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In JoVE (1)
- Томатный Analyzer: Полезные Прикладное программное обеспечение для сбора точной и подробной Морфологические и колориметрических данных из двумерных объектов
Other Publications (19)
- Plant Physiology
- Plant Physiology
- Journal of Experimental Botany
- Journal of Experimental Botany
- BMC Genomics
- TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- BMC Plant Biology
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- BMC Genomics
- The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology
- BMC Bioinformatics
- Sexual Plant Reproduction
- Journal of Experimental Botany
- BMC Evolutionary Biology
- Plant Physiology
- TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik
- The Plant Cell
- Plant Physiology
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Articles by Esther van der Knaap in JoVE
Томатный Analyzer: Полезные Прикладное программное обеспечение для сбора точной и подробной Морфологические и колориметрических данных из двумерных объектов
Gustavo R. Rodríguez, Jennifer B. Moyseenko, Matthew D. Robbins, Nancy Huarachi Morejón, David M. Francis, Esther van der Knaap
Department of Horticulture and Crop Science, The Ohio State University
Томатный Analyzer (ТА) количественные признаки двумерные формы и цвета в воспроизводимым и точным образом. Шаг за шагом процедуры получения высокого качества изображения оцифрованы томатного фрукты, морфологические и цвет анализ этих образов и несколько приложений, использующих данные, получаемые от этого программного обеспечения описаны.
Other articles by Esther van der Knaap on PubMed
Development of a Controlled Vocabulary and Software Application to Analyze Fruit Shape Variation in Tomato and Other Plant Species
Plant Physiology. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16684933
The domestication and improvement of fruit-bearing crops resulted in a large diversity of fruit form. To facilitate consistent terminology pertaining to shape, a controlled vocabulary focusing specifically on fruit shape traits was developed. Mathematical equations were established for the attributes so that objective, quantitative measurements of fruit shape could be conducted. The controlled vocabulary and equations were integrated into a newly developed software application, Tomato Analyzer, which conducts semiautomatic phenotypic measurements. To demonstrate the utility of Tomato Analyzer in the detection of shape variation, fruit from two F2 populations of tomato (Solanum spp.) were analyzed. Principal components analysis was used to identify the traits that best described shape variation within as well as between the two populations. The three principal components were analyzed as traits, and several significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified in both populations. The usefulness and flexibility of the software was further demonstrated by analyzing the distal fruit end angle of fruit at various user-defined settings. Results of the QTL analyses indicated that significance levels of detected QTL were greatly improved by selecting the setting that maximized phenotypic variation in a given population. Tomato Analyzer was also applied to conduct phenotypic analyses of fruit from several other species, demonstrating that many of the algorithms developed for tomato could be readily applied to other plants. The controlled vocabulary, algorithms, and software application presented herein will provide plant scientists with novel tools to consistently, accurately, and efficiently describe two-dimensional fruit shapes.
A Phytophthora Infestans Cystatin-like Protein Targets a Novel Tomato Papain-like Apoplastic Protease
Plant Physiology. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17085509
There is emerging evidence that the proteolytic machinery of plants plays important roles in defense against pathogens. The oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, the agent of the devastating late blight disease of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum), has evolved an arsenal of protease inhibitors to overcome the action of host proteases. Previously, we described a family of 14 Kazal-like extracellular serine protease inhibitors from P. infestans. Among these, EPI1 and EPI10 bind and inhibit the pathogenesis-related (PR) P69B subtilisin-like serine protease of tomato. Here, we describe EPIC1 to EPIC4, a new family of P. infestans secreted proteins with similarity to cystatin-like protease inhibitor domains. Among these, the epiC1 and epiC2 genes lacked orthologs in Phytophthora sojae and Phytophthora ramorum, were relatively fast-evolving within P. infestans, and were up-regulated during infection of tomato, suggesting a role during P. infestans-host interactions. Biochemical functional analyses revealed that EPIC2B interacts with and inhibits a novel papain-like extracellular cysteine protease, termed Phytophthora Inhibited Protease 1 (PIP1). Characterization of PIP1 revealed that it is a PR protein closely related to Rcr3, a tomato apoplastic cysteine protease that functions in fungal resistance. Altogether, this and earlier studies suggest that interplay between host proteases of diverse catalytic families and pathogen inhibitors is a general defense-counterdefense process in plant-pathogen interactions.
Morphological Variation in Tomato: a Comprehensive Study of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Fruit Shape and Development
Journal of Experimental Botany. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17283371
Variation in fruit morphology is a prevalent characteristic among cultivated tomato. The genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying similarities and differences in shape between the fruit of two elongated tomato varieties were investigated. Fruit from two F2 populations constructed from either Solanum lycopersicum cv. Howard German or cv. Banana Legs crossed with S. pimpinellifolium accession LA1589, and one BC1 population constructed with S. lycopersicum Howard German as the recurrent parent, were analysed for shape by using a new software program Tomato Analyzer. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling 15 individual shape attributes were mapped by both single and multitrait composite interval mapping in each population. In addition, principal components analysis and canonical discriminant analysis were conducted on these shape attributes to determine the greatest sources of variation among and between the populations. Individual principal components and canonical variates were subjected to QTL analysis to map regions of the genome influencing fruit shape in the cultivars. Common and unique regions, as well as previously known and novel QTLs, underlying fruit morphology in tomato were identified. Four major loci were found to control multiple fruit shape traits, principal components, and canonical variates in the populations. In addition, QTLs associated with the principal components better revealed regions of the genome that varied among populations than did the QTL associated with canonical variates. The QTL identified can be compared across additional populations of tomato and other fruit-bearing crop species.
Journal of Experimental Botany. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18037678
Tomato and pepper are two Solanaceous fruit crops that display an enormous diversity in fruit morphology. In this review, we will present an overview of the history of tomato and pepper and discuss key plant traits that were specifically selected during domestication of the two species. The traits discussed are fruit weight, shape, colour, ripening, pungency and plant architecture. We will review these characteristics as well as the genetic loci or genes that control these features, questioning whether mutations at orthologous loci occurred independently in these two species or whether unique plant and fruit features resulted in selection at different genes.
BMC Genomics. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18088428
Tomato has excellent genetic and genomic resources including a broad set of Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data and high-density genetic maps. In addition, emerging physical maps and bacterial artificial clone sequence data serve as template to investigate genetic variation within the cultivated germplasm pool with the goal to manipulate agriculturally important traits. Unfortunately, the nearly exclusive focus of resource development on interspecific populations for genetic analyses and diversity studies has left a void in our understanding of genotypic variation within tomato breeding programs that focus on intra-specific populations. We describe the results of a study to identify nucleotide variation within tomato breeding germplasm and mapping parents for a set of conserved single-copy ESTs that are orthologous between tomato and Arabidopsis.
A Comparative Analysis into the Genetic Bases of Morphology in Tomato Varieties Exhibiting Elongated Fruit Shape
TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18185917
Fruit shape is a quantitatively inherited character. In tomato, two major loci, sun and ovate, control fruit shape index, which is the ratio of fruit height over width. In this study, we measured many additional fruit shape features in three inter-specific F2 populations using the software application Tomato Analyzer. These populations were derived from varieties carrying elongated fruit but for which the major shape loci differed. We compared the effect of the major fruit shape loci with overall shape, as well as with the distal and proximal end shape features in each population. sun and ovate represented the largest effect on fruit shape in the Howard German and Sausage F2 populations, respectively. The largest effect QTL in the Rio Grande population carrying neither sun nor ovate, were fs8.1 on chromosome 8 and tri2.1/dblk2.1 on chromosome 2. These latter loci were also segregating in the other two populations, thus indicating common regions that control shape across the three populations. The phenotypic analyses showed that sun and ovate contributed to almost all aspects of shape such as the distal and proximal end features. In Rio Grande however, the largest effect QTL did not control all aspects of shape and the distal and proximal features were distinctly controlled in that population. Combined, our results implied that within the cultivated tomato germplasm pool the largest effect on elongated fruit shape was controlled by a combination of the loci sun, ovate, fs8.1 and tri2.1/dblk2.1.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18339939
Edible fruits, such as that of the tomato plant and other vegetable crops, are markedly diverse in shape and size. SUN, one of the major genes controlling the elongated fruit shape of tomato, was positionally cloned and found to encode a member of the IQ67 domain-containing family. We show that the locus arose as a result of an unusual 24.7-kilobase gene duplication event mediated by the long terminal repeat retrotransposon Rider. This event resulted in a new genomic context that increased SUN expression relative to that of the ancestral copy, culminating in an elongated fruit shape. Our discovery demonstrates that retrotransposons may be a major driving force in genome evolution and gene duplication, resulting in phenotypic change in plants.
Integration of Tomato Reproductive Developmental Landmarks and Expression Profiles, and the Effect of SUN on Fruit Shape
BMC Plant Biology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19422692
Universally accepted landmark stages are necessary to highlight key events in plant reproductive development and to facilitate comparisons among species. Domestication and selection of tomato resulted in many varieties that differ in fruit shape and size. This diversity is useful to unravel underlying molecular and developmental mechanisms that control organ morphology and patterning. The tomato fruit shape gene SUN controls fruit elongation. The most dramatic effect of SUN on fruit shape occurs after pollination and fertilization although a detailed investigation into the timing of the fruit shape change as well as gene expression profiles during critical developmental stages has not been conducted.
Genome Organization of the Tomato Sun Locus and Characterization of the Unusual Retrotransposon Rider
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19508380
DNA sequences provide useful insights into genome structure and organization as well as evolution of species. We report on a detailed analysis of the locus surrounding the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit-shape gene SUN to determine the driving force and genome environment that foster the appearance of novel phenotypes. The gene density at the sun locus is similar to that described in other euchromatic portions of the tomato genome despite the relatively high number of transposable elements. Genes at the sun locus include protein-coding as well as RNA genes, are small in size, and belong to families that were duplicated at the locus an estimated 5-74 million years ago. In general, the DNA transposons at the sun locus are older than the RNA transposons, and their insertion pre-dates the speciation of S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Gene redundancy and large intergenic regions may explain the tolerance of the sun locus to frequent rearrangements and transpositions. The most recent transposition event at the sun locus involved Rider, a recently discovered high-copy retrotransposon. Rider probably arose early during the speciation of tomato. The element inserts into or near to genes and may still be active, which are unusual features for a high-copy element. Rider full-length and read-through transcripts past the typical transcription termination stop are detected, and the latter are required for mobilizing nearby sequences. Rider activity has resulted in an altered phenotype in three known cases, and may therefore have played an important role in tomato evolution and domestication.
BMC Genomics. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19943965
Detailed comparative genome analyses within the economically important Rosaceae family have not been conducted. This is largely due to the lack of conserved gene-based molecular markers that are transferable among the important crop genera within the family [e.g. Malus (apple), Fragaria (strawberry), and Prunus (peach, cherry, apricot and almond)]. The lack of molecular markers and comparative whole genome sequence analysis for this family severely hampers crop improvement efforts as well as QTL confirmation and validation studies.
Multiple Features That Distinguish Unilateral Incongruity and Self-incompatibility in the Tomato Clade
The Plant Journal : for Cell and Molecular Biology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20804455
Wild tomato species in Solanum Section Lycopersicon often exhibit two types of reproductive barriers: self-incompatibility (SI) and unilateral incompatibility or incongruity (UI), wherein the success of an inter-specific cross depends on the direction of the cross. UI pollen rejection often follows the 'SI × SC' rule, i.e. pistils of SI species reject the pollen of SC (self-compatible) species but not vice versa, suggesting that the SI and UI pollen rejection mechanisms may overlap. In order to address this question, pollen tube growth was measured after inter-specific crosses using wild tomato species as the female parents and pollen from cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Two modes of UI pollen rejection, early and late, were observed, and both differed from SI pollen rejection. The structure and expression of known stylar SI genes were evaluated. We found that S-RNase expression is not required for either the early or late mode of UI pollen rejection. However, two HT family genes, HT-A and HT-B, map to a UI QTL. Surprisingly, we found that a gene previously implicated in SI, HT-B, is mutated in both SI and SC S. habrochaites accessions, and no HT-B protein could be detected. HT-A genes were detected and expressed in all species examined, and may therefore function in both SI and UI. We conclude that there are significant differences between SI and UI in the tomato clade, in that pollen tube growth differs between these two rejection systems, and some stylar SI factors, including S-RNase and HT-B, are not required for UI.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20964836
A common approach to understanding the genetic basis of complex traits is through identification of associated quantitative trait loci (QTL). Fine mapping QTLs requires several generations of backcrosses and analysis of large populations, which is time-consuming and costly effort. Furthermore, as entire genomes are being sequenced and an increasing amount of genetic and expression data are being generated, a challenge remains: linking phenotypic variation to the underlying genomic variation. To identify candidate genes and understand the molecular basis underlying the phenotypic variation of traits, bioinformatic approaches are needed to exploit information such as genetic map, expression and whole genome sequence data of organisms in biological databases.
Interspecific Reproductive Barriers in the Tomato Clade: Opportunities to Decipher Mechanisms of Reproductive Isolation
Sexual Plant Reproduction. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21076968
The tomato clade within the genus Solanum has numerous advantages for mechanistic studies of reproductive isolation. Its thirteen closely related species, along with four closely allied Solanum species, provide a defined group with diverse mating systems that display complex interspecific reproductive barriers. Several kinds of pre- and postzygotic barriers have already been identified within this clade. Well-developed genetic maps, introgression lines, interspecific bridging lines, and the newly available draft genome sequence of the domesticated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are valuable tools for the genetic analysis of interspecific reproductive barriers. The excellent chromosome morphology of these diploid species allows detailed cytological analysis of interspecific hybrids. Transgenic methodologies, well developed in the Solanaceae, allow the functional testing of candidate reproductive barrier genes as well as live imaging of pollen rejection events through the use of fluorescently tagged proteins. Proteomic and transcriptomics approaches are also providing new insights into the molecular nature of interspecific barriers. Recent progress toward understanding reproductive isolation mechanisms using these molecular and genetic tools is assessed in this review.
Mapping and Linkage Disequilibrium Analysis with a Genome-wide Collection of SNPs That Detect Polymorphism in Cultivated Tomato
Journal of Experimental Botany. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21193580
The history of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) improvement includes genetic bottlenecks, wild species introgressions, and divergence into distinct market classes. This history makes tomato an excellent model to investigate the effects of selection on genome variation. A combination of linkage mapping in two F(2) populations and physical mapping with emerging genome sequence data was used to position 434 PCR-based markers including SNPs. Three-hundred-and-forty markers were used to genotype 102 tomato lines representing wild species, landraces, vintage cultivars, and contemporary (fresh market and processing) varieties. Principal component analysis confirmed genetic divergence between market classes of cultivated tomato (P <0.0001). A genome-wide survey indicated that linkage disequilibrium (LD) decays over 6-8 cM when all cultivated tomatoes, including vintage and contemporary, were considered together. Within contemporary processing varieties, LD decayed over 6-14 cM, and decay was over 3-16 cM within fresh market varieties. Significant inter-chromosomal (gametic phase) LD was detected in both fresh market and processing varieties between chromosomes 2 and 3, and 2 and 4, but in distinct chromosomal locations for each market class. Additional LD was detected between chromosomes 3 and 4, 3 and 11, and 4 and 6 in fresh market varieties and chromosomes 3 and 12 in processing varieties. These results suggest that breeding practices for market specialization in tomato have led to a genetic divergence between fresh market and processing types.
Comparative Analysis of Rosaceous Genomes and the Reconstruction of a Putative Ancestral Genome for the Family
BMC Evolutionary Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21226921
Comparative genome mapping studies in Rosaceae have been conducted until now by aligning genetic maps within the same genus, or closely related genera and using a limited number of common markers. The growing body of genomics resources and sequence data for both Prunus and Fragaria permits detailed comparisons between these genera and the recently released Malus × domestica genome sequence.
Distribution of SUN, OVATE, LC, and FAS in the Tomato Germplasm and the Relationship to Fruit Shape Diversity
Plant Physiology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21441384
Phenotypic diversity within cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is particularly evident for fruit shape and size. Four genes that control tomato fruit shape have been cloned. SUN and OVATE control elongated shape whereas FASCIATED (FAS) and LOCULE NUMBER (LC) control fruit locule number and flat shape. We investigated the distribution of the fruit shape alleles in the tomato germplasm and evaluated their contribution to morphology in a diverse collection of 368 predominantly tomato and tomato var. cerasiforme accessions. Fruits were visually classified into eight shape categories that were supported by objective measurements obtained from image analysis using the Tomato Analyzer software. The allele distribution of SUN, OVATE, LC, and FAS in all accessions was strongly associated with fruit shape classification. We also genotyped 116 representative accessions with additional 25 markers distributed evenly across the genome. Through a model-based clustering we demonstrated that shape categories, germplasm classes, and the shape genes were nonrandomly distributed among five genetic clusters (P < 0.001), implying that selection for fruit shape genes was critical to subpopulation differentiation within cultivated tomato. Our data suggested that the LC, FAS, and SUN mutations arose in the same ancestral population while the OVATE mutation arose in a separate lineage. Furthermore, LC, OVATE, and FAS mutations may have arisen prior to domestication or early during the selection of cultivated tomato whereas the SUN mutation appeared to be a postdomestication event arising in Europe.
TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische Und Angewandte Genetik. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21541852
Fruit weight is an important character in many crops. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), fruit weight is controlled by many loci, some of which have a major effect on the trait. Fruit weight 11.3 (fw11.3) and fasciated (fas) have been mapped to the same region on chromosome 11. We sought to determine whether these loci represent alleles of the same or separate genes. We show that fas and fw11.3 are not allelic and instead represent separate genes. The fw11.3 locus was fine-mapped to a 149-kb region comprised of 22 predicted genes. Unlike most fruit weight loci, gene action at fw11.3 indicates that the mutant allele is partially dominant over the wild allele. We also investigate the nature of the genome rearrangement at the fas locus and demonstrate that the mutation is due to a 294-kb inversion disrupting the YABBY gene known to underlie the fas locus.
Function and Evolution of a MicroRNA That Regulates a Ca2+-ATPase and Triggers the Formation of Phased Small Interfering RNAs in Tomato Reproductive Growth
The Plant Cell. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21917547
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide variety of biological processes in most eukaryotes. We investigated the function and evolution of miR4376 in the family Solanaceae. We report that the 22-nucleotide miR4376 regulates the expression of an autoinhibited Ca(2+)-ATPase, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ACA10, which plays a critical role in tomato reproductive growth. Deep phylogenetic mapping suggested (1) an evolution course of MIR4376 loci and posttranscriptional processing of pre-miR4376 as a likely limiting step for the evolution of miR4376, (2) an independent phylogenetic origin of the miR4376 target site in ACA10 homologs, and (3) alternative splicing as a possible mechanism of eliminating such a target in some ACA10 homologs. Furthermore, miR4376 triggers the formation of phased small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from Sl ACA10 and its Solanum tuberosum homolog. Together, our data provide experimental evidence of miRNA-regulated expression of universally important Ca(2+)-ATPases. The miR4376-regulated expression of ACA10 itself, and possibly also the associated formation of phased siRNAs, may function as a novel layer of molecular mechanisms underlying tomato reproductive growth. Finally, our data suggest that the stochastic emergence of a miRNA-target gene combination involves multiple molecular events at the genomic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional levels that may vary drastically in even closely related species.
Plant Physiology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21921117
One of the major genes controlling the elongated fruit shape of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is SUN. In this study, we explored the roles of SUN in vegetative and reproductive development using near isogenic lines (NILs) that differ at the sun locus, and SUN overexpressors in both the wild species LA1589 (Solanum pimpinellifolium) and the cultivar Sun1642 background. Our results demonstrate that SUN controls tomato shape through redistribution of mass that is mediated by increased cell division in the longitudinal and decreased cell division in the transverse direction of the fruit. The expression of SUN is positively correlated with slender phenotypes in cotyledon, leaflet, and floral organs, an elongated ovary, and negatively correlated with seed weight. Overexpression of SUN leads to more extreme phenotypes than those shown in the NILs and include thinner leaf rachises and stems, twisted leaf rachises, increased serrations of the leaflets, and dramatically increased elongation at the proximal end of the ovary and fruit. In situ hybridizations of the NILs showed that SUN is expressed throughout the ovary and young fruit, particularly in the vascular tissues and placenta surface, and in the ovules and developing seed. The phenotypic effects resulting from high expression of SUN suggest that the gene is involved in several plant developmental processes.