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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (10)
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Nature Neuroscience
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Nature Methods
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
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Articles by Eugene V. Mosharov in JoVE
Liberação de dopamina no Individual Terminais Pré-Sinápticas visualizado com FFNs
Hui Zhang1,2, Niko G. Gubernator3,4, Minerva Yue1, Roland G. W. Staal1, Eugene V. Mosharov1, Daniela Pereira1, Vojtech Balsanek3, Paul A. Vadola3, Bipasha Mukherjee5, Robert H. Edwards5, David Sulzer1,2,6, Dalibor Sames3
1Departments of Neurology, Columbia University, 2Departments of Psychiatry and Pharmacology, Columbia University, 3Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, 4eMolecules, Inc., 5Departments of Neurology and Physiology, University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, 6Division of Molecular Therapeutics, New York Psychiatric Institute
Um novo meio de medir a neurotransmissão opticamente usando análogos de dopamina fluorescente.
Other articles by Eugene V. Mosharov on PubMed
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12843288
Alterations in the cytosolic pool directly affect neurotransmitter synthesis and release and are suggested to be key factors in various neurodegenerative disorders. Although this cytosolic pool is the most metabolically active, it is miniscule compared with the amount of vesicular transmitter and has never been quantified separately. Here, we introduce intracellular patch electrochemistry (IPE), a technique that for the first time provides direct measurements of cytosolic oxidizable molecules in single mammalian cells. In amperometric mode, IPE detects total catechols, whereas in cyclic voltammetric mode, it preferentially measures catecholamines. In cultured chromaffin cells, the total cytosolic catechol concentration was 50-500 microm, of which approximately 10% were catecholamines. Reserpine, a vesicular monoamine transporter inhibitor, had no effect on the catecholamine pool but increased total catechols by fourfold to fivefold. Combined with pargyline, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, reserpine increased catecholamine levels in the cytosol by approximately sixfold. Amphetamine induced a transient approximately fivefold accumulation of cytosolic catecholamines and a slow increase of total catechols. In cells incubated with 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), catecholamines increased by approximately 2.5-fold and total catechols increased by approximately fourfold. Cytosolic catecholamines returned to control levels
Nature Neuroscience. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14990933
A key question in understanding mechanisms of neurotransmitter release is whether the fusion pore of a synaptic vesicle regulates the amount of transmitter released during exocytosis. We measured dopamine release from small synaptic vesicles of rat cultured ventral midbrain neurons using carbon fiber amperometry. Our data indicate that small synaptic vesicle fusion pores flicker either once or multiple times in rapid succession, with each flicker releasing approximately 25-30% of vesicular dopamine. The incidence of events with multiple flickers was reciprocally regulated by phorbol esters and staurosporine. Thus, dopamine neurons regulate the amount of neurotransmitter released by small synaptic vesicles by controlling the number of fusion pore flickers per exocytotic event. This mode of exocytosis is a potential mechanism whereby neurons can rapidly reuse vesicles without undergoing the comparatively slow process of recycling.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16027221
Using a cell fusion assay, we show here that in addition to complete fusion SNAREs also promote hemifusion as an alternative outcome. Approximately 65% of events resulted in full fusion, and the remaining 35% in hemifusion; of those, approximately two thirds were permanent and approximately one third were reversible. We predict that this relatively close balance among outcomes could be tipped by binding of regulatory proteins to the SNAREs, allowing for dynamic physiological regulation between full fusion and reversible kiss-and-run-like events.
Nature Methods. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16118635
Amperometry is widely used to study exocytosis of neurotransmitters and hormones in various cell types. Analysis of the shape of the amperometric spikes that originate from the oxidation of monoamine molecules released during the fusion of individual secretory vesicles provides information about molecular steps involved in stimulation-dependent transmitter release. Here we present an overview of the methodology of amperometric signal processing, including (i) amperometric signal acquisition and filtering, (ii) detection of exocytotic events and determining spike shape characteristics, and (iii) data manipulation and statistical analysis. The purpose of this review is to provide practical guidelines for performing amperometric recordings of exocytotic activity and interpreting the results based on shape characteristics of individual release events.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16957086
Dysregulation of dopamine homeostasis and elevation of the cytosolic level of the transmitter have been suggested to underlie the vulnerability of catecholaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Because several known mutations in alpha-synuclein or overexpression of the wild-type (WT) protein causes familial forms of Parkinson's disease, we investigated possible links between alpha-synuclein pathogenesis and dopamine homeostasis. Chromaffin cells isolated from transgenic mice that overexpress A30P alpha-synuclein displayed significantly increased cytosolic catecholamine levels as measured by intracellular patch electrochemistry, whereas cells overexpressing the WT protein and those from knock-out animals were not different from controls. Likewise, catechol concentrations were higher in L-DOPA-treated PC12 cells overexpressing A30P or A53T compared with those expressing WT alpha-synuclein, although the ability of cells to maintain a low cytosolic dopamine level after L-DOPA challenge was markedly inhibited by either protein. We also found that incubation with low-micromolar concentrations of WT, A30P, or A53T alpha-synuclein inhibited ATP-dependent maintenance of pH gradients in isolated chromaffin vesicles and that the WT protein was significantly less potent in inducing the proton leakage. In summary, we demonstrate that overexpression of different types of alpha-synuclein disrupts vesicular pH and leads to a marked increase in the levels of cytosolic catechol species, an effect that may in turn trigger cellular oxyradical damage. Although multiple molecular mechanisms may be responsible for the perturbation of cytosolic catecholamine homeostasis, this study provides critical evidence about how alpha-synuclein might exert its cytotoxicity and selectively damage catecholaminergic cells.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18172548
Altered degradation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). We have shown that alpha-syn can be degraded via chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), a selective lysosomal mechanism for degradation of cytosolic proteins. Pathogenic mutants of alpha-syn block lysosomal translocation, impairing their own degradation along with that of other CMA substrates. While pathogenic alpha-syn mutations are rare, alpha-syn undergoes posttranslational modifications, which may underlie its accumulation in cytosolic aggregates in most forms of PD. Using mouse ventral medial neuron cultures, SH-SY5Y cells in culture, and isolated mouse lysosomes, we have found that most of these posttranslational modifications of alpha-syn impair degradation of this protein by CMA but do not affect degradation of other substrates. Dopamine-modified alpha-syn, however, is not only poorly degraded by CMA but also blocks degradation of other substrates by this pathway. As blockage of CMA increases cellular vulnerability to stressors, we propose that dopamine-induced autophagic inhibition could explain the selective degeneration of PD dopaminergic neurons.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18369956
Analysis of the shape of the amperometric spikes that originate from the oxidation of monoamine molecules released during the fusion of individual secretory vesicles provides valuable data about molecular steps involved in stimulation-dependent transmitter release. The sensitivity of amperometry permits the detection of the monoamines released from individual vesicles, giving information about intracellular transmitter homeostasis (synthesis, degradation, reuptake, etc.) and about the release probability (vesicle availability and sensitivity of fusion machinery to Ca(+2)). Furthermore, temporal resolution of amperometry allows for the observation of the real-time kinetics of monoamine release during exocytosis. Here, we provide algorithms for computerized analysis of the amperometric signal with emphasis on routines that confer consistent determination of spike parameters on recordings with different sampling rates, signal-to-noise levels, spike durations, and surrounding signal.
Secretory Vesicle Rebound Hyperacidification and Increased Quantal Size Resulting from Prolonged Methamphetamine Exposure
Journal of Neurochemistry. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19014382
Acute exposure to amphetamines (AMPHs) collapses secretory vesicle pH gradients, which increases cytosolic catecholamine levels while decreasing the quantal size of catecholamine release during fusion events. AMPH and methamphetamine (METH), however, are retained in tissues over long durations. We used optical and electron microscopic probes to measure the effects of long-term METH exposure on secretory vesicle pH, and amperometry and intracellular patch electrochemistry to observe the effects on neurosecretion and cytosolic catecholamines in cultured rat chromaffin cells. In contrast to acute METH effects, exposure to the drug for 6-48 h at 10 microM and higher concentrations produced a concentration-dependent rebound hyperacidification of secretory vesicles. At 5-10 microM levels, prolonged METH increased the quantal size and reinstated exocytotic catecholamine release, although very high (> 100 microM) levels of the drug, while continuing to produce rebound hyperacidification, did not increase quantal size. Secretory vesicle rebound hyperacidification was temperature dependent with optimal response at approximately 37 degrees C, was not blocked by the transcription inhibitor, puromycin, and appears to be a general compensatory response to prolonged exposure with membranophilic weak bases, including AMPHs, methylphenidate, cocaine, and ammonia. Thus, under some conditions of prolonged exposure, AMPHs and other weak bases can enhance, rather than deplete, the vesicular release of catecholamines via a compensatory response resulting in vesicle acidification.
Interplay Between Cytosolic Dopamine, Calcium, and Alpha-synuclein Causes Selective Death of Substantia Nigra Neurons
Neuron. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19409267
The basis for selective death of specific neuronal populations in neurodegenerative diseases remains unclear. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a synucleinopathy characterized by a preferential loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), whereas neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are spared. Using intracellular patch electrochemistry to directly measure cytosolic dopamine (DA(cyt)) in cultured midbrain neurons, we confirm that elevated DA(cyt) and its metabolites are neurotoxic and that genetic and pharmacological interventions that decrease DA(cyt) provide neuroprotection. L-DOPA increased DA(cyt) in SN neurons to levels 2- to 3-fold higher than in VTA neurons, a response dependent on dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca2+ channels, resulting in greater susceptibility of SN neurons to L-DOPA-induced neurotoxicity. DA(cyt) was not altered by alpha-synuclein deletion, although dopaminergic neurons lacking alpha-synuclein were resistant to L-DOPA-induced cell death. Thus, an interaction between Ca2+, DA(cyt), and alpha-synuclein may underlie the susceptibility of SN neurons in PD, suggesting multiple therapeutic targets.
Fluorescent False Neurotransmitters Visualize Dopamine Release from Individual Presynaptic Terminals
Science (New York, N.Y.). Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19423778
The nervous system transmits signals between neurons via neurotransmitter release during synaptic vesicle fusion. In order to observe neurotransmitter uptake and release from individual presynaptic terminals directly, we designed fluorescent false neurotransmitters as substrates for the synaptic vesicle monoamine transporter. Using these probes to image dopamine release in the striatum, we made several observations pertinent to synaptic plasticity. We found that the fraction of synaptic vesicles releasing neurotransmitter per stimulus was dependent on the stimulus frequency. A kinetically distinct "reserve" synaptic vesicle population was not observed under these experimental conditions. A frequency-dependent heterogeneity of presynaptic terminals was revealed that was dependent in part on D2 dopamine receptors, indicating a mechanism for frequency-dependent coding of presynaptic selection.