Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (19)
- Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
- Genetics and Molecular Research : GMR
- FEMS Microbiology Reviews
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Nature Reviews. Microbiology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- PloS One
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Nature Biotechnology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Clinical Chemistry
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Analytical Biochemistry
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Genes & Development
- Journal of Proteome Research
Articles by Eric Johansen in JoVE
A Lectin HPLC Method to Enrich Selectively-glycosylated Peptides from Complex Biological Samples
Eric Johansen1, Birgit Schilling2, Michael Lerch1, Richard K. Niles1, Haichuan Liu1, Bensheng Li2, Simon Allen1, Steven C. Hall1, H. Ewa Witkowska1, Fred E. Regnier3, Bradford W. Gibson2, Susan J. Fisher1, Penelope M. Drake1
1Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco - UCSF, 2Buck Institute for Age Research, 3Department of Chemistry, Purdue University
Lectin-conjugated POROS beads were employed for HPLC. Glycopeptide standards served as positive and negative controls. MARS-14 depleted, trypsin-digested human plasma was chromatographed and flow-through (FT) and bound fractions collected for ESI-LC-MS/MS analyses. Glycopeptides were enriched in the bound fraction as compared to FT.
Other articles by Eric Johansen on PubMed
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12369196
Breakthroughs in science and technology are accelerating development of new products that are impacting our regulatory systems. Genetically modified or bioengineering plant varieties have entered the food supply on a global basis, especially in the U.S. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulates on the premise of 'substantial equivalence' and has developed premarket notification procedures and voluntary labeling guidelines. Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare regulates biotechnology products and has imposed biotechnology labeling regulations. However, the EU continues to be in a regulatory gridlock between member states and has proposed strict traceability and labeling guidelines. These requirements are currently restricting imports of bioengineered foods and are creating an international debate. In contrast to bioengineered plant varieties, to our knowledge, there are no strains of lactic acid bacterial starter cultures on the market that contain rDNA. The majority of strains have been improved via selection and mutagenesis. However, conjugation and electroporation have been used to transfer native lactococcal phage resistance plasmids to industrial strains. In addition, plasmids have been introduced to allow for selection of certain characteristics and then been eliminated by curing. The potential benefits of bioengineered foods are far reaching and are one of the most important opportunities of this century. However, bioengineered foods remain an emotional debate that is affecting world trade.
Virology. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12726722
A gene responsible for host determination was identified in two prolate-headed bacteriophages of the c2 species infecting strains of Lactococcus lactis. The identification of the host determinant gene was based on low DNA sequence homology in a specific open reading frame (ORF) between prolate-headed phages with different host ranges. When a host carrying this ORF from one phage on a plasmid was infected with another phage, we obtained phages with an altered host range at a frequency of 10(-6) to 10(-7). Sequencing of phage DNA originating from 10 independent single plaques confirmed that a genetic recombination had taken place at different positions between the ORF on the plasmid and the infecting phage. The adsorption of the recombinant phages to their bacterial hosts had also changed to match the phage origin of the ORF. Consequently, it is concluded that this ORF codes for the host range determinant.
Genetics and Molecular Research : GMR. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12917807
Many genetically modified Lactococcus strains have been constructed in research laboratories around the world. Most of these have originated from laboratory strains and therefore there are several barriers to using them in an industrial setting. Laboratory strains are often plasmid-free and consequently Lac- and Prt-, rendering them unable to grow in milk. Many of the commonly used techniques have been optimised for laboratory strains and their application to industrial strains may require a great deal of effort. Often genetically modified organisms produced in the laboratory do not fit the published definition of 'food-grade' (Johansen, 1999, Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology, Academic Press, London, pp. 917-921) and a great deal of effort is required to eliminate undesirable DNA sequences. As a consequence, it is often necessary to recreate the strains in industrial backgrounds before the innovations described in the scientific literature can be applied to the real-world dairy industry.
The Long and Winding Road from the Research Laboratory to Industrial Applications of Lactic Acid Bacteria
FEMS Microbiology Reviews. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15935510
Research innovations are constantly occurring in universities, research institutions and industrial research laboratories. These are reported in the scientific literature and presented to the scientific community in various congresses and symposia as well as through direct contacts and collaborations. Conversion of these research results to industrially useful innovations is, however, considerably more complex than generally appreciated. The long and winding road from the research laboratory to industrial applications will be illustrated with two recent examples from Chr. Hansen A/S: the implementation in industrial scale of a new production technology based on respiration by Lactococcus lactis and the introduction to the market of L. lactis strains constructed using recombinant DNA technology.
Characterization of Recombinant Camel Chymosin Reveals Superior Properties for the Coagulation of Bovine and Camel Milk
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16488399
Enzymatic milk coagulation for cheese manufacturing involves the cleavage of the scissile bond in kappa-casein by an aspartic acid protease. Bovine chymosin is the preferred enzyme, combining a strong clotting activity with a low general proteolytic activity. In the present study, we report expression and enzymatic properties of recombinant camel chymosin expressed in Aspergillus niger. Camel chymosin was shown to have different characteristics than bovine chymosin. Camel chymosin exhibits a 70% higher clotting activity for bovine milk and has only 20% of the unspecific protease activity for bovine chymosin. This results in a sevenfold higher ratio of clotting to general proteolytic activity. The enzyme is more thermostable than bovine chymosin. Kinetic analysis showed that half-saturation is achieved with less than 50% of the substrate required for bovine chymosin and turnover rates are lower. While raw camel milk cannot be clotted with bovine chymosin, a high clotting activity was found with camel chymosin.
Adaptation and Response of Bifidobacterium Animalis Subsp. Lactis to Bile: a Proteomic and Physiological Approach
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17827318
Bile salts are natural detergents that facilitate the digestion and absorption of the hydrophobic components of the diet. However, their amphiphilic nature makes them very inhibitory for bacteria and strongly influences bacterial survival in the gastrointestinal tract. Adaptation to and tolerance of bile stress is therefore crucial for the persistence of bacteria in the human colonic niche. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, a probiotic bacterium with documented health benefits, is applied largely in fermented dairy products. In this study, the effect of bile salts on proteomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 4549 and its bile-resistant derivative B. animalis subsp. lactis 4549dOx was analyzed, leading to the identification of proteins which may represent the targets of bile salt response and adaptation in B. animalis subsp. lactis. The comparison of the wild-type and the bile-resistant strain responses allowed us to hypothesize about the resistance mechanisms acquired by the derivative resistant strain and about the bile salt response in B. animalis subsp. lactis. In addition, significant differences in the levels of metabolic end products of the bifid shunt and in the redox status of the cells were also detected, which correlate with some differences observed between the proteomes. These results indicate that adaptation and response to bile in B. animalis subsp. lactis involve several physiological mechanisms that are jointly dedicated to reduce the deleterious impact of bile on the cell's physiology.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18539806
A DNA microarray platform based on 2,200 genes from publicly available sequences was designed for Streptococcus thermophilus. We determined how single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the 65- to 75-mer oligonucleotide probe sequences affect the hybridization signals. The microarrays were then used for comparative genome hybridization (CGH) of 47 dairy S. thermophilus strains. An analysis of the exopolysaccharide genes in each strain confirmed previous findings that this class of genes is indeed highly variable. A phylogenetic tree based on the CGH data showed similar distances for most strains, indicating frequent recombination or gene transfer within S. thermophilus. By comparing genome sizes estimated from the microarrays and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, the amount of unknown DNA in each strain was estimated. A core genome comprised of 1,271 genes detected in all 47 strains was identified. Likewise, a set of noncore genes detected in only some strains was identified. The concept of an industrial core genome is proposed. This is comprised of the genes in the core genome plus genes that are necessary in an applied industrial context.
Hemoglobin Cleavage Site-specificity of the Plasmodium Falciparum Cysteine Proteases Falcipain-2 and Falcipain-3
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19357776
The Plasmodium falciparum cysteine proteases falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 degrade host hemoglobin to provide free amino acids for parasite protein synthesis. Hemoglobin hydrolysis has been described as an ordered process initiated by aspartic proteases, but cysteine protease inhibitors completely block the process, suggesting that cysteine proteases can also initiate hemoglobin hydrolysis. To characterize the specific roles of falcipains, we used three approaches. First, using random P(1) - P(4) amino acid substrate libraries, falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 demonstrated strong preference for cleavage sites with Leu at the P(2) position. Second, with overlapping peptides spanning alpha and beta globin and proteolysis-dependent (18)O labeling, hydrolysis was seen at many cleavage sites. Third, with intact hemoglobin, numerous cleavage products were identified. Our results suggest that hemoglobin hydrolysis by malaria parasites is not a highly ordered process, but rather proceeds with rapid cleavage by falcipains at multiple sites. However, falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 show strong specificity for P(2) Leu in small peptide substrates, in agreement with the specificity in optimized small molecule inhibitors that was identified previously. These results are consistent with a principal role of falcipain-2 and falcipain-3 in the hydrolysis of hemoglobin by P. falciparum and with the possibility of developing small molecule inhibitors with optimized specificity as antimalarial agents.
7SK SnRNP/P-TEFb Couples Transcription Elongation with Alternative Splicing and is Essential for Vertebrate Development
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19416841
Eukaryotic gene expression is commonly controlled at the level of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) pausing subsequent to transcription initiation. Transcription elongation is stimulated by the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) kinase, which is suppressed within the 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (7SK snRNP). However, the biogenesis and functional significance of 7SK snRNP remain poorly understood. Here, we report that LARP7, BCDIN3, and the noncoding 7SK small nuclear RNA (7SK) are vital for the formation and stability of a cell stress-resistant core 7SK snRNP. Our functional studies demonstrate that 7SK snRNP is not only critical for controlling transcription elongation, but also for regulating alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. Using a transient expression splicing assay, we find that 7SK snRNP disintegration promotes inclusion of an alternative exon via the increased occupancy of P-TEFb, Ser2-phosphorylated (Ser2-P) RNAPII, and the splicing factor SF2/ASF at the minigene. Importantly, knockdown of larp7 or bcdin3 orthologues in zebrafish embryos destabilizes 7SK and causes severe developmental defects and aberrant splicing of analyzed transcripts. These findings reveal a key role for P-TEFb in coupling transcription elongation with alternative splicing, and suggest that maintaining core 7SK snRNP is essential for vertebrate development.
Multi-site Assessment of the Precision and Reproducibility of Multiple Reaction Monitoring-based Measurements of Proteins in Plasma
Nature Biotechnology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19561596
Verification of candidate biomarkers relies upon specific, quantitative assays optimized for selective detection of target proteins, and is increasingly viewed as a critical step in the discovery pipeline that bridges unbiased biomarker discovery to preclinical validation. Although individual laboratories have demonstrated that multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) coupled with isotope dilution mass spectrometry can quantify candidate protein biomarkers in plasma, reproducibility and transferability of these assays between laboratories have not been demonstrated. We describe a multilaboratory study to assess reproducibility, recovery, linear dynamic range and limits of detection and quantification of multiplexed, MRM-based assays, conducted by NCI-CPTAC. Using common materials and standardized protocols, we demonstrate that these assays can be highly reproducible within and across laboratories and instrument platforms, and are sensitive to low mug/ml protein concentrations in unfractionated plasma. We provide data and benchmarks against which individual laboratories can compare their performance and evaluate new technologies for biomarker verification in plasma.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19759027
A proteomic analysis of proteins bound to the osteocalcin OSE2 sequence of the mouse osteocalcin promoter identified TRPS1 as a regulator of osteocalcin transcription. Mutations in the TRPS1 gene are responsible for human tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome, which is characterized by skeletal and craniofacial abnormalities. TRPS1 has been shown to bind regulatory promoter sequences containing GATA consensus binding sites and to repress transcription of genes involved in chondrocyte differentiation. Here we show that TRPS1 can directly bind the osteocalcin promoter in the presence or absence of Runx2. TRPS1 binds through a GATA binding sequence in the proximal promoter of the osteocalcin gene. The GATA binding site is conserved in mice, humans, and rats, although its location and orientation are not. Mutation of the mouse or human GATA binding sequence abrogates binding of TRPS1 to the osteocalcin promoter. We show that TRPS1 is expressed in osteosarcoma cells and upon induction of osteoblast differentiation in primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells and that TRPS1 regulates the expression of osteocalcin in both cell types. The expression of TRPS1 modulates mineralized bone matrix formation in differentiating osteoblast cells. These data suggest a role for TRPS1 in osteoblast differentiation, in addition to its previously described role in chondrogenesis.
Clinical Chemistry. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19959616
Cancer has profound effects on gene expression, including a cell's glycosylation machinery. Thus, tumors produce glycoproteins that carry oligosaccharides with structures that are markedly different from the same protein produced by a normal cell. A single protein can have many glycosylation sites that greatly amplify the signals they generate compared with their protein backbones.
Complete Genome Sequence of Bifidobacterium Animalis Subsp. Lactis BB-12, a Widely Consumed Probiotic Strain
Journal of Bacteriology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20190051
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 is a commercially available probiotic strain used throughout the world in a variety of functional foods and dietary supplements. The benefits of BB-12 have been documented in a number of independent clinical trials. Determination of the complete genome sequence reveals a single circular chromosome of 1,942,198 bp with 1,642 predicted protein-encoding genes, 4 rRNA operons, and 52 tRNA genes. Knowledge of this sequence will lead to insight into the specific features which give this strain its probiotic properties.
Utilizing the O-antigen Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Pathway in Escherichia Coli to Interrogate the Substrate Specificities of Exogenous Glycosyltransferase Genes in a Combinatorial Approach
Glycobiology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20208062
In previous work, our laboratory generated novel chimeric lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing exogenous lipooligosaccharide synthesis genes (lsg) from Haemophilus influenzae. Analysis of these novel oligosaccharide-LPS chimeras allowed characterization of the carbohydrate structures generated by several putative glycosyltransferase genes within the lsg locus. Here, we adapted this strategy to construct a modular approach to study the synthetic properties of individual glycosyltransferases expressed alone and in combinations. To this end, a set of expression vectors containing one to four putative glycosyltransferase genes from the lsg locus, lsgC-F, were transformed into E. coli K12 (XL-1) which is defective in LPS O-antigen biosynthesis. This strategy relied on the inclusion of the H. influenzae gene product lsgG in every plasmid construct, which partially rescues the E. coli LPS biosynthesis defect by priming uridine diphosphate-undecaprenyl in the WecA-dependent O-antigen synthetic pathway with N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc). This GlcNAc-undecaprenyl then served as an acceptor substrate for further carbohydrate extension by transformed glycosyltransferases. The resultant LPS-linked chimeric glycans were isolated from their E. coli constructs and characterized by mass spectrometry, methylation analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. These structural data allowed the specificity of various glycosyltransferases to be unambiguously assigned to individual genes. LsgF was found to transfer a galactose (Gal) to terminal GlcNAc. LsgE was found to transfer GlcNAc to Gal-GlcNAc, and both LsgF and LsgD were found to transfer Gal to GlcNAc-Gal-GlcNAc but with differing linkage specificities. This method can be generalized and readily adapted to study the substrate specificity of other putative or uncharacterized glycosyltransferases.
A Lectin Affinity Workflow Targeting Glycosite-specific, Cancer-related Carbohydrate Structures in Trypsin-digested Human Plasma
Analytical Biochemistry. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20705048
Glycans are cell-type-specific, posttranslational protein modifications that are modulated during developmental and disease processes. As such, glycoproteins are attractive biomarker candidates. Here, we describe a mass spectrometry-based workflow that incorporates lectin affinity chromatography to enrich for proteins that carry specific glycan structures. As increases in sialylation and fucosylation are prominent among cancer-associated modifications, we focused on Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) and Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL), lectins which bind sialic acid- and fucose-containing structures, respectively. Fucosylated and sialylated glycopeptides from human lactoferrin served as positive controls, and high-mannose structures from yeast invertase served as negative controls. The standards were spiked into Multiple Affinity Removal System (MARS) 14-depleted, trypsin-digested human plasma from healthy donors. Samples were loaded onto lectin columns, separated by HPLC into flow-through and bound fractions, and treated with peptide: N-glycosidase F to remove N-linked glycans. The deglycosylated peptide fractions were interrogated by ESI HPLC-MS/MS. We identified a total of 122 human plasma glycoproteins containing 247 unique glycosites. Importantly, several of the observed glycoproteins (e.g., cadherin 5 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin) typically circulate in plasma at low nanogram per milliliter levels. Together, these results provide mass spectrometry-based evidence of the utility of incorporating lectin-separation platforms into cancer biomarker discovery pipelines.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21335393
Second-generation genome sequencing and alignment of the resulting reads to in silico genomes containing antimicrobial resistance and virulence factor genes were used to screen for undesirable genes in 28 strains which could be used in human nutrition. No virulence factor genes were detected, while several isolates contained antimicrobial resistance genes.
The Cyclin K/Cdk12 Complex Maintains Genomic Stability Via Regulation of Expression of DNA Damage Response Genes
Genes & Development. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22012619
Various cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) complexes have been implicated in the regulation of transcription. In this study, we identified a 70-kDa Cyclin K (CycK) that binds Cdk12 and Cdk13 to form two different complexes (CycK/Cdk12 or CycK/Cdk13) in human cells. The CycK/Cdk12 complex regulates phosphorylation of Ser2 in the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and expression of a small subset of human genes, as revealed in expression microarrays. Depletion of CycK/Cdk12 results in decreased expression of predominantly long genes with high numbers of exons. The most prominent group of down-regulated genes are the DNA damage response genes, including the critical regulators of genomic stability: BRCA1 (breast and ovarian cancer type 1 susceptibility protein 1), ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related), FANCI, and FANCD2. We show that CycK/Cdk12, rather than CycK/Cdk13, is necessary for their expression. Nuclear run-on assays and chromatin immunoprecipitations with RNA polymerase II on the BRCA1 and FANCI genes suggest a transcriptional defect in the absence of CycK/Cdk12. Consistent with these findings, cells without CycK/Cdk12 induce spontaneous DNA damage and are sensitive to a variety of DNA damage agents. We conclude that through regulation of expression of DNA damage response genes, CycK/Cdk12 protects cells from genomic instability. The essential role of CycK for organisms in vivo is further supported by the result that genetic inactivation of CycK in mice causes early embryonic lethality.
A Lectin Chromatography/mass Spectrometry Discovery Workflow Identifies Putative Biomarkers of Aggressive Breast Cancers
Journal of Proteome Research. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22309216
We used a lectin chromatography/MS-based approach to screen conditioned medium from a panel of luminal (less aggressive) and triple negative (more aggressive) breast cancer cell lines (n = 5/subtype). The samples were fractionated using the lectins Aleuria aurantia (AAL) and Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), which recognize fucose and sialic acid, respectively. The bound fractions were enzymatically N-deglycosylated and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. In total, we identified 533 glycoproteins, ~90% of which were components of the cell surface or extracellular matrix. We observed 1011 unique glycosites, 100 of which were solely detected in ≥3 triple negative lines. Statistical analyses suggested that a number of these glycosites were triple negative-specific and thus potential biomarkers for this tumor subtype. An analysis of RNAseq data revealed that approximately half of the mRNAs encoding the protein scaffolds that carried potential biomarker glycosites were upregulated in triple negative vs. luminal cell lines, and that a number of genes encoding fucosyl- or sialyltransferases were differentially expressed between the two subtypes, suggesting that alterations in glycosylation may also drive candidate identification. Notably, the glycoproteins from which these putative biomarker candidates were derived are involved in cancer-related processes. Thus, they may represent novel therapeutic targets for this aggressive tumor subtype.