Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- The EMBO Journal
- PloS One
This translation into Portuguese was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Elitza I. Tocheva in JoVE
Electron Cryotomography de células bacterianas
Songye Chen1, Alasdair McDowall1,2, Megan J. Dobro1, Ariane Briegel1,2, Mark Ladinsky1,2, Jian Shi2, Elitza I. Tocheva1, Morgan Beeby1,2, Martin Pilhofer1,2, H. Jane Ding1, Zhuo Li1,2, Lu Gan1, Dylan M. Morris1, Grant J. Jensen1,2
1Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology - Caltech, 2Howard Hughes Medical Institute, California Institute of Technology - Caltech
Que vamos mostrar aqui como usar elétron cryotomography (ECT) para estudar a ultra-estrutura das células bacterianas em quase nativo estados, a "macromolecular" (~ 4 nm) resolução.
Other articles by Elitza I. Tocheva on PubMed
Science (New York, N.Y.). May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15131305
A copper-nitrosyl intermediate forms during the catalytic cycle of nitrite reductase, the enzyme that mediates the committed step in bacterial denitrification. The crystal structure of a type 2 copper-nitrosyl complex of nitrite reductase reveals an unprecedented side-on binding mode in which the nitrogen and oxygen atoms are nearly equidistant from the copper cofactor. Comparison of this structure with a refined nitrite-bound crystal structure explains how coordination can change between copper-oxygen and copper-nitrogen during catalysis. The side-on copper-nitrosyl in nitrite reductase expands the possibilities for nitric oxide interactions in copper proteins such as superoxide dismutase and prions.
Structures of Ternary Complexes of BphK, a Bacterial Glutathione S-transferase That Reductively Dechlorinates Polychlorinated Biphenyl Metabolites
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16920719
Prokaryotic glutathione S-transferases are as diverse as their eukaryotic counterparts but are much less well characterized. BphK from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 consumes two GSH molecules to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenyl-2,4-dienoates (HOPDAs), inhibitory polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites. Crystallographic structures of two ternary complexes of BphK were solved to a resolution of 2.1A. In the BphK-GSH-HOPDA complex, GSH and HOPDA molecules occupy the G- and H-subsites, respectively. The thiol nucleophile of the GSH molecule is positioned for SN2 attack at carbon 3 of the bound HOPDA. The respective sulfur atoms of conserved Cys-10 and the bound GSH are within 3.0A, consistent with product release and the formation of a mixed disulfide intermediate. In the BphK-(GSH)2 complex, a GSH molecule occupies each of the two subsites. The three sulfur atoms of the two GSH molecules and Cys-10 are aligned suitably for a disulfide exchange reaction that would regenerate the resting enzyme and yield disulfide-linked GSH molecules. A second conserved residue, His-106, is adjacent to the thiols of Cys-10 and the GSH bound to the G-subsite and thus may stabilize a transition state in the disulfide exchange reaction. Overall, the structures support and elaborate a proposed dehalogenation mechanism for BphK and provide insight into the plasticity of the H-subsite.
Effect of the Methionine Ligand on the Reorganization Energy of the Type-1 Copper Site of Nitrite Reductase
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17227014
Copper-containing nitrite reductase harbors a type-1 and a type-2 Cu site. The former acts as the electron acceptor site of the enzyme, and the latter is the site of catalytic action. The effect of the methionine ligand on the reorganization energy of the type-1 site was explored by studying the electron-transfer kinetics between NiR (wild type (wt) and the variants Met150Gly and Met150Thr) with Fe(II)EDTA and Fe(II)HEDTA. The mutations increased the reorganization energy by 0.3 eV (30 kJ mol-1). A similar increase was found from pulse radiolysis experiments on the wt NIR and three variants (Met150Gly, Met150His, and Met150Thr). Binding of the nearby Met62 to the type-1 Cu site in Met150Gly (under influence of an allosteric effector) lowered the reorganization energy back to approximately the wt value. According to XRD data the structure of the reduced type-1 site in Met150Gly NiR in the presence of an allosteric effector is similar to that in the reduced wt NiR (solved to 1.85 A), compatible with the similarity in reorganization energy.
Biochemistry. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17924665
Nitrite reductase (NiR) is an enzyme that uses type 1 and type 2 copper sites to reduce nitrite to nitric oxide during bacterial denitrification. A copper-nitrosyl intermediate is a proposed, yet poorly characterized feature of the NiR catalytic cycle. This intermediate is formally described as Cu(I)-NO+ and is proposed to be formed at the type 2 copper site after nitrite binding and electron transfer from the type 1 copper site. In this study, copper-nitrosyl complexes were formed by prolonged exposure of exogenous NO to crystals of wild-type and two variant forms of NiR from Alcaligenes faecalis (AfNiR), and the structures were determined to 1.8 A or better resolution. Exposing oxidized wild-type crystals to NO results in the reverse reaction and formation of nitrite that remains bound at the active site. In a type 1 copper site mutant (H145A) that is incapable of electron transfer to the type 2 site, the reverse reaction is not observed. Instead, in both oxidized and reduced H145A crystals, NO is observed bound in a side-on manner to the type 2 copper. In AfNiR, Asp98 forms hydrogen bonds to both substrate and product bound to the type 2 Cu. In the D98N variant, NO is bound side-on but is more disordered when observed for the wild-type enzyme. The solution EPR spectra of the crystallographically characterized NiR-NO complexes indicate the presence of an oxidized type 2 copper site and thus are interpreted as resulting from stable copper-nitrosyls and formally assigned as Cu(II)-NO-. A reaction scheme in which a second NO molecule is oxidized to nitrite can account for the formation of a Cu(II)-NO- species after exposure of the oxidized H145A variant to NO gas.
Conserved Active Site Residues Limit Inhibition of a Copper-containing Nitrite Reductase by Small Molecules
Biochemistry. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18358002
The interaction of copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase from Alcaligenes faecalis S-6 ( AfNiR) with each of five small molecules was studied using crystallography and steady-state kinetics. Structural studies revealed that each small molecule interacted with the oxidized catalytic type 2 copper of AfNiR. Three small molecules (formate, acetate and nitrate) mimic the substrate by having at least two oxygen atoms for bidentate coordination to the type 2 copper atom. These three anions bound to the copper ion in the same asymmetric, bidentate manner as nitrite. Consistent with their weak inhibition of the enzyme ( K i >50 mM), the Cu-O distances in these AfNiR-inhibitor complexes were approximately 0.15 A longer than that observed in the AfNiR-nitrite complex. The binding mode of each inhibitor is determined in part by steric interactions with the side chain of active site residue Ile257. Moreover, the side chain of Asp98, a conserved residue that hydrogen bonds to type 2 copper-bound nitrite and nitric oxide, was either disordered or pointed away from the inhibitors. Acetate and formate inhibited AfNiR in a mixed fashion, consistent with the occurrence of second acetate binding site in the AfNiR-acetate complex that occludes access to the type 2 copper. A fourth small molecule, nitrous oxide, bound to the oxidized metal in a side-on fashion reminiscent of nitric oxide to the reduced copper. Nevertheless, nitrous oxide bound at a farther distance from the metal. The fifth small molecule, azide, inhibited the reduction of nitrite by AfNiR most strongly ( K ic = 2.0 +/- 0.1 mM). This ligand bound to the type 2 copper center end-on with a Cu-N c distance of approximately 2 A, and was the only inhibitor to form a hydrogen bond with Asp98. Overall, the data substantiate the roles of Asp98 and Ile257 in discriminating substrate from other small anions.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19805102
Chemoreceptors are key components of the high-performance signal transduction system that controls bacterial chemotaxis. Chemoreceptors are typically localized in a cluster at the cell pole, where interactions among the receptors in the cluster are thought to contribute to the high sensitivity, wide dynamic range, and precise adaptation of the signaling system. Previous structural and genomic studies have produced conflicting models, however, for the arrangement of the chemoreceptors in the clusters. Using whole-cell electron cryo-tomography, here we show that chemoreceptors of different classes and in many different species representing several major bacterial phyla are all arranged into a highly conserved, 12-nm hexagonal array consistent with the proposed "trimer of dimers" organization. The various observed lengths of the receptors confirm current models for the methylation, flexible bundle, signaling, and linker sub-domains in vivo. Our results suggest that the basic mechanism and function of receptor clustering is universal among bacterial species and was thus conserved during evolution.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20448045
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 have similar cholesterol catabolic pathways. This pathway contributes to the pathogenicity of Mtb. The hsaAB cholesterol catabolic genes have been predicted to encode the oxygenase and reductase, respectively, of a flavin-dependent mono-oxygenase that hydroxylates 3-hydroxy-9,10-seconandrost-1,3,5(10)-triene-9,17-dione (3-HSA) to a catechol. An hsaA deletion mutant of RHA1 did not grow on cholesterol but transformed the latter to 3-HSA and related metabolites in which each of the two keto groups was reduced: 3,9-dihydroxy-9,10-seconandrost-1,3,5(10)-triene-17-one (3,9-DHSA) and 3,17-dihydroxy-9,10-seconandrost-1,3,5(10)-triene-9-one (3,17-DHSA). Purified 3-hydroxy-9,10-seconandrost-1,3,5(10)-triene-9,17-dione 4-hydroxylase (HsaAB) from Mtb had higher specificity for 3-HSA than for 3,17-DHSA (apparent k(cat)/K(m) = 1000 +/- 100 M(-1) s(-1) versus 700 +/- 100 M(-1) s(-1)). However, 3,9-DHSA was a poorer substrate than 3-hydroxybiphenyl (apparent k(cat)/K(m) = 80 +/- 40 M(-1) s(-1)). In the presence of 3-HSA the K(m)(app) for O(2) was 100 +/- 10 microM. The crystal structure of HsaA to 2.5-A resolution revealed that the enzyme has the same fold, flavin-binding site, and catalytic residues as p-hydroxyphenyl acetate hydroxylase. However, HsaA has a much larger phenol-binding site, consistent with the enzyme's substrate specificity. In addition, a second crystal form of HsaA revealed that a C-terminal flap (Val(367)-Val(394)) could adopt two conformations differing by a rigid body rotation of 25 degrees around Arg(366). This rotation appears to gate the likely flavin entrance to the active site. In docking studies with 3-HSA and flavin, the closed conformation provided a rationale for the enzyme's substrate specificity. Overall, the structural and functional data establish the physiological role of HsaAB and provide a basis to further investigate an important class of monooxygenases as well as the bacterial catabolism of steroids.
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20516135
Electron cryotomography (ECT) is an emerging technology that allows thin samples such as macromolecular complexes and small bacterial cells to be imaged in 3-D in a nearly native state to "molecular" ( approximately 4 nm) resolution. As such, ECT is beginning to deliver long-awaited insight into the positions and structures of cytoskeletal fi laments, cell wall elements, motility machines, chemoreceptor arrays, internal compartments, and other ultrastructures. This article describes the technique and summarizes its contributions to bacterial cell biology. For comparable recent reviews, see (Subramaniam 2005; Jensen and Briegel 2007; Murphy and Jensen 2007; Li and Jensen 2009). For reviews on the history, technical details, and broader application of electron tomography in general, see for example (Subramaniam and Milne 2004; Lucić et al. 2005; Leis et al. 2008; Midgley and Dunin-Borkowski 2009).
Long Helical Filaments Are Not Seen Encircling Cells in Electron Cryotomograms of Rod-shaped Bacteria
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21419100
How rod-shaped bacteria form and maintain their shape is an important question in bacterial cell biology. Results from fluorescent light microscopy have led many to believe that the actin homolog MreB and a number of other proteins form long helical filaments along the inner membrane of the cell. Here we show using electron cryotomography of six different rod-shaped bacterial species, at macromolecular resolution, that no long (> 80 nm) helical filaments exist near or along either surface of the inner membrane. We also use correlated cryo-fluorescent light microscopy (cryo-fLM) and electron cryo-tomography (ECT) to identify cytoplasmic bundles of MreB, showing that MreB filaments are detectable by ECT. In light of these results, the structure and function of MreB must be reconsidered: instead of acting as a large, rigid scaffold that localizes cell-wall synthetic machinery, moving MreB complexes may apply tension to growing peptidoglycan strands to ensure their orderly, linear insertion.
The EMBO Journal. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21673657
The bacterial flagellum is one of nature's most amazing and well-studied nanomachines. Its cell-wall-anchored motor uses chemical energy to rotate a microns-long filament and propel the bacterium towards nutrients and away from toxins. While much is known about flagellar motors from certain model organisms, their diversity across the bacterial kingdom is less well characterized, allowing the occasional misrepresentation of the motor as an invariant, ideal machine. Here, we present an electron cryotomographical survey of flagellar motor architectures throughout the Bacteria. While a conserved structural core was observed in all 11 bacteria imaged, surprisingly novel and divergent structures as well as different symmetries were observed surrounding the core. Correlating the motor structures with the presence and absence of particular motor genes in each organism suggested the locations of five proteins involved in the export apparatus including FliI, whose position below the C-ring was confirmed by imaging a deletion strain. The combination of conserved and specially-adapted structures seen here sheds light on how this complex protein nanomachine has evolved to meet the needs of different species.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21687732
Bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV) are packets of periplasmic material that, via the proteins and other molecules they contain, project metabolic function into the environment. While OMV production is widespread in proteobacteria, they have been extensively studied only in pathogens, which inhabit fully hydrated environments. However, many (arguably most) bacterial habitats, such as soil, are only partially hydrated. In the latter, water is characteristically distributed as films on soil particles that are, on average thinner, than are typical OMV (ca. ≤10 nm water film vs. 20 to >200 nm OMV;).
Peptidoglycan Remodeling and Conversion of an Inner Membrane into an Outer Membrane During Sporulation
Cell. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21884938
Two hallmarks of the Firmicute phylum, which includes the Bacilli and Clostridia classes, are their ability to form endospores and their "Gram-positive" single-membraned, thick-cell-wall envelope structure. Acetonema longum is part of a lesser-known family (the Veillonellaceae) of Clostridia that form endospores but that are surprisingly "Gram negative," possessing both an inner and outer membrane and a thin cell wall. Here, we present macromolecular resolution, 3D electron cryotomographic images of vegetative, sporulating, and germinating A. longum cells showing that during the sporulation process, the inner membrane of the mother cell is inverted and transformed to become the outer membrane of the germinating cell. Peptidoglycan persists throughout, leading to a revised, "continuous" model of its role in the process. Coupled with genomic analyses, these results point to sporulation as a mechanism by which the bacterial outer membrane may have arisen and A. longum as a potential "missing link" between single- and double-membraned bacteria.