized by anti-HARE monoclonal antibodies 30, 154, and 159. All 315-HARE cell lines could endocytose and degrade 125I-HA. Competition studies with live cells indicate that 190-HARE and 315-HARE bind HA with higher apparent affinity (Kd approximately 10-20 nM) than chondroitin sulfate (CS) types A, C, D, or E. Only slight competition of HA endocytosis was observed with CS-B (dermatan sulfate) and chondroitin. Direct binding assays with the 315-HARE ectodomain revealed high affinity HA binding, and lower binding affinities for CS-C, CS-D, and CS-E. A majority of each HARE isoform was intracellular, within the endocytic system, suggesting transient surface residency typical of an active endocytic recycling receptor.
The Hyaluronan Receptor for Endocytosis Mediates Hyaluronan-dependent Signal Transduction Via Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18387958
The hyaluronan (HA) receptor for endocytosis (HARE) mediates the endocytotic clearance of HA and other glycosaminoglycans from lymph and blood. Two isoforms of human HARE, 315- and 190-kDa, are highly expressed in sinusoidal endothelial cells of liver, lymph node, and spleen; HARE is also in specialized cells in the eye, heart, brain, and kidney. Here we determined whether HA binding to HARE initiates intracellular signaling in Flp-In 293 cells stably expressing either the 315- and 190-kDa HARE or the 190-kDa HARE alone. HARE was co-immunoprecipitated with extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK), and p38 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade. ERK phosphorylation increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner when HA was added to cells expressing full-length or 190-kDa HARE, but not cells with vector-only or a HARE(DeltaLink) construct with greatly decreased ( approximately 90%) HA uptake. HA did not induce phosphorylation of JNK or p38. A maximum increase in phospho-ERK1/2 occurred within 30 min at 5 mug/ml HA, and the response was dampened at >20 mug/ml HA. HA binding did not increase the level of HARE-ERK complexes, but did increase HARE phosphorylation. These findings demonstrate a novel functional response, when HARE binds HA, that leads to activation of ERK1/2, important mediators of intracellular signal transduction.
The Human Hyaluronan Receptor for Endocytosis (HARE/Stabilin-2) is a Systemic Clearance Receptor for Heparin
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18434317
The hyaluronic acid receptor for endocytosis (HARE; also designated Stabilin-2) mediates systemic clearance of hyaluronan and chondroitin sulfates from the vascular and lymphatic circulations. The internalized glycosaminoglycans are degraded in lysosomes, thus completing their normal turnover process. Sinusoidal endothelial cells of human liver, lymph node, and spleen express two HARE isoforms of 315 and 190 kDa. Here we report that the 190- and 315-kDa HARE isoforms, expressed stably either in Flp-In 293 cell lines or as soluble ectodomains, specifically bind heparin (Hep). The K(d) for Hep binding to purified 190- and 315-kDa HARE ectodomains was 17.2 +/- 4.9 and 23.4 +/- 5.3 nm, respectively. Cells expressing HARE readily and specifically internalized (125)I-streptavidin-biotin-Hep complexes, which was inhibited >70% by hyperosmolar conditions, confirming that uptake is mediated by the clathrin-coated pit pathway. Internalization of Hep occurred for many hours with an estimated HARE recycling time of approximately 12 min. Internalized fluorescent streptavidin-biotin-Hep was present in a typical endocytic vesicular pattern and was delivered to lysosomes. We conclude that HARE in the sinusoidal endothelial cells of lymph nodes and liver likely mediates the efficient systemic clearance of Hep and many different Hep-binding protein complexes from the lymphatic and vascular circulations.
The Ligand-binding Profile of HARE: Hyaluronan and Chondroitin Sulfates A, C, and D Bind to Overlapping Sites Distinct from the Sites for Heparin, Acetylated Low-density Lipoprotein, Dermatan Sulfate, and CS-E
Glycobiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18499864
The hyaluronic acid receptor for endocytosis (HARE)/ Stabilin-2 is the primary systemic scavenger receptor for hyaluronan (HA), the chondroitin sulfates (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), and nonglycosaminoglycan (GAG) ligands such as acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), pro-collagen propeptides, and advanced glycation end products. We recently discovered that HARE is also a systemic scavenger receptor for heparin (Hep) (Harris EN, Weigel JA, Weigel PH. 2008. The human hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis [HARE/Stabilin-2] is a systemic clearance receptor for heparin. J Biol Chem. 283:17341-17350). Our goal was to map the binding sites of eight different ligands within HARE. We used biotinylated GAGs and radio-iodinated streptavidin or AcLDL to assess the binding activities of ligands directly or indirectly (by competition with unlabeled ligands) in endocytosis assays using stable cell lines expressing the 315 or 190 kDa HA receptor for endocytosis (315- or 190-HARE) isoforms, and ELISA-like assays, with purified recombinant soluble 190-HARE ecto-domain. For example, Hep binding to HARE was competed by DS, CS-E, AcLDL, and dextran sulfate, but not by other CS types, HA, dextran, or heparosan. (125)I-AcLDL binding to HARE was partially competed by Hep and dextran sulfate, but not competed by HA. Two ligands, DS and CS-E, competed with both Hep and HA to some degree. Hep and HA binding or endocytosis is mutually inclusive; binding of these two GAGs occurs with functionally separate, noncompetitive, and apparently noninteracting domains. Thus, HARE binds to HA and Hep simultaneously. Although the domain(s) responsible for Hep binding remains unknown, the Link domain was required for HARE binding to HA, CS-A, CS-C, and CS-D. These results enable us to outline, for the first time, a binding activity map for multiple ligands of HARE.
The Cytoplasmic Domain of the Hyaluronan Receptor for Endocytosis (HARE) Contains Multiple Endocytic Motifs Targeting Coated Pit-mediated Internalization
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18539600
The hyaluronic acid (HA) receptor for endocytosis (HARE) is the primary scavenger receptor for HA and chondroitin sulfates in mammals. The two human isoforms of HARE (full-length 315-kDa and a 190-kDa proteolytic cleavage product), which are type I single-pass membrane proteins, are highly expressed in sinusoidal endothelial cells of lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. Their identical HARE cytoplasmic domains contain four candidate AP-2/clathrin-mediated endocytic signaling motifs as follows: YSYFRI(2485), FQHF(2495), NPLY(2519), and DPF(2534) (315-HARE numbering). Stably transfected cells expressing 190-HARE(DeltaYSYFRI), 190-HARE(DeltaFQHF), or 190-HARE(DeltaNPLY) (lacking Motifs 1, 2, or 3) had decreased (125)I-HA endocytosis rates of approximately 49, approximately 39, and approximately 56%, respectively (relative to wild type). In contrast, 190-HARE(DeltaDPF) cells (lacking Motif 4) showed no change in HA endocytic rate. Deletions of motifs 1 and 2 or of 1, 2, and 4 decreased the rate of HA endocytosis by only approximately 41%. Endocytosis was approximately 95% decreased in mutants lacking all four motifs. Cells expressing a 190-HARE(Y2519A) mutant of the NPLY motif retained 85-90% of wild type endocytosis, whereas this mutation in the triple motif deletant decreased endocytosis to approximately 7% of wild type. Tyr in NPLY(2519) is thus important for endocytosis. All HARE mutants showed similar HA binding and degradation of the internalized HA, indicating that altering endocytic motifs did not affect ectodomain binding of HA or targeting of internalized HA to lysosomes. We conclude that, although NPLY may be the most important motif, it functions together with two other endocytic motifs; thus three signal sequences (YSYFRI, FQHF, and NPLY) provide redundancy to mediate coated pit targeting and endocytosis of HARE.
American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19359419
The human hyaluronic acid (HA) receptor for endocytosis (HARE/stabilin-2) is the primary clearance receptor for systemic HA, chondroitin sulfates, and heparin, but not for heparan sulfate or keratan sulfate (Harris EN, Weigel JA, Weigel PH. J Biol Chem 283: 17341-17350, 2008). HARE is expressed in the sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) of liver and lymph nodes where it acts as a scavenger for uptake and degradation of glycosaminoglycans, both as free chains and proteoglycan fragments. Unfractionated heparin (UFH; approximately 14 kDa) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH; approximately 4 kDa) are commonly used in treatments for thrombosis and cancer and in surgical and dialysis procedures. The reported half-lives of UFH and LMWH in the blood are approximately 1 h and 2-6 h, respectively. In this study, we demonstrate that anti-HARE antibodies specifically block the uptake of LMWH and UFH by isolated rat liver SECs and by human 293 cells expressing recombinant human HARE (hHARE). hHARE has a significant affinity (K(d) = 10 microM) for LMWH, and higher affinity (K(d) = 0.06 microM) for the larger UFH. Rat liver SECs or cells expressing the recombinant 190-kDa HARE isoform internalized both UFH and LMWH, and both heparins cross-compete with each other, suggesting that they share the same binding sites. These cellular results were confirmed in ELISA-like assays using purified soluble 190-hHARE ectodomain. We conclude that both UFH and LMWH are cleared by HARE/Stab2 and that the differences in the affinities of HARE binding to LMWH and UFH likely explain the longer in vivo circulating half-life of LMWH compared with UFH.
N-Glycans on the Link Domain of Human HARE/Stabilin-2 Are Needed for Hyaluronan Binding to Purified Ecto-domain, but Not for Cellular Endocytosis of Hyaluronan
Glycobiology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20466649
The hyaluronic acid receptor for endocytosis (HARE)/Stabilin-2 is the primary systemic scavenger receptor for 13 ligands including hyaluronan (HA), heparin and chondroitin sulfates. Most ligand-binding sites are within the 190 kDa isoform, which contains approximately 25 kDa of N-glycans and is the C-terminal half of the full-length 315 kDa HARE. Glycoproteomic analyses of purified recombinant human 190-HARE ecto-domain identified a diverse population of glycans at 10 of 17 consensus sites. The most diversity (and the only sialylated structures) occurred at N(2280), within the HA-binding Link domain. To determine if these N-glycans are required for HA binding, we created human Flp-In 293 cell lines expressing membrane-bound or soluble ecto-domain variants of 190-HARE(N2280A). Membrane-bound HARE lacking Link domain N-glycans mediated rapid HA endocytosis, but purified 190-HARE(N2280A) ecto-domain showed little or no HA binding in ELISA-like, HA-HARE pull-down assays or by surface plasmon resonance analysis (which detected very high apparent affinity for 190-HARE ecto-domain binding to HA; K(d) = 5.2 nM). The results indicate that Link domain N-glycans stabilize interactions that facilitate HA binding to HARE.