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In JoVE (1)
- Methods for Study of Neuronal Morphogenesis: Ex vivo RNAi Electroporation in Embryonic Murine Cerebral Cortex
Other Publications (8)
Articles by Eric M. Morrow in JoVE
Methods for Study of Neuronal Morphogenesis: Ex vivo RNAi Electroporation in Embryonic Murine Cerebral Cortex
Sofia B. Lizarraga1,2,3, Kathryn R. Coser1,2, Mark Sabbagh1,2, Eric M. Morrow1,2,3
1Department of Molecular, Cellular Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, 2Institute for Brain Science, Brown University, 3Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert School of Medicine, Brown University
To conduct a rapid assessment of the function of genes in the development of cerebral cortex, we describe methods involving the ex vivo electroporation of plasmids co-expressing inhibitory RNA (RNAi) and GFP in murine embryonic cortex. This protocol is amenable to the study of various aspects of neurodevelopment such as neurogenesis, neuronal migration and neuronal morphogenesis including dendrite and axon outgrowth.
Other articles by Eric M. Morrow on PubMed
BMC Neuroscience. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15676071
In Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), affected individuals are blind, or nearly so, from birth. This early onset suggests abnormal development of the neural retina. Mutations in genes that affect the development and/or function of photoreceptor cells have been found to be responsible in some families. These examples include mutations in the photoreceptor transcription factor, Crx.
Neural Development. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18215319
Retinal bipolar cells comprise a diverse group of neurons. Cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells are so named for their connections with cone and rod photoreceptors, respectively. Morphological criteria have been established that distinguish nine types of cone bipolar cells and one type of rod bipolar cell in mouse and rat. While anatomical and physiological aspects of bipolar types have been actively studied, little is known about the sequence of events that leads to bipolar cell type specification and the potential relationship this process may have with synapse formation in the outer plexiform layer. In this study, we have examined the birth order of rod and cone bipolar cells in the developing mouse and rat in vivo.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18621663
To find inherited causes of autism-spectrum disorders, we studied families in which parents share ancestors, enhancing the role of inherited factors. We mapped several loci, some containing large, inherited, homozygous deletions that are likely mutations. The largest deletions implicated genes, including PCDH10 (protocadherin 10) and DIA1 (deleted in autism1, or c3orf58), whose level of expression changes in response to neuronal activity, a marker of genes involved in synaptic changes that underlie learning. A subset of genes, including NHE9 (Na+/H+ exchanger 9), showed additional potential mutations in patients with unrelated parents. Our findings highlight the utility of "homozygosity mapping" in heterogeneous disorders like autism but also suggest that defective regulation of gene expression after neural activity may be a mechanism common to seemingly diverse autism mutations.
Sequence Analysis of P21-activated Kinase 3 (PAK3) in Chronic Schizophrenia with Cognitive Impairment
Schizophrenia Research. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18805672
The P21-activated kinase PAK3 is critical for cognitive development and truncating mutations cause non-syndromic mental retardation (MR). Missense mutations are also associated with psychotic disorders, most commonly with schizophrenia involving premorbid MR, namely "pfropfschizophrenie". We set out to measure the frequency of sequence variants in PAK3 in schizophrenia without premorbid MR. We conducted complete gene reseqeuncing of all coding exons and exon-intron boundaries in patients with schizophrenia with cognitive impairment but without premorbid MR. Deleterious variants in schizophrenia alone were rare (<1/159 or 0.6%). Thereby, while PAK3 remains a strong biological candidate in psychosis, evidence from human genetics provides strongest support for a link to pfropfschizophrenie and not to schizophrenia without premorbid intellectual disability.
Cell. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18984148
Genetic studies are refining our understanding of neurodevelopmental mechanisms in autism. Some autism-related mutations appear to disrupt genes regulated by neuronal activity, which are especially important in development of the postnatal nervous system. Gene replacement studies in mice indicate that the developmental window to ameliorate symptoms may be wider than previously anticipated.
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics : the Official Publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20468056
Research has implicated mutations in the gene for neurexin-1 (NRXN1) in a variety of conditions including autism, schizophrenia, and nicotine dependence. To our knowledge, there have been no published reports describing the breadth of the phenotype associated with mutations in NRXN1. We present a medical record review of subjects with deletions involving exonic sequences of NRXN1. We ascertained cases from 3,540 individuals referred clinically for comparative genomic hybridization testing from March 2007 to January 2009. Twelve subjects were identified with exonic deletions. The phenotype of individuals with NRXN1 deletion is variable and includes autism spectrum disorders, mental retardation, language delays, and hypotonia. There was a statistically significant increase in NRXN1 deletion in our clinical sample compared to control populations described in the literature (P = 8.9 x 10(-7)). Three additional subjects with NRXN1 deletions and autism were identified through the Homozygosity Mapping Collaborative for Autism, and this deletion segregated with the phenotype. Our study indicates that deletions of NRXN1 predispose to a wide spectrum of developmental disorders.
Multiple Recurrent De Novo CNVs, Including Duplications of the 7q11.23 Williams Syndrome Region, Are Strongly Associated with Autism
Neuron. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21658581
We have undertaken a genome-wide analysis of rare copy-number variation (CNV) in 1124 autism spectrum disorder (ASD) families, each comprised of a single proband, unaffected parents, and, in most kindreds, an unaffected sibling. We find significant association of ASD with de novo duplications of 7q11.23, where the reciprocal deletion causes Williams-Beuren syndrome, characterized by a highly social personality. We identify rare recurrent de novo CNVs at five additional regions, including 16p13.2 (encompassing genes USP7 and C16orf72) and Cadherin 13, and implement a rigorous approach to evaluating the statistical significance of these observations. Overall, large de novo CNVs, particularly those encompassing multiple genes, confer substantial risks (OR = 5.6; CI = 2.6-12.0, p = 2.4 × 10(-7)). We estimate there are 130-234 ASD-related CNV regions in the human genome and present compelling evidence, based on cumulative data, for association of rare de novo events at 7q11.23, 15q11.2-13.1, 16p11.2, and Neurexin 1.
Journal of Medical Genetics. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22180641
Chromosome 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is a rare genomic disorder characterised by intellectual disability, growth retardation, unusual facial morphology and other anomalies. To date, 20 patients have been reported; 18 have had detailed breakpoint analysis.