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In JoVE (1)

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Articles by Emily V. Stevenson in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A Quantitative Evaluation of Cell Migration by the Phagokinetic Track Motility Assay

1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 4Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center


JoVE 4165

The phagokinetic motility track assay is a method used to assess the movement of cells. Specifically, the assay measures chemokinesis (random cell motility) over time in a quantitative manner. The assay takes advantage of the ability of cells to create a measurable track of their movement on colloidal gold-coated coverslips.

Other articles by Emily V. Stevenson on PubMed

Human Cytomegalovirus-regulated Paxillin in Monocytes Links Cellular Pathogenic Motility to the Process of Viral Entry

We have established that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection modulates the biology of target primary peripheral blood monocytes, allowing HCMV to use monocytes as "vehicles" for its systemic spread. HCMV infection of monocytes results in rapid induction of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase [PI(3)K] and NF-κB activities. Integrins, which are upstream of the PI(3)K and NF-κB pathways, were shown to be involved in HCMV binding to and entry into fibroblasts, suggesting that receptor ligand-mediated signaling following viral binding to integrins on monocytes could trigger the functional changes seen in infected monocytes. We now show that integrin engagement and the activation of the integrin/Src signaling pathway are essential for the induction of HCMV-infected monocyte motility. To investigate how integrin engagement by HCMV triggers monocyte motility, we examined the infected-monocyte transcriptome and found that the integrin/Src signaling pathway regulates the expression of paxillin, which is an important signal transducer in the regulation of actin rearrangement during cell adhesion and movement. Functionally, we observed that paxillin is activated via the integrin/Src signaling pathway and is required for monocyte motility. Because motility is intimately connected to cellular cytoskeletal organization, a process that is also important in viral entry, we investigated the role paxillin regulation plays in the process of viral entry into monocytes. New results confirmed that HCMV entry into target monocytes was significantly reduced in cells deficient in paxillin expression or the integrin/Src/paxillin signaling pathway. From our data, HCMV-cell interactions emerge as an essential trigger for the cellular changes that allow for HCMV entry and hematogenous dissemination.

Human Cytomegalovirus Induction of a Unique Signalsome During Viral Entry into Monocytes Mediates Distinct Functional Changes: a Strategy for Viral Dissemination

HCMV pathogenesis is a direct consequence of the hematogenous dissemination of the virus to multiple host organ sites. The presence of infected monocytes in the peripheral blood and organs of individuals exhibiting primary HCMV infection have long suggested that these blood sentinels are responsible for mediating viral spread. Despite monocytes being "at the right place at the right time", their short lifespan and the lack of productive viral infection in these cells complicate this scenario of a monocyte-driven approach to viral dissemination by HCMV. However, our laboratory has provided evidence that HCMV infection is able to induce a highly controlled polarization of monocytes toward a unique and long-lived proinflammatory macrophage, which we have demonstrated to be permissive for viral replication. These observations suggest that HCMV has evolved as a distinct mechanism to induce select proinflammatory characteristics that provide infected monocytes with the necessary tools to mediate viral spread following a primary infection. In the absence of viral gene products during the early stages of infection, the process by which HCMV "tunes" the inflammatory response in infected monocytes to promote viral spread and subsequently, viral persistence remains unclear. In this current review, we focus on the viral entry process of HCMV and the potential role of receptor-ligand interactions in modulating monocyte biology. Specifically, we examine the signaling pathways initiated by the distinct combination of cellular receptors simultaneously engaged and activated by HCMV during viral entry and how the acquisition of this distinct signalsome results in a nontraditional activation of monocytes leading to the induction of the unique, functional attributes observed in monocytes following HCMV infection.

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