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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Efrat Ron in JoVE
Pulse-chase Analysis of N-linked Sugar Chains from Glycoproteins in Mammalian Cells
Edward Avezov, Efrat Ron, Yana Izenshtein, Yosef Adan, Gerardo Z. Lederkremer
Department of Cell Research and Immunology, George Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University
We describe a method for analysis of the alteration of N-linked glycans through the early life of glycoproteins after their biosynthesis in mammalian cells. This is achieved by pulse-chase analysis of metabolically labeled glycans, enzymatic release from glycoproteins and examination by HPLC.
Other articles by Efrat Ron on PubMed
Mannose Trimming is Required for Delivery of a Glycoprotein from EDEM1 to XTP3-B and to Late Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation Steps
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21062743
Although the trimming of α1,2-mannose residues from precursor N-linked oligosaccharides is an essential step in the delivery of misfolded glycoproteins to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD), the exact role of this trimming is unclear. EDEM1 was initially suggested to bind N-glycans after mannose trimming, a role presently ascribed to the lectins OS9 and XTP3-B, because of their in vitro affinities for trimmed oligosaccharides. We have shown before that ER mannosidase I (ERManI) is required for the trimming and concentrates together with the ERAD substrate and ERAD machinery in the pericentriolar ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC). Inhibition of mannose trimming prevents substrate accumulation in the ERQC. Here, we show that the mannosidase inhibitor kifunensine or ERManI knockdown do not affect binding of an ERAD substrate glycoprotein to EDEM1. In contrast, substrate association with XTP3-B and with the E3 ubiquitin ligases HRD1 and SCF(Fbs2) was inhibited. Consistently, whereas the ERAD substrate partially colocalized upon proteasomal inhibition with EDEM1, HRD1, and Fbs2 at the ERQC, colocalization was repressed by mannosidase inhibition in the case of the E3 ligases but not for EDEM1. Interestingly, association and colocalization of the substrate with Derlin-1 was independent of mannose trimming. The HRD1 adaptor protein SEL1L had been suggested to play a role in N-glycan-dependent substrate delivery to OS9 and XTP3-B. However, substrate association with XTP3-B was still dependent on mannose trimming upon SEL1L knockdown. Our results suggest that mannose trimming enables delivery of a substrate glycoprotein from EDEM1 to late ERAD steps through association with XTP3-B.
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21917589
Trimming of mannose residues from the N-linked oligosaccharide precursor is a stringent requirement for glycoprotein endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). In this paper, we show that, surprisingly, overexpression of ER degradation-enhancing α-mannosidase-like protein 1 (EDEM1) or its up-regulation by IRE1, as occurs in the unfolded protein response, overrides this requirement and renders unnecessary the expression of ER mannosidase I. An EDEM1 deletion mutant lacking most of the carbohydrate-recognition domain also accelerated ERAD, delivering the substrate to XTP3-B and OS9. EDEM1 overexpression also accelerated the degradation of a mutant nonglycosylated substrate. Upon proteasomal inhibition, EDEM1 concentrated together with the ERAD substrate in the pericentriolar ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), where ER mannosidase I and ERAD machinery components are localized, including, as we show here, OS9. We suggest that a nascent glycoprotein can normally dissociate from EDEM1 and be rescued from ERAD by reentering calnexin-refolding cycles, a condition terminated by mannose trimming. At high EDEM1 levels, glycoprotein release is prevented and glycan interactions are no longer required, canceling the otherwise mandatory ERAD timing by mannose trimming and accelerating the targeting to degradation.
International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22078962
In order to maintain proper cellular functions, all living cells, from bacteria to mammalian cells, must carry out a rigorous quality control process in which nascent and newly synthesized proteins are examined. An important role of this process is to protect cells against pathological accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has evolved as a staging ground for secretory protein synthesis with distinct sites for entry, quality control, and exit. In the ER, most proteins are N-glycosylated, a posttranslational modification that defines the quality control pathway that the protein will undergo. The folding state of glycoproteins is revealed by specific modifications of their N-glycans. Regardless of size and posttranslational modifications, the folding states of all proteins must be identified as unfolded, properly folded, or terminally misfolded and accordingly subjected to ER retention and continued folding attempts, export and maturation, or retrotranslocation to the cytosol for degradation. These processes involve specialized machineries that utilize molecular chaperones, protein- and N-glycan-modifying enzymes, and lectins for protein folding and quality control and ubiquitination and degradation machineries for disposal. All these machineries are regulated by a signaling pathway, the unfolded protein response, which upregulates ER functions when under the stress of high protein load. Here, we describe the molecular mechanisms that are implicated and discuss recent data that underline the importance of compartmentalization in the segregation of the various functions of the ER for their correct function.
A Secreted Form of the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor, SH2a, As a Novel Potential Noninvasive Marker for Liver Fibrosis
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22096539
The human asialoglycoprotein receptor is a membrane heterooligomer expressed exclusively in hepatocytes. A soluble secreted form, sH2a, arises, not by shedding at the cell surface, but by intracellular cleavage of its membrane-bound precursor, which is encoded by an alternatively spliced form of the receptor H2 subunit. Here we determined and report that sH2a, present at constant levels in serum from healthy individuals is altered upon liver fibrosis, reflecting the status of hepatocyte function.