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In JoVE (1)
- विकास और वयस्क स्टेज में स्थिर माध्यमिक मेटाबोलिक फ्लक्स के समस्थानिक रूपरेखा Caenorhabditis एलिगेंस
Other Publications (3)
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Articles by Evgueni Daikhin in JoVE
विकास और वयस्क स्टेज में स्थिर माध्यमिक मेटाबोलिक फ्लक्स के समस्थानिक रूपरेखा Caenorhabditis एलिगेंस
Marni J. Falk1,2, Meera Rao*1, Julian Ostrovsky*1, Evgueni Daikhin1, Ilana Nissim1, Marc Yudkoff1,2
1Department of Pediatrics, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania
मध्यस्थ चयापचय प्रवाह की गैस क्रोमैटोग्राफी जन spectrometric विश्लेषण से स्थिर समस्थानिक रूपरेखा निमेटोड में वर्णित है,
Other articles by Evgueni Daikhin on PubMed
American Journal of Hematology. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15495251
Hemoglobin (Hb) Bassett, an abnormal Hb variant with a markedly reduced oxygen affinity, was discovered in a Caucasian (Anglo-Saxon) male child who experienced episodes of cyanosis. Cation-exchange and reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the patient has an abnormal Hb, with a mutation in the alpha-globin. Tryptic peptide digest of the abnormal alpha-globin with subsequent HPLC analysis revealed abnormal elution of the alpha-T11 peptide. Further studies with Edman sequencing and electrospray mass spectrometry of tryptic peptide alpha-T11, as well as structural analysis by X-ray crystallography revealed an Asp-->Ala substitution at the alpha94 (G1) position, a match for Hb Bassett. Detailed functional studies showed that this Hb variant had a markedly reduced oxygen affinity (P(50) at pH 7.0 = 22 mmHg; Hb A P(50) = 10.5 mmHg), reduced Bohr effect (-0.26 compared to - 0.54 in Hb A), and low subunit cooperativity (n = 1.4, compared to 2.6 in Hb A). X-ray crystallography results explain the probable effects of the structural modification on the oxygen-binding properties of this Hb variant.
Beyond Aerobic Glycolysis: Transformed Cells Can Engage in Glutamine Metabolism That Exceeds the Requirement for Protein and Nucleotide Synthesis
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18032601
Tumor cell proliferation requires rapid synthesis of macromolecules including lipids, proteins, and nucleotides. Many tumor cells exhibit rapid glucose consumption, with most of the glucose-derived carbon being secreted as lactate despite abundant oxygen availability (the Warburg effect). Here, we used 13C NMR spectroscopy to examine the metabolism of glioblastoma cells exhibiting aerobic glycolysis. In these cells, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was active but was characterized by an efflux of substrates for use in biosynthetic pathways, particularly fatty acid synthesis. The success of this synthetic activity depends on activation of pathways to generate reductive power (NADPH) and to restore oxaloacetate for continued TCA cycle function (anaplerosis). Surprisingly, both these needs were met by a high rate of glutamine metabolism. First, conversion of glutamine to lactate (glutaminolysis) was rapid enough to produce sufficient NADPH to support fatty acid synthesis. Second, despite substantial mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism, pyruvate carboxylation was suppressed, and anaplerotic oxaloacetate was derived from glutamine. Glutamine catabolism was accompanied by secretion of alanine and ammonia, such that most of the amino groups from glutamine were lost from the cell rather than incorporated into other molecules. These data demonstrate that transformed cells exhibit a high rate of glutamine consumption that cannot be explained by the nitrogen demand imposed by nucleotide synthesis or maintenance of nonessential amino acid pools. Rather, glutamine metabolism provides a carbon source that facilitates the cell's ability to use glucose-derived carbon and TCA cycle intermediates as biosynthetic precursors.
Myc Regulates a Transcriptional Program That Stimulates Mitochondrial Glutaminolysis and Leads to Glutamine Addiction
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19033189
Mammalian cells fuel their growth and proliferation through the catabolism of two main substrates: glucose and glutamine. Most of the remaining metabolites taken up by proliferating cells are not catabolized, but instead are used as building blocks during anabolic macromolecular synthesis. Investigations of phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream effector AKT have confirmed that these oncogenes play a direct role in stimulating glucose uptake and metabolism, rendering the transformed cell addicted to glucose for the maintenance of survival. In contrast, less is known about the regulation of glutamine uptake and metabolism. Here, we report that the transcriptional regulatory properties of the oncogene Myc coordinate the expression of genes necessary for cells to engage in glutamine catabolism that exceeds the cellular requirement for protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. A consequence of this Myc-dependent glutaminolysis is the reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism to depend on glutamine catabolism to sustain cellular viability and TCA cycle anapleurosis. The ability of Myc-expressing cells to engage in glutaminolysis does not depend on concomitant activation of PI3K or AKT. The stimulation of mitochondrial glutamine metabolism resulted in reduced glucose carbon entering the TCA cycle and a decreased contribution of glucose to the mitochondrial-dependent synthesis of phospholipids. These data suggest that oncogenic levels of Myc induce a transcriptional program that promotes glutaminolysis and triggers cellular addiction to glutamine as a bioenergetic substrate.