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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Eunice C. Chen in JoVE
Using a Pan-Viral Microarray Assay (Virochip) to Screen Clinical Samples for Viral Pathogens
Eunice C. Chen1, Steve A. Miller1, Joseph L. DeRisi1,2, Charles Y. Chiu1,2
1Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Francisco
The Virochip is a pan-viral microarray designed to simultaneously detect all known viruses as well as novel viruses on the basis of conserved sequence homology. Here we demonstrate how to run a Virochip assay to analyze clinical samples for the presence of both known and unknown viruses.
Other articles by Eunice C. Chen on PubMed
Emergency Radiology. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20111882
The goal of this study is to describe the spectrum of initial and follow-up CT findings of novel influenza A (H1N1) infection in a series of immunocompromised patients. Eight immunocompromised patients with documented novel influenza A (H1N1) had CT imaging at our institution between May 2009 and August 2009. A total of 20 CTs (initial and follow-up) were reviewed for the presence, severity, and distribution of the following: ground glass opacity, consolidation, interlobular septal thickening, mosaic perfusion, airway wall thickening, airway dilatation, nodules, cysts, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, lymphadenopathy, and air trapping. The most common findings were airway thickening/dilatation, peribronchial ground glass opacity, centrilobular nodules, and tree-in-bud opacities. Peripheral consolidation involving the lower lobes was also a common pattern. Findings frequently involved all lobes and were closely associated with either large or small airways. Two patients presented with atypical CT findings including focal lobar consolidation and patchy lower lobe consolidation with soft tissue centrilobular nodules. Most survivors showed near complete resolution of findings within 35 days. CT scans in immunocompromised patients with novel influenza H1N1 commonly show a strong airway predominance of findings or peripheral areas of consolidation involving the lower lobes. A subset of patients with novel influenza A (H1N1) will show findings not typical of viral infection.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20976137
Although metagenomics has been previously employed for pathogen discovery, its cost and complexity have prevented its use as a practical front-line diagnostic for unknown infectious diseases. Here we demonstrate the utility of two metagenomics-based strategies, a pan-viral microarray (Virochip) and deep sequencing, for the identification and characterization of 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza A virus. Using nasopharyngeal swabs collected during the earliest stages of the pandemic in Mexico, Canada, and the United States (n = 17), the Virochip was able to detect a novel virus most closely related to swine influenza viruses without a priori information. Deep sequencing yielded reads corresponding to 2009 H1N1 influenza in each sample (percentage of aligned sequences corresponding to 2009 H1N1 ranging from 0.0011% to 10.9%), with up to 97% coverage of the influenza genome in one sample. Detection of 2009 H1N1 by deep sequencing was possible even at titers near the limits of detection for specific RT-PCR, and the percentage of sequence reads was linearly correlated with virus titer. Deep sequencing also provided insights into the upper respiratory microbiota and host gene expression in response to 2009 H1N1 infection. An unbiased analysis combining sequence data from all 17 outbreak samples revealed that 90% of the 2009 H1N1 genome could be assembled de novo without the use of any reference sequence, including assembly of several near full-length genomic segments. These results indicate that a streamlined metagenomics detection strategy can potentially replace the multiple conventional diagnostic tests required to investigate an outbreak of a novel pathogen, and provide a blueprint for comprehensive diagnosis of unexplained acute illnesses or outbreaks in clinical and public health settings.
Cross-species Transmission of a Novel Adenovirus Associated with a Fulminant Pneumonia Outbreak in a New World Monkey Colony
PLoS Pathogens. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21779173
Adenoviruses are DNA viruses that naturally infect many vertebrates, including humans and monkeys, and cause a wide range of clinical illnesses in humans. Infection from individual strains has conventionally been thought to be species-specific. Here we applied the Virochip, a pan-viral microarray, to identify a novel adenovirus (TMAdV, titi monkey adenovirus) as the cause of a deadly outbreak in a closed colony of New World monkeys (titi monkeys; Callicebus cupreus) at the California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC). Among 65 titi monkeys housed in a building, 23 (34%) developed upper respiratory symptoms that progressed to fulminant pneumonia and hepatitis, and 19 of 23 monkeys, or 83% of those infected, died or were humanely euthanized. Whole-genome sequencing of TMAdV revealed that this adenovirus is a new species and highly divergent, sharing <57% pairwise nucleotide identity with other adenoviruses. Cultivation of TMAdV was successful in a human A549 lung adenocarcinoma cell line, but not in primary or established monkey kidney cells. At the onset of the outbreak, the researcher in closest contact with the monkeys developed an acute respiratory illness, with symptoms persisting for 4 weeks, and had a convalescent serum sample seropositive for TMAdV. A clinically ill family member, despite having no contact with the CNPRC, also tested positive, and screening of a set of 81 random adult blood donors from the Western United States detected TMAdV-specific neutralizing antibodies in 2 individuals (2/81, or 2.5%). These findings raise the possibility of zoonotic infection by TMAdV and human-to-human transmission of the virus in the population. Given the unusually high case fatality rate from the outbreak (83%), it is unlikely that titi monkeys are the native host species for TMAdV, and the natural reservoir of the virus is still unknown. The discovery of TMAdV, a novel adenovirus with the capacity to infect both monkeys and humans, suggests that adenoviruses should be monitored closely as potential causes of cross-species outbreaks.