Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
- Generation and Labeling of Murine Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells with Qdot Nanocrystals for Tracking Studies
Other Publications (30)
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- International Journal of Experimental Pathology
- The American Journal of Pathology
- Current Gene Therapy
- Cancer Biology & Therapy
- Cancer Research
- Immunology Letters
- Journal of Medical Virology
- Nature Medicine
- Immunology Letters
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Human Gene Therapy
- Cancer Biology & Therapy
- Cancer Biology & Therapy
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- Nature Medicine
- Journal of Translational Medicine
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Cancer Biology & Therapy
- Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
- Cancer Research
- Nature Immunology
- Molecular Imaging and Biology : MIB : the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
- Journal of Translational Medicine
- Seminars in Immunology
- Cellular Immunology
- Journal of Translational Medicine
- BMC Immunology
Articles by Fabian Benencia in JoVE
Generation and Labeling of Murine Bone Marrow-derived Dendritic Cells with Qdot Nanocrystals for Tracking Studies
Maria Muccioli*1, Michelle Pate*2, Omowaleola Omosebi2, Fabian Benencia1,2,3
1Molecular and Cell Biology Program, Ohio University, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Russ College of Engineering and Technology, Ohio University
Dendritic cells uptake antigens and migrate towards immune organs to present processed antigens to T cells. Qdot nanocrystal labeling provides a long-lasting and stable fluorescent signal. This allows tracking of dendritic cells to different organs by fluorescent microscopy.
Other articles by Fabian Benencia on PubMed
Different Effects of Glucose Starvation on Expression and Stability of VEGF MRNA Isoforms in Murine Ovarian Cancer Cells
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11944893
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated as a potent regulator of angiogenesis in tumors, and its protein exists as at least five isoforms with distinct biologic activities and clinical significance. Tumors under metabolic stress conditions dramatically increase VEGF expression due to both increased transcription and decreased mRNA degradation. However, it is not known how stress conditions regulate expression of each VEGF isoform. Here, we report a novel Taqman real-time RT-PCR strategy for quantification of all murine VEGF isoforms and find that (1) glucose starvation dramatically up-regulates the mRNA level of all VEGF isoforms, with the three abundant isoforms, VEGF120, VEGF164, and VEGF188, increasing at a similar rate, while the rare isoform VEGF144 is more markedly up-regulated; (2) glucose starvation induces a significant increase of the relative abundance of VEGF144 mRNA, but not the more prevalent isoforms VEGF120, VEGF164, and VEGF188, compared to total VEGF; and (3) the stability of each isoform mRNA differs under the control conditions as well as glucose starvation. The latter significantly stabilizes mRNA of all VEGF isoforms at a different rate, with VEGF144 most significantly stabilized. Our results indicate that under metabolic stress conditions VEGF144 is the most dramatically up-regulated VEGF isoform, probably through mechanism(s) different from the three abundant VEGF isoforms.
International Journal of Experimental Pathology. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12084042
We have studied the susceptibility to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) infection in malnourished rats. Groups of 10 rats were undernourished during suckling by offspring duplication. The animals were put on commercial diet and at 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 weeks after weaning, infected in the eye by scarification with HSV-1, strain F. Significant differences in morbidity and mortality were observed between malnourished and control groups infected three weeks after weaning. Viral titres were higher in ocular washings and brains obtained from the malnourished group. This group showed a diminution in antigen dependent lymphocyte proliferation compared to control, and significantly lower delayed type hypersensitivity reaction against inactivated virus (malnourished = 0.16 +/- 0.02 mm, control = 0.26 +/- 0.03 mm, p < 0.05). Neutralizing antibodies in serum were lower in the malnourished group and lower levels of interferon were obtained in the malnourished group 24 h post-infection. We conclude that malnutrition during suckling induces a delay in the capability to overcome HSV infection.
Generation of a Syngeneic Mouse Model to Study the Effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Ovarian Carcinoma
The American Journal of Pathology. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12466143
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) performs multifaceted functions in the tumor microenvironment promoting angiogenesis, suppressing anti-tumor immune response, and possibly exerting autocrine functions on tumor cells. However, appropriate syngeneic animal models for in vivo studies are lacking. Using retroviral transfection and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we generated a C57BL6 murine ovarian carcinoma cell line that stably overexpresses the murine VEGF164 isoform and the enhanced green fluorescent protein. VEGF164 overexpression dramatically accelerated tumor growth and ascites formation, significantly enhanced tumor angiogenesis, and substantially promoted the survival of tumor cells in vivo. In vitro, VEGF164 overexpression significantly enhanced cell survival after growth factor withdrawal and conferred resistance to apoptosis induced by cis-platin through an autocrine mechanism. VEGF/green fluorescent protein-expressing tumors were not recognized by the adaptive immune system. After vaccination, a specific anti-tumor T-cell response was detected, but tumor growth was not inhibited. This engineered murine carcinoma model should prove useful in the investigation of the role of VEGF in modulating the tumor microenvironment and affecting the complex interactions among angiogenesis mechanisms, anti-tumor immune mechanisms, and tumor cell behavior at the natural state or during therapy in ovarian carcinoma.
Intraperitoneal Oncolytic and Tumor Vaccination Therapy with Replication-competent Recombinant Virus: the Herpes Paradigm
Current Gene Therapy. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12653405
The biological therapy of tumors using live viruses was first proposed a century ago but was abandoned due to potential virulence of wild-type strains. Thanks to advances in recombinant technology, replication-restricted strains have been genetically engineered, which replicate selectively within tumor cells. Examples include replication-competent mutants of herpes simplex virus (HSV), adenovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, reovirus and measles virus. Replication-restricted oncolytic viruses are able to propagate selectively within solid tumor nodules exerting direct antitumor activity by killing infected tumor cells at the completion of a replicative cycle. In the process, they generate an intratumoral inflammatory response, which under the appropriate circumstances, may trigger the activation of an adaptive antitumor immune response, a process that has been named in situ tumor vaccination. Recombinant HSV may offer distinct advantages in oncolytic therapy of epithelial tumors. HSV is highly infectious to tumors of epithelial origin, resulting in high efficacy, there is considerable redundancy in HSV receptors, which makes the loss of HSV receptors by tumors due to mutations less likely and potent anti-herpetic drugs are commercially available, which may be used clinically to control undesired side effects. Herewith we describe the use of oncolytic viral therapy against intraperitoneal malignancies with special emphasis on oncolytic herpes simplex virus. We review the preclinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal applications of HSV and discuss the rationale for its use for oncolytic therapy and in situ tumor vaccination of intraperitoneal tumors.
Virology. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12726728
Here we study the role of nitric oxide in the vaginal infection of Balb/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in vaginal tissue and inguinal lymph nodes early postinfection. iNOS was also found to be activated in cells recovered from vaginal washings of infected animals. Animals treated with aminoguanidine (AG), an iNOS inhibitor, showed a dose-dependent increase in vaginal pathology after viral infection compared to controls. Viral titers in vaginal washings and vaginas were higher in AG-treated mice. Treated animals presented higher PMN counts in vaginal washings compared to controls. Histopathology studies revealed a profound inflammatory exudate in vaginal tissue of treated animals. Finally, RT-PCR analysis showed increased expression of the chemokines MIP-2 and RANTES in vaginal tissue and inguinal lymph nodes of these animals.
Letal, A Tumor-associated NKG2D Immunoreceptor Ligand, Induces Activation and Expansion of Effector Immune Cells
Cancer Biology & Therapy. Jul-Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14508119
NKG2D serves as one of the most potent activating receptors for effector lymphocytes. in peripheral tissues. Here we report the characterization of Letal, the first human trans-membrane NKG2D ligand lacking an immunoglobulin-like alpha-3 ectodomain. Letal is constitutively expressed by a variety of normal tissues, and is upregulated in tumor cells of different origins. Unlike other NKG2D ligands, Letal mRNA expression progressively decreased after treatment of tumor cells with retinoic acid. Simultaneous T-cell receptor activation and engagement of Letal stimulated proliferation of CD8(+) cells and dramatically increased IL-2 and IFNgamma secretion. In addition, Letal induced the killing of cancer cells by CD8(+) and NK cells. These results suggest that Letal delivers activating signals to NK cells and promotes tumor immune surveillance by inducing the expansion of anti-tumor cytotoxic lymphocytes.
Ovarian Carcinoma Expresses the NKG2D Ligand Letal and Promotes the Survival and Expansion of CD28- Antitumor T Cells
Cancer Research. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15026360
The role of the NKG2D immunoreceptor and its ligands in antitumor immune response is incompletely understood. Here, we report that effector immune cells infiltrating ovarian carcinoma are mostly CD8+ lymphocytes lacking CD28 but expressing the NKG2D costimulatory receptor. Human ovarian carcinoma expresses the novel NKG2D ligand lymphocyte effector cell toxicity-activating ligand (Letal). Letal was found to be an independent prognosticator of improved survival in advanced ovarian cancer. Higher levels of tumor-derived Letal were associated with stronger lymphocyte infiltration. Letal exerted marked costimulatory effects and induced type-1 polarization in CD8+CD28- tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes ex vivo. Letal engagement increased the expression of the glucose transporter Glut-1, enhanced glucose up-take, and protected CD8+ lymphocytes from cisplatin-induced killing. Letal also down-regulated the expression of Fas in CD8+ cells and rendered them resistant to Fas ligand-induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that Letal promotes tumor immune surveillance by promoting the survival and intratumoral expansion of antitumor cytotoxic lymphocytes. We propose that Letal could be used for the ex vivo expansion of apoptosis-resistant tumor-reactive cytotoxic lymphocytes for adoptive transfer.
Nitric Oxide Modulation of the Immune Response Against Cholera Toxin-adjuvated Ovalbumin Administered by the Intranasal Route
Immunology Letters. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15081619
Here, we studied the effect of aminoguanidine (AG) treatment, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-2 inhibitor, during the immune response against intranasal administration of ovalbumin (OVA) mixed with cholera toxin (CT) in BALB/c mice. NOS-2 mRNA was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) in samples of lungs and turbinates early post-inoculation of the antigen. Animals intranasally treated with AG, showed an increase in the levels of seric specific IgG and IgM. A higher IgG1/IgG2a ratio against OVA was also observed in sera of same animals. Moreover, high levels of specific IgA were detected in samples of pulmonar washings obtained from treated animals. On the contrary, treated animals showed a lower DTH response while splenocytes obtained from the same animals showed a reduced proliferative capability against OVA compared to controls. Finally, RT-PCR analysis showed increased expression of TGF-beta in turbinates, lungs and cells from pulmonar washings obtained from AG treated mice. Taken together, these data suggest a role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating the primary immune response against intranasal antigens.
Journal of Medical Virology. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15122810
Here, we studied the role of nitric oxide (NO) production during the first steps of the respiratory infection of BALB/c mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), strain F. Nitric oxide synthase II (NOS-II) mRNA and protein were detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and dot blot, respectively in samples of lungs and turbinates early post-infection (p.i.). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed pulmonar macrophages and PMN expressing NOS-II in the lungs of infected animals. Animals intranasally treated with aminoguanidine (AG), a NOS inhibitor, during the first steps of infection, showed a dose-dependent increase in pneumonitis compared to controls. Viral titres in turbinates, lungs, and brains were higher in AG treated mice. Finally, histopathology studies revealed a stronger inflammation in eyes, and lungs of these animals. Taken together, these results suggest a role of NO in controlling primary HSV intranasal infection.
Tumor-infiltrating Dendritic Cell Precursors Recruited by a Beta-defensin Contribute to Vasculogenesis Under the Influence of Vegf-A
Nature Medicine. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15334073
The involvement of immune mechanisms in tumor angiogenesis is unclear. Here we describe a new mechanism of tumor vasculogenesis mediated by dendritic cell (DC) precursors through the cooperation of beta-defensins and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (Vegf-A). Expression of mouse beta-defensin-29 recruited DC precursors to tumors and enhanced tumor vascularization and growth in the presence of increased Vegf-A expression. A new leukocyte population expressing DC and endothelial markers was uncovered in mouse and human ovarian carcinomas coexpressing Vegf-A and beta-defensins. Tumor-infiltrating DCs migrated to tumor vessels and independently assembled neovasculature in vivo. Bone marrow-derived DCs underwent endothelial-like differentiation ex vivo, migrated to blood vessels and promoted the growth of tumors expressing high levels of Vegf-A. We show that beta-defensins and Vegf-A cooperate to promote tumor vasculogenesis by carrying out distinct tasks: beta-defensins chemoattract DC precursors through CCR6, whereas Vegf-A primarily induces their endothelial-like specialization and migration to vessels, which is mediated by Vegf receptor-2.
Blood. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15358628
There is no proof that hematopoietic cells contribute significantly to vasculogenesis in postnatal life. Here we report a novel leukocyte subset within ovarian carcinoma that coexpresses endothelial and dendritic cell markers. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis identified a high frequency of VE-cadherin+ CD45+ leukocytes (39% of host cells) in 10 of 10 solid tumors evaluated. This population represented less than 1% of nontumor cells in ascites and peripheral blood. At the protein level, more than 86% of these cells expressed the endothelial markers P1H12, CD34, and CD31 and leukocyte markers CD11c and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II. At the mRNA level, we detected TEM1, TEM7, and Thy-1, specific markers of angiogenic endothelium. Finally, this population has the capacity to generate functional blood vessels in vivo. Because of its mixed phenotype, we named this population vascular leukocytes (VLCs). Our data provide an important link between hematopoietic endothelial precursors and vascular development in postnatal life and a possible novel therapeutic target.
Expression of IL-15, IL-18 and NOS-II in Contralateral Eyes of BALB/c Mice During the Development of HSV-induced Keratitis
Immunology Letters. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15585336
HSV Oncolytic Therapy Upregulates Interferon-inducible Chemokines and Recruits Immune Effector Cells in Ovarian Cancer
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15925544
Cooperation between oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) and host effector immune mechanisms has been previously described. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying such cooperation in a murine syngeneic model of ovarian carcinoma. Therapeutic administration of HSV-1716, a replication-restricted mutant, resulted in significant reduction of tumor growth and a significant survival advantage. Intratumoral injection of HSV-1716 induced expression of IFN-gamma, MIG, and IP-10 in the tumor. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of tumor-associated NK and CD8+ T cells expressing CXCR3 and CD25. Ascites from HSV-1716-treated animals efficiently induced in vitro migration of NK and CD8+ T cells, which was dependent on the presence of MIG and IP-10. Murine monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs) were responsible for the production of MIG and IP-10 upon HSV-1716 infection. In monocytes, this was partially abrogated by neutralizing antibodies against IFN-alpha and -beta, thus indicating a role for type-1 IFNs in the reported effect. Human ovarian carcinomas showed high numbers of monocytes and DCs. Upon HSV-1716 infection, human monocyte-derived DCs produced large amounts of IFN-gamma and upregulated MIG and IP-10 expression. These results indicate that HSV-1716 induces an inflammatory response that may facilitate antitumor immune response upon oncolytic therapy.
Human Gene Therapy. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15960607
In the present study, we investigated the ability of replication-restricted herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1716 lacking ICP34.5 to infect endothelium and disrupt tumor vasculature. HSV-1716 efficiently infected and killed mouse endothelial cell lines H5V and MS1 cells, as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Capillary tube formation by endothelial cells was inhibited by HSV-1716 in vitro and in vivo. Following intratumoral administration of oncolytic HSV-1716, HSV-glycoproteins could be detected in CD31-positive tumor vascular endothelium by immunostaining. Viral DNA was recovered from highly purified microdissected tumor vascular endothelium. Furthermore, endothelium of tumors treated with HSV-1716 exhibited expression of tissue factor, a marker of endothelial damage. Importantly, HSV antigen and DNA were also detected in endothelium distant from foci of active tumor infection. After intravascular inoculation of HSV-1716, viral glycoproteins were detected in association to tumor endothelium, but not vascular endothelium of different organs. Purified tumor endothelial cells showed high proliferative capability and were susceptible to HSV-1716 infection and killing ex vivo while endothelium from normal organs was not. We conclude that oncolytic HSV-1716 exerts direct antiangiogenic effects, which may contribute to the overall therapeutic efficacy of the virus.
Use of Immuno-LCM to Identify the in Situ Expression Profile of Cellular Constituents of the Tumor Microenvironment
Cancer Biology & Therapy. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16627987
Expression profiling using microarrays has become an essential tool for interrogating tumor biology. However, profiling of whole tumor RNA reflects both tumor and host cells, making it difficult to dissect molecular events within specific cellular compartments in the tumor microenvironment. We developed and optimized a simple, rapid technique combining immunohistochemistry and laser-capture microdissection (immuno-LCM) to purify specific cell populations from the tumor microenvironment followed by RNA isolation and amplification for microarray analysis. Using this methodology, we were able to elucidate the in situ expression profile of pure tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells from ovarian tumors with brisk immune infiltrates. This technique not only increased the specificity of profiling isolated cell populations, eliminating genes expressed by surrounding cells, but also increased the sensitivity of analysis, allowing for the detection of low expression genes that were not detected in whole tumor arrays. Pathway analysis of tumor cells in situ identified distinct activation of signaling pathways converging on NF-kappaB, as compared to pathways identified in cultured tumor cell lines, which were primarily metabolic. Profiling of tumor vascular cells revealed most known panendothelial and tumor endothelial-specific markers, and unveiled genes specific to the myeloid-monocytic lineage. We propose that immuno-LCM coupled with transcriptional profiling is a convenient tool for dissecting molecular and cellular events in complex biological systems such as the tumor microenvironment.
Direct Vaccination with Tumor Cells Killed with ICP4-deficient HSVd120 Elicits Effective Antitumor Immunity
Cancer Biology & Therapy. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16861891
We tested whether tumor cells were killed by replication-incompetent recombinant herpes simplex virus (HSV) d120 lacking immediate early gene ICP4 and whether HSVd120-killed tumor cells could be used directly for tumor vaccination. Vaccine efficacy was tested in TC-1, a murine adenocarcinoma transformed with HPV16 E6 and E7, and ID8-Vegf, a murine epithelial ovarian cancer model. HSVd120 killed tumor cells by apoptosis. Tumor cells infected by HSVd120 were engulfed more avidly by immature DCs and induced DC maturation more efficiently than tumor cells killed by ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. HSVd120 infection induced stronger upregulation of GRP94 than UVB in cells undergoing apoptosis. Immunization of mice with HSVd120-killed cells elicited stronger antitumor T cell response, including tumor reactive interferon-gamma secreting and cytotoxic T cells, and resulted in significantly stronger delay in tumor growth than immunization with UVB-killed tumor cells. Thus, the use of replication-incompetent HSV strains lacking ICP4 offers possible advantages in the preparation of whole tumor cell antigen for direct tumor vaccination.
Vascular Leukocytes: a Population with Angiogenic and Immunossuppressive Properties Highly Represented in Ovarian Cancer
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17191386
Endothelin B Receptor Mediates the Endothelial Barrier to T Cell Homing to Tumors and Disables Immune Therapy
Nature Medicine. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18157142
In spite of their having sufficient immunogenicity, tumor vaccines remain largely ineffective. The mechanisms underlying this lack of efficacy are still unclear. Here we report a previously undescribed mechanism by which the tumor endothelium prevents T cell homing and hinders tumor immunotherapy. Transcriptional profiling of microdissected tumor endothelial cells from human ovarian cancers revealed genes associated with the absence or presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Overexpression of the endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) was associated with the absence of TILs and short patient survival time. The ET(B)R inhibitor BQ-788 increased T cell adhesion to human endothelium in vitro, an effect countered by intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) blockade or treatment with NO donors. In mice, ET(B)R neutralization by BQ-788 increased T cell homing to tumors; this homing required ICAM-1 and enabled tumor response to otherwise ineffective immunotherapy in vivo without changes in systemic antitumor immune response. These findings highlight a molecular mechanism with the potential to be pharmacologically manipulated to enhance the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy in humans.
Whole Tumor Antigen Vaccination Using Dendritic Cells: Comparison of RNA Electroporation and Pulsing with UV-irradiated Tumor Cells
Journal of Translational Medicine. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18445282
Because of the lack of full characterization of tumor associated antigens for solid tumors, whole antigen use is a convenient approach to tumor vaccination. Tumor RNA and apoptotic tumor cells have been used as a source of whole tumor antigen to prepare dendritic cell (DC) based tumor vaccines, but their efficacy has not been directly compared. Here we compare directly RNA electroporation and pulsing of DCs with whole tumor cells killed by ultraviolet (UV) B radiation using a convenient tumor model expressing human papilloma virus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncogenes. Although both approaches led to DCs presenting tumor antigen, electroporation with tumor cell total RNA induced a significantly higher frequency of tumor-reactive IFN-gamma secreting T cells, and E7-specific CD8+ lymphocytes compared to pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells. DCs electroporated with tumor cell RNA induced a larger tumor infiltration by T cells and produced a significantly stronger delay in tumor growth compared to DCs pulsed with UV-irradiated tumor cells. We conclude that electroporation with whole tumor cell RNA and pulsing with UV-irradiated tumor cells are both effective in eliciting antitumor immune response, but RNA electroporation results in more potent tumor vaccination under the examined experimental conditions.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18456733
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving the accumulation of macrophages in the intima. Wnt5a is a noncanonical member of the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins. Recently, human macrophages have been shown to express Wnt5a upon stimulation with bacterial pathogens in vitro and in granulomatous lesions in the lung of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected patients. Wnt5a expression has also been liked to Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), an innate immune receptor implicated in atherosclerosis. These observations, along with the fact that Wnt5a is involved in cell migration and proliferation, led us to postulate that Wnt5a plays a role in atherosclerosis. To investigate this hypothesis, we characterized Wnt5a expression in murine and human atherosclerotic lesions. Tissue sections derived from the aortic sinus to the aortic arch of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice and sections derived from the carotid arteries of patients undergoing endarterectomy were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. All samples were found to be positive for Wnt5a with predominant staining in the areas of macrophage accumulation within the intima. In parallel, we probed for the presence of TLR-4 and found coincident TLR-4 and Wnt5a expression. For both the Wnt5a and TLR-4 staining, consecutive tissue sections treated with an isotype- and species-matched Ig served as a negative control and exhibited little, if any, reactivity. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that Wnt5a mRNA expression in RAW264.7 murine macrophages can be induced by stimulation with LPS, a known ligand for TLR-4. Combined, these findings demonstrate for the first time Wnt5a expression in human and murine atherosclerotic lesions and suggest that cross talk between TLR-4 and Wnt5a is operative in atherosclerosis.
Herpes Virus Oncolytic Therapy Reverses Tumor Immune Dysfunction and Facilitates Tumor Antigen Presentation
Cancer Biology & Therapy. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18458533
We have previously shown that intratumor administration of HSV-1716 (an ICP34.5 null mutant) resulted in significant reduction of tumor growth and a significant survival advantage in a murine model of ovarian cancer. Herewith we report that oncolytic HSV-1716 generates vaccination effects in the same model. Upon HSV-1716 infection, mouse ovarian tumor cells showed high levels of expression viral glycoproteins B and D and were highly phagocyted by dendritic cells (DCs). Interestingly, increased phagocytosis of tumor-infected cells by DCs was impaired by heparin, and anti-HSV glycoproteins B and D, indicating that viral infection enhances adhesive interactions between DCs and tumor apoptotic bodies. Moreover, HSV-1716 infected cells expressed high levels of heat shock proteins 70 and GRP94, molecules that have been reported to induce maturation of DCs, increase cross-presentation of antigens and promote antitumor immune response. After phagocytosis of tumor-infected cells, DCs acquired a mature status in vitro and in vivo, upregulated the expression of costimulatory molecule and increased migration towards MIP-3beta. Furthermore, HSV-1716 oncolytic treatment markedly reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in tumor-bearing animals thus abrogating tumor immunosuppressive milieu. These mechanisms may account for the highly enhanced antitumoral immune responses observed in HSV-1716 treated animals. Oncolytic treatment induced a significantly higher frequency of tumor-reactive IFNgamma producing cells, and induced a robust tumor infiltration by T cells. These results indicate that oncolytic therapy with HSV-1716 facilitates antitumor immune responses.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18546631
Cancer Research. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18768667
Dendritic cells (DC) and cytokines that expand myeloid progenitors are widely used to treat cancer. Here, we show that CD11c(+)DEC205(+) DCs coexpressing alpha-smooth muscle actin and VE-cadherin home to perivascular areas in the ovarian cancer microenvironment and are required for the maintenance of tumor vasculature. Consequently, depletion of DCs in mice bearing established ovarian cancer by targeting different specific markers significantly delays tumor growth and enhances the effect of standard chemotherapies. Tumor growth restriction was associated with vascular apoptosis after DC ablation followed by necrosis, which triggered an antitumor immunogenic boost. Our findings provide a mechanistic rationale for selectively eliminating tumor-associated leukocytes to promote antitumor immunity while impeding tumor vascularization and to develop more effective DC vaccines based on a better understanding of the tumor microenvironment.
Nature Immunology. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18820683
The involvement of complement-activation products in promoting tumor growth has not yet been recognized. Here we show that the generation of complement C5a in a tumor microenvironment enhanced tumor growth by suppressing the antitumor CD8(+) T cell-mediated response. This suppression was associated with the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells into tumors and augmentation of their T cell-directed suppressive abilities. Amplification of the suppressive capacity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by C5a occurred through regulation of the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Pharmacological blockade of the C5a receptor considerably impaired tumor growth to a degree similar to the effect produced by the anticancer drug paclitaxel. Thus, our study demonstrates a therapeutic function for complement inhibition in the treatment of cancer.
In Vivo Dendritic Cell Tracking Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging and Near-infrared-emissive Polymersomes
Molecular Imaging and Biology : MIB : the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging. May-Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19194761
Noninvasive in vivo cell-tracking techniques are necessary to advance the field of cellular-based therapeutics as well as to elucidate mechanisms governing in vivo cell biology. Fluorescence is commonly used for in vitro and postmortem biomedical studies but has been limited by autofluorescence at the whole-animal level.
Increased Immunogenicity of Surviving Tumor Cells Enables Cooperation Between Liposomal Doxorubicin and IL-18
Journal of Translational Medicine. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20003308
Liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) is a cytotoxic chemotherapy drug with a favorable hematologic toxicity profile. Its active drug, doxorubicin, has interesting immunomodulatory properties. Here, the effects of Doxil on surviving tumor cell immunophenotype were investigated.
Seminars in Immunology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20356763
Although cancer vaccines with defined antigens are commonly used, the use of whole tumor cell preparations in tumor immunotherapy is a very promising approach and can obviate some important limitations in vaccine development. Whole tumor cells are a good source of TAAs and can induce simultaneous CTLs and CD4(+) T helper cell activation. We review current approaches to prepare whole tumor cell vaccines, including traditional methods of freeze-thaw lysates, tumor cells treated with ultraviolet irradiation, and RNA electroporation, along with more recent methods to increase tumor cell immunogenicity with HOCl oxidation or infection with replication-incompetent herpes simplex virus.
Aminoguanidine Administered During the Induction of Oral Tolerance Alters the Systemic Response of the Tolerised Rats
Cellular Immunology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19931043
Herewith we investigated the role of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-II in the establishment of oral tolerance induced by low antigen dose. To accomplish this, we used a rat model of oral tolerance induced by intragastric administration of low doses of ovalbumin (OVA). NOS-II was inhibited in vivo during the onset of tolerance by intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with aminoguanidine (AMG), a selective NOS-II inhibitor. Four experimental groups were generated: (TOL), tolerised rats, receiving OVA but no AMG; (TAG), rats tolerised with OVA and simultaneously receiving AMG i.p.; (CAG), controls treated with AMG but no oral antigen; and (CONT), controls receiving neither OVA nor AMG treatment. The state of oral tolerance was evaluated in all groups by analysing several immune parameters upon subcutaneous administration of OVA in Freund's complete adjuvant. First, we were able to determine that NOS-II inhibition altered the TH1/TH2 balance in tolerised rats, driving the TH2 anti-OVA response in TOL rats towards TH1 in TAG animals, which showed enhanced delayed hypersensitivity responses. Second, splenocyte cultures from TAG rats showed lower levels of IL-10 production compared to TOL samples as determined by ELISA analysis. Last, we detected the presence of a functional distinct Tr1 regulatory T cell population in spleen samples recovered from TAG animals. Contrary to what happened with TOL Tr1 cells, the levels of Tr1 cells in TAG samples were modified by in vitro stimulation with OVA. All together, these data indicate a preponderant role for NOS-II in the process of oral tolerance induced by low antigen dose.
Journal of Translational Medicine. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21609494
Time-dependent chemotherapeutic agents can selectively target tumor cells in susceptible phases of the cell cycle however a fraction of tumor cells in non-vulnerable cell cycle phases remain drug-resistant. Immunotherapy represents a promising approach to overcome the limitation of phase-specific drugs and improve their clinical efficacy. Here, we investigated the potential use of anticancer chemotherapeutic drugs in combination with IL-18, a cytokine with strong immunostimulatory properties.
The Interplay Between Surfaces and Soluble Factors Define the Immunologic and Angiogenic Properties of Myeloid Dendritic Cells
BMC Immunology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21645356
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen presenting cells capable of inducing specific immune responses against microbial infections, transplant antigens, or tumors. Interestingly, microenvironment conditions such as those present in tumor settings might induce a DC phenotype that is poorly immunogenic and with the capability of promoting angiogenesis. We hypothesize that this plasticity may be caused not only by the action of specific cytokines or growth factors but also by the properties of the surfaces with which they interact, such as extracellular matrix (ECM) components.