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In JoVE (1)
- व्यक्तिगत Zebrafish भ्रूण में न्यूरॉन्स और तंत्रिका शिखा कोशिकाओं के सेल गतिशीलता और actin cytoskeleton के लाइव इमेजिंग
Other Publications (3)
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Articles by Erica Andersen in JoVE
व्यक्तिगत Zebrafish भ्रूण में न्यूरॉन्स और तंत्रिका शिखा कोशिकाओं के सेल गतिशीलता और actin cytoskeleton के लाइव इमेजिंग
Erica Andersen1,2,3, Namrata Asuri1,2,3, Matthew Clay2,3,4, Mary Halloran1,2,3,4
1Genetics Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Department of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Cell and Molecular Biology Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison
इस प्रोटोकॉल zebrafish भ्रूण में रहने वाले व्यक्ति या न्यूरॉन्स के तंत्रिका शिखा कोशिकाओं की इमेजिंग का वर्णन करता है. इस विधि के सेलुलर व्यवहार और actin स्थानीयकरण प्रतिदीप्ति confocal माइक्रोस्कोपी समय चूक का उपयोग की जांच करने के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है.
Other articles by Erica Andersen on PubMed
Subunit Contributions to Histone Methyltransferase Activities of Fly and Worm Polycomb Group Complexes
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16055700
The ESC-E(Z) complex of Drosophila melanogaster Polycomb group (PcG) repressors is a histone H3 methyltransferase (HMTase). This complex silences fly Hox genes, and related HMTases control germ line development in worms, flowering in plants, and X inactivation in mammals. The fly complex contains a catalytic SET domain subunit, E(Z), plus three noncatalytic subunits, SU(Z)12, ESC, and NURF-55. The four-subunit complex is >1,000-fold more active than E(Z) alone. Here we show that ESC and SU(Z)12 play key roles in potentiating E(Z) HMTase activity. We also show that loss of ESC disrupts global methylation of histone H3-lysine 27 in fly embryos. Subunit mutations identify domains required for catalytic activity and/or binding to specific partners. We describe missense mutations in surface loops of ESC, in the CXC domain of E(Z), and in the conserved VEFS domain of SU(Z)12, which each disrupt HMTase activity but preserve complex assembly. Thus, the E(Z) SET domain requires multiple partner inputs to produce active HMTase. We also find that a recombinant worm complex containing the E(Z) homolog, MES-2, has robust HMTase activity, which depends upon both MES-6, an ESC homolog, and MES-3, a pioneer protein. Thus, although the fly and mammalian PcG complexes absolutely require SU(Z)12, the worm complex generates HMTase activity from a distinct partner set.
Alternative ESC and ESC-like Subunits of a Polycomb Group Histone Methyltransferase Complex Are Differentially Deployed During Drosophila Development
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16537908
The Extra sex combs (ESC) protein is a Polycomb group (PcG) repressor that is a key noncatalytic subunit in the ESC-Enhancer of zeste [E(Z)] histone methyltransferase complex. Survival of esc homozygotes to adulthood based solely on maternal product and peak ESC expression during embryonic stages indicate that ESC is most critical during early development. In contrast, two other PcG repressors in the same complex, E(Z) and Suppressor of zeste-12 [SU(Z)12], are required throughout development for viability and Hox gene repression. Here we describe a novel fly PcG repressor, called ESC-Like (ESCL), whose biochemical, molecular, and genetic properties can explain the long-standing paradox of ESC dispensability during postembryonic times. Developmental Western blots show that ESCL, which is 60% identical to ESC, is expressed with peak abundance during postembryonic stages. Recombinant complexes containing ESCL in place of ESC can methylate histone H3 with activity levels, and lysine specificity for K27, similar to that of the ESC-containing complex. Coimmunoprecipitations show that ESCL associates with E(Z) in postembryonic cells and chromatin immunoprecipitations show that ESCL tracks closely with E(Z) on Ubx regulatory DNA in wing discs. Furthermore, reduced escl+ dosage enhances esc loss-of-function phenotypes and double RNA interference knockdown of ESC/ESCL in wing disc-derived cells causes Ubx derepression. These results suggest that ESCL and ESC have similar functions in E(Z) methyltransferase complexes but are differentially deployed as development proceeds.
In Vivo Imaging of Cell Behaviors and F-actin Reveals LIM-HD Transcription Factor Regulation of Peripheral Versus Central Sensory Axon Development
Neural Development. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21619654
Development of specific neuronal morphology requires precise control over cell motility processes, including axon formation, outgrowth and branching. Dynamic remodeling of the filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton is critical for these processes; however, little is known about the mechanisms controlling motile axon behaviors and F-actin dynamics in vivo. Neuronal structure is specified in part by intrinsic transcription factor activity, yet the molecular and cellular steps between transcription and axon behavior are not well understood. Zebrafish Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons have a unique morphology, with central axons that extend in the spinal cord and a peripheral axon that innervates the skin. LIM homeodomain (LIM-HD) transcription factor activity is required for formation of peripheral RB axons. To understand how neuronal morphogenesis is controlled in vivo and how LIM-HD transcription factor activity differentially regulates peripheral versus central axons, we used live imaging of axon behavior and F-actin distribution in vivo.