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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
- Journal of Neurosurgery
- Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Critical Care Medicine
- Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994)
- Neurotoxicity Research
- Neurobiology of Disease
- Brain Research
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Articles by Emil Zeynalov in JoVE
Imaging of Estrogen Receptor-α in Rat Pial Arterioles using a Digital Immunofluorescent Microscope
Niloofar Rezvani, Andrei V. Blokhin, Emil Zeynalov, Marguerite T. Littleton-Kearney
Graduate School of Nursing, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
The goal of this article is to demonstrate a method to optimize immunofluorescent detection of estrogen receptor-α (ERα) in rat pial arterial slices using a digital immunofluorescent microscope.
Other articles by Emil Zeynalov on PubMed
Journal of Neurosurgery. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15739565
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage affects approximately 10/100,000 people per year. Endovascular coil embolization is used increasingly to treat cerebral aneurysms and its safety and durability is rapidly developing. The long-term durability of coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms remains in question; patients treated using this modality require multiple follow-up angiography studies and occasional repeated treatments.
Neuroprotective Effect of Selective Kappa Opioid Receptor Agonist is Gender Specific and Linked to Reduced Neuronal Nitric Oxide
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16049424
We have previously shown that treatment with selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist BRL 52537 hydrochloride [(+/-)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) acetyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl) methylpiperidine] (1) has a long therapeutic window for providing ischemic neuroprotection and (2) attenuates ischemia-evoked nitric oxide (NO) production in vivo in rats. Neuronally derived NO has been shown to be deleterious in the male, but not in the female, rodent model of focal ischemic stroke. We sought to determine if the agent fails to protect ischemic brain when neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) is genetically deleted in male, but not female, mice. Halothane-anesthetized adult male and female nNOS null mutants (nNOS(-/-)) and the genetically matched wildtype (WT) strain were subjected to transient (2 h) middle cerebral artery occlusion by the intraluminal filament technique. Vehicle or BRL 52537 treatment with continuous intravenous infusion was instituted at the onset of reperfusion and continued for 22 h. In WT male mice, infarct volumes measured at 72 h of reperfusion were robustly decreased with BRL 52537 treatment. In contrast, BRL 52537 did not decrease infarct volume in male nNOS(-/-) mice. BRL 52537 had no effect in the WT or nNOS(-/-) female mice. These data support that BRL 52537's mechanism of neuroprotection in vivo is through attenuation of nNOS activity and ischemia-evoked NO production. Neuroprotective effects of BRL 52537 are lost in the male when nNOS is not present; therefore, BRL 52537 likely acts upstream from NO generation and its subsequent neurotoxicity.
Temporary Loss of Perivascular Aquaporin-4 in Neocortex After Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Mice
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16938871
The aquaporin-4 (AQP4) pool in the perivascular astrocyte membranes has been shown to be critically involved in the formation and dissolution of brain edema. Cerebral edema is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in stroke. It is therefore essential to know whether the perivascular pool of AQP4 is up- or down-regulated after an ischemic insult, because such changes would determine the time course of edema formation. Here we demonstrate by quantitative immunogold cytochemistry that the ischemic striatum and neocortex show distinct patterns of AQP4 expression in the reperfusion phase after 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion. The striatal core displays a loss of perivascular AQP4 at 24 hr of reperfusion with no sign of subsequent recovery. The most affected part of the cortex also exhibits loss of perivascular AQP4. This loss is of magnitude similar to that of the striatal core, but it shows a partial recovery toward 72 hr of reperfusion. By freeze fracture we show that the loss of perivascular AQP4 is associated with the disappearance of the square lattices of particles that normally are distinct features of the perivascular astrocyte membrane. The cortical border zone differs from the central part of the ischemic lesion by showing no loss of perivascular AQP4 at 24 hr of reperfusion but rather a slight increase. These data indicate that the size of the AQP4 pool that controls the exchange of fluid between brain and blood during edema formation and dissolution is subject to large and region-specific changes in the reperfusion phase.
The Perivascular Pool of Aquaporin-4 Mediates the Effect of Osmotherapy in Postischemic Cerebral Edema
Critical Care Medicine. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18679106
Osmotherapy with hypertonic saline ameliorates cerebral edema associated with experimental ischemic stroke. We tested the hypothesis that hypertonic saline exerts its antiedema effect by promoting an efflux of water from brain via the perivascular aquaporin-4 pool. We used mice with targeted disruption of the gene encoding alpha-syntrophin (alpha-Syn(-/-)) that lack the perivascular aquaporin-4 pool but retain the endothelial pool of this protein.
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994). Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19347762
The aims of this work were to determine if 1) ischemia alters pial artery responsiveness to the partially nitric oxide (NO)-dependent dilator, ADP, 2) the alteration depends on 17beta-estradial (E2), and 3) NO contributes to E2 protective effects.
Neurotoxicity Research. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19384576
Carbon monoxide (CO) is associated with central nervous system toxicity. However, evidence also indicates that CO can be protective, depending on its concentration. To determine if CO can be neuroprotective after ischemic brain injury, we subjected mice to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and exposed them to different concentrations of CO. We found that in mice, low CO levels protected the brain from injury following 90-min transient focal ischemia and 48 h of reperfusion. When inhalation of 125 or 250 ppm CO began immediately at the onset of reperfusion, total hemispheric infarct volume was reduced by 32.1 +/- 8.9% and 62.2 +/- 14.4%, respectively; with an extended therapeutic window of 1-3 h after ischemia, CO inhalation also attenuated infarct volume significantly. Furthermore, early CO exposure limited brain edema formation by 3.2 +/- 0.8% (125 ppm) and 2.6 +/- 0.3% (250 ppm). Finally, CO inhalation significantly improved neurological deficit scores at 48 h of survival time after ischemia. Transient elevation of carboxyhemoglobin levels returned rapidly to baseline when CO exposure was stopped. These findings suggest a potential application of CO to treat brain ischemic stroke.
Heme Oxygenase 1 is Associated with Ischemic Preconditioning-induced Protection Against Brain Ischemia
Neurobiology of Disease. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19465127
Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protects brain against ischemic injury by activating specific mechanisms. Our goal was to determine if the inducible heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) is required for such protection. IPC before transient or permanent ischemia reduced cortical infarct volumes by 57.4% and 33.9%, respectively at 48 h in wildtype adult mice. Interestingly, IPC failed to protect the HO1 gene deleted mice against permanent ischemic brain injury. IPC also resulted in a significant increase in HO1 protein levels in the brain and correlated with reduced neurological deficits after permanent and transient brain ischemia. Our study demonstrates that neuroprotective effects of IPC are at least partially mediated via HO1. Elucidating the physiological/cellular role by which HO1 is protective against brain ischemia may aid the development of selective drugs to treat stroke and its associated neurological disorders.
Bone Marrow-derived Cells Are the Major Source of MMP-9 Contributing to Blood-brain Barrier Dysfunction and Infarct Formation After Ischemic Stroke in Mice
Brain Research. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19646426
Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been shown to contribute to blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, infarct formation, and hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke. The cellular source of MMP-9 detectable in the ischemic brain remains controversial since extracellular molecules in the brain may be derived from blood. We here demonstrate that bone marrow-derived cells are the major source of MMP-9 in the ischemic brain. We made bone marrow chimeric mice with MMP-9 null and wild-type as donor and recipient. After 90 min of transient focal cerebral ischemia, MMP-9 null mice receiving wild-type bone marrow showed comparable outcomes to wild-type in brain MMP-9 levels and BBB disruption (endogenous albumin extravasation) at 1 h post-reperfusion and infarct size at 24 h post-reperfusion. In contrast, wild-type animals replaced with MMP-9 null bone marrow showed barely detectable levels of MMP-9 in the ischemic brain, with attenuations in BBB disruption and infarct size. MMP-9 null mice receiving wild-type bone marrow showed enhanced Evans blue extravasation as early as 1 h post-reperfusion compared to wild-type mice replaced with MMP-9 null bone marrow. These findings suggest that MMP-9 released from bone marrow-derived cells influences the progression of BBB disruption in the ischemic brain.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20107067
D-Serine, formed from L-serine by serine racemase (SR), is a physiologic coagonist at NMDA receptors. Using mice with targeted deletion of SR, we demonstrate a role for D-serine in NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity and stroke. Brain cultures of SR-deleted mice display markedly diminished nitric oxide (NO) formation and neurotoxicity. In intact SR knock-out mice, NO formation and nitrosylation of NO targets are substantially reduced. Infarct volume following middle cerebral artery occlusion is dramatically diminished in several regions of the brains of SR mutant mice despite evidence of increased NMDA receptor number and sensitivity.