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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (59)
- Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Current Opinion in Biotechnology
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
- Nature Medicine
- Recenti Progressi in Medicina
- International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
- Nature Immunology
- Methods in Molecular Medicine
- Methods in Molecular Medicine
- Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
- Regulatory Peptides
- Microvascular Research
- International Journal of Pharmaceutics
- Nature Neuroscience
- Blood Transfusion = Trasfusione Del Sangue
- Nature Cell Biology
- Developmental Biology
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- PloS One
- Leukemia Research
- Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
- Nature Cell Biology
- Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- Microvascular Research
- Cellular Microbiology
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Clinical Oral Implants Research
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiovascular Pathology : the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
- Current Topics in Developmental Biology
- Nature Neuroscience
- Molecular Cell
- Journal of Biomaterials Applications
- Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira Para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa Em Cirurgia
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- PloS One
- Clinical Oral Implants Research
- Endocrine Journal
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Clinical Oral Implants Research
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Articles by Fabio Rossi in JoVE
कंकाल की मांसपेशी से progenitors के शोधन
Lin Yi, Fabio Rossi
The Biomedical Research Centre, University of British Columbia
Enzymatic पृथक्करण, सतह और fibro / adipogenic और murine कंकाल की मांसपेशी से myogenic progenitors के प्रवाह cytometry द्वारा लेबलिंग शुद्धि के लिए विधि.
Other articles by Fabio Rossi on PubMed
Differences Between in Vivo and in Vitro Sensitivity to Imatinib of Bcr/Abl+ Cells Obtained from Leukemic Patients
Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases. May-Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12367580
Imatinib mesylate (imatinib) inhibits Bcr/Abl, an oncogenic fusion protein. The in vitro effects of imatinib on BCR/ABL+ leukemic cells include inhibition of Bcr/Abl tyrosine phosphorylation, block of proliferation, and induction of apoptosis. The in vivo effects of imatinib were evaluated in 12 CML (chronic myeloid leukemia) patients in blast crisis or accelerated phase who were treated with imatinib. Treatment caused a decrease in spontaneous proliferation of leukemic cells in 10 of 12 evaluable patients and the development of apoptosis in 9 of 11 cases. Imatinib also caused an inhibition of Bcr/Abl autophosphorylation; however, the degree of inhibition obtained in vivo was substantially lower than that achieved in vitro with similar concentrations of imatinib. In seven patients cells could be evaluated at relapse: spontaneous proliferation was no longer inhibited and Bcr/Abl phosphorylation was comparable or superior to that present at the beginning of treatment, before imatinib administration. Plasma imatinib concentrations were not reduced. Leukemic cells obtained at relapse maintained in vitro sensitivity (Bcr/Abl autophosphorylation and proliferation inhibition) to imatinib concentration measured in vivo (3 microM or higher), although a partial resistance to the antiproliferative effects of imatinib was present at low (0.01-0.3 microM) concentrations. In four patients, addition of erythromycin to blood samples obtained at relapse restored imatinib sensitivity in terms of phosphorylation inhibition, indicating that the majority of plasma imatinib was not available to cells and probably bound to alpha1 acid glycoprotein. These data suggest that measurements of Bcr/Abl kinase activity in peripheral blood samples may represent a more reliable indicator of active concentrations than the measurement of imatinib plasma levels.
Latest Developments and in Vivo Use of the Tet System: Ex Vivo and in Vivo Delivery of Tetracycline-regulated Genes
Current Opinion in Biotechnology. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12459336
In June this year, the tetracycline-regulated gene expression system (tet system) celebrated its tenth "birthday". In the past ten years a continuous stream of changes made to the tet system's basic components has led to a remarkable improvement in its overall performance. It was not until this year, however, that the full benefits of these improvements became apparent. In particular, usage of the tet system is no longer limited to immortalized cell lines and transgenic animals. In this review, we will describe the obstacles encountered in delivering the tet system's components to primary cells and tissues as well as the methods now used to overcome them. We will also focus on a novel system that is conceptually similar but based on different antibiotic/transcription factor pairs.
Atherosclerosis. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12535748
Very rapid nongenomic effects of aldosterone in vitro have been described in recent years and in vivo evidence has been reported as well. In the present study, we investigated the rapid effect of aldosterone on resistance arteries in vivo in man. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study on ten healthy male volunteers. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured using venous occlusion plethysmography in both forearms. FBF was reduced by administration of aldosterone 2.5 pmol/min at min 4 (from 4.45+/-0.03 to 3.3+/-0.25 ml/100 ml tissue) and reached its nadir at min 12 (from 4.45+/-0.03 to 1.6+/-0.08 ml/100 ml tissue, P<0.001). Our study documents a direct nongenomic effect of aldosterone on the resistance arteries in vivo in man. The rapid vasoconstrictive effect of aldosterone at physiological concentrations opens the way to investigations on the vascular role of this steroid in several disorders, such as hypertension, characterized by elevated peripheral vascular resistance.
Alpha1 Acid Glycoprotein Binds to Imatinib (STI571) and Substantially Alters Its Pharmacokinetics in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12576428
Imatinib (Glivec) is a potent inhibitor of bcr/abl, an oncogenic fusion protein that causes chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). alpha1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) binds to imatinib with high affinity and inhibits imatinib activity in vitro and in vivo in an animal model. A pharmacokinetics analysis of imatinib was undertaken in CML patients.
Nature Medicine. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14625543
Cells from adult bone marrow participate in the regeneration of damaged skeletal myofibers. However, the relationship of these cells with the various hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cell types found in bone marrow is still unclear. Here we show that the progeny of a single cell can both reconstitute the hematopoietic system and contribute to muscle regeneration. Integration of bone marrow cells into myofibers occurs spontaneously at low frequency and increases with muscle damage. Thus, classically defined single hematopoietic stem cells can give rise to both blood and muscle.
Recenti Progressi in Medicina. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15143954
Adrenomedullin (AM), inducing a potent and powerful hypotensive activity caused by dilatation of resistance vessels, has elicited interest for its cardiovascular actions. AM is secreted from various cell type, including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell. AM plasma levels are increased in various cardiovascular diseases as heart failure and hypertension and may be involved in pathophysiological changes in cardiovascular diseases.
Neoadjuvant Docetaxel, Cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil Before Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Versus Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy: a Phase II Feasibility Study
International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15145166
To determine the feasibility of neoadjuvant docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (TPF) followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CHT-RT) compared with the same CHT-RT regimen alone in locally advanced head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Vascular. Jul-Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15704321
Atherosclerotic popliteal aneurysms are the most common peripheral artery aneurysms. Thrombosis, embolization, rupture, and compression of adjacent structures are well-known complications. We report a patient with a giant thigh hematoma and a pulsatile mass thought to be a ruptured popliteal artery aneurysm. It proved to be an unruptured 8.5 cm femoropopliteal aneurysm with avulsed and bleeding adjacent veins, the source of the hematoma. This constitutes the first known report of this unusual complication.
Nature Immunology. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15880112
The molecular mechanisms that direct the migration of early T lymphocyte progenitors to the thymus are unknown. We show here that P-selectin is expressed by thymic endothelium and that lymphoid progenitors in bone marrow and thymus bind P-selectin. Parabiosis, competitive thymus reconstitution and short-term homing assays indicated that P-selectin and its ligand PSGL-1 are functionally important components of the thymic homing process. Accordingly, thymi of mice lacking PSGL-1 contained fewer early thymic progenitors and had increased empty niches for prothymocytes compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, the number of resident thymic progenitors controls thymic expression of P-selectin, suggesting that regulation of P-selectin expression by a thymic 'niche occupancy sensor' may be used to direct progenitor access.
Methods in Molecular Medicine. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16010014
The use of specialized reporter genes to monitor real-time, tissue-specific transgene expression in animal models offers an opportunity to circumvent current limitations associated with the establishment of transgenic mouse models. The Cre-loxP and the tetracycline (Tet)-inducible systems are useful methods of conditional gene expression that allow spatial (cell-type-specific) and temporal (inducer-dependent) control. Most often, the alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) promoter is used in these inducible systems to restrict expression of reporter genes and transgenes to the myocardium. An overview of each inducible system is described, along with suggested reporter genes for real-time, noninvasive imaging in the myocardium. Effective gene delivery of the inducible gene expression system is carried out by lentiviral vectors, which offer high transduction efficiency, long-term transgene expression, and low immunogenicity. This chapter outlines the packaging of myocardium-specific inducible expression systems into lentiviral vectors, in which a transgene and a reporter gene are transduced into cardiomyocytes. In doing so, transgene and reporter expression can be monitored/tracked with bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and positron emission tomography (PET).
Methods in Molecular Medicine. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16010020
Currently, the tenet that heart muscle cells are terminally differentiated and incapable of self-repair is being challenged. Recent experimental observations suggest that both endogenous and exogenous stem cell populations have the potential to regenerate damaged areas within the heart. These findings hold promise for new therapeutic strategies to treat cardiovascular diseases, including common conditions like myocardial infarction and transplant vascular disease (TVD). In this chapter, we focus on the study of endogenous stem cells in the context of their role in modulation of cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and TVD. Specific experimental models and methods used to study the phenomena of endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cell migration and potential differentiation are also described.
Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. Aug-Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16087371
The capability of bone marrow derived cells to contribute to numerous peripheral tissues may hold tremendous promise for the field of regenerative medicine. In the context of skeletal muscle disease in particular, the ability of these cells to reach sites of damage through the circulation would overcome some key limitations of current cell therapy approaches. In muscle however, this non-classical repair process takes place at an exceedingly low frequency and fails to yield any measurable functional improvement. Recent advances regarding the cell types or mechanisms involved in this phenomenon may now provide direction for strategies aimed at increasing its efficiency to therapeutic levels.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16116175
During embryogenesis, vascular and hemopoietic cells originate from a common precursor, the hemangioblast. Recent evidence suggests the existence of endothelial precursors in adult bone marrow cells, but it is unclear whether those precursors have a role in tumor neovascularization. In this report, we demonstrate that murine bone marrow contains endothelial progenitors, which arise from a cell with self-renewing capacity, and can integrate into tumor microvasculature, albeit at a very low frequency. A transgenic double-reporter strategy allowed us to demonstrate definitively that tumor bone marrow-derived endothelial cells arise by transdifferentiation of marrow progenitors rather than by cell fusion. Single cell transplants showed that a common precursor contributes to both the hemopoietic and endothelial lineages, thus demonstrating the presence of an adult hemangioblast. Furthermore, we demonstrate that increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A secretion by tumor cells, as well as activation of VEGF receptor-2 in bone marrow cells does not alter the mobilization and incorporation of marrow-derived endothelial progenitors into tumor vasculature. Finally, in human umbilical cord blood cells, we show that endothelial precursors make up only approximately 1 in 10(7) mononuclear cells but are highly enriched in the CD133+ cell population. By ruling out cell fusion, we clearly demonstrate the existence of an adult hemangioblast, but the differentiation of marrow stem cells toward the endothelial lineage is an extremely rare event. Furthermore, we show that VEGF-A stimulation of hemopoietic cells does not significantly alter this process.
Bone Marrow-derived Recipient Cells in Murine Transplanted Hearts: Potential Roles and the Effect of Immunosuppression
Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16205656
Currently, there is intense debate regarding the origin of reparative cells in injured hearts and vasculature. To determine the contribution of recipient bone marrow (BM)-derived cells to the regeneration of cells in the vasculature of transplanted hearts and to examine the effect of immunosuppression on this phenomenon, we evaluated the fate of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive recipient BM cells in non-GFP-expressing cardiac allografts. C57BL/6 BM-GFP chimeric recipients underwent cardiac transplantation. Allografts were immunosuppressed with tacrolimus for 14 or 30 days post-transplantation or were saline treated. Hearts were excised and stained with markers for endothelial cells (EC) or smooth muscle cells (SMC). Colocalization with BM-derived recipient cells was evaluated using confocal microscopy with three-dimensional image analysis. Immunosuppression with tacrolimus did not affect the frequency of recipient BM-derived cell chimerism as EC or SMC phenotypes. A higher frequency of EC chimerism was found at 14 days as compared to 30 days post-transplantation in allograft hearts. BM-derived recipient cells are recruited to areas of donor vascular injury with intercalation of recipient EC and SMC in the setting of ongoing alloimmune recognition of the allograft. Our findings confirm that immunosuppression with tacrolimus does not affect the frequency of recipient BM-derived cell repopulation at an early time point 14 days post-transplantation. EC repopulation by BM-derived recipient cells was found to be an early event in transplanted allograft hearts, which decreased in frequency over time.
Regulatory Peptides. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16256216
The vasodilating peptide adrenomedullin (AM) has been reported to regulate vascular tone as well as proliferation and differentiation of various cell types in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Our study was designed to investigate the effect of AM on Ang II-induced contraction on human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC) in vitro, evaluating the signal pathways involved. Our findings indicate that AM was able to inhibit HASMC Ang II-induced contraction (IC50 19 nM). AM stimulated cAMP production in a dose-dependent fashion as well. SQ 22.536, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, and KT5720, a PKA inhibitor, blunted the AM effect, suggesting that it was mediated by the activation of the cAMP transduction pathway. Our results suggest that AM plays a role in the regulation of HASMC contraction by antagonizing the Ang II effects and may be involved in conditions of altered regulation of the blood vessels.
Non-invasive Evaluation of Endothelial Dysfunction in Uncomplicated Obesity: Relationship with Insulin Resistance
Microvascular Research. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16434062
Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and amortality. Endothelial dysfunction, involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular events, has been demonstrated in obese patients with invasive techniques requiring artery catheterization. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate, with a non-invasive method readily employable on clinical grounds, impaired vasodilatation and its relationship with insulin resistance in uncomplicated obesity. 15 uncomplicated obese subjects (BMI = 36.6 +/- 3.2) and 10 lean controls (BMI = 22.9 +/- 1.25) were enrolled in this study. All subjects underwent measurement of endothelium-dependent (FBFr) vasodilatation by forearm venous occlusion pletysmography after increasing times of ischemia, and measurement of insulin sensitivity by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique (M index), by fasting glucose and insulin (HOMA-IR) and by oral glucose tolerance test (ISI index). Endothelium-independent (N-FBFr) vasodilatation was assessed as well. The FBFr was markedly blunted in obese patients versus lean controls (30 s: 2.12 +/- 0.34 vs. 3.63 +/- 0.22, P < 0.01; 60 s: 2.34 +/- 0.42 vs. 3.82 +/- 0.53, P < 0.01; 180 s: 3.20 +/- 0.45 vs. 7.15 +/- 0.35, P < 0.01; 300 s: 4.08 +/- 0.94 vs. 14.1 +/- 0.82, P < 0.001). The N-FBFr was not different in the two groups. High correlation was found between M index and FBFr at all ischemia times. HOMA-IR and ISI were not related with FBFr. The non-invasive evaluation of endothelial dysfunction by a simple and reliable method based on venous occlusive plethysmography shows high correlation between impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and insulin resistance in uncomplicated obesity. This non-invasive test of endothelial function may be routinely performed in the assessment of cardiovascular risk in uncomplicated obesity.
Origin and Distribution of Bone Marrow-derived Cells in the Central Nervous System in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Glia. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16518833
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with increased numbers of microglia within the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unknown whether the microgliosis results from proliferation of CNS resident microglia, or recruitment of bone marrow (BM)-derived microglial precursors. Here we assess the distribution and number of BM-derived cells in spinal cord using transplantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled BM cells into myelo-ablated mice over-expressing human mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (mSOD), a murine model of ALS. Transplantation of GFP+ BM did not affect the rate of disease progression in mSOD mice. Mean numbers of microglia and GFP+ cells in spinal cords of control mice were not significantly different from those in asymptomatic mSOD mice and showed no change with animal age. The number of GFP+ cells and microglia (F4/80+ and CD11b+ cells) within the spinal cord of mSOD mice increased compared to age-matched controls at a time when mSOD mice exhibited disease symptoms, continuing up to disease end-stage. Although we observed an increase in the number of GFP+ cells in spinal cords of mSOD mice with disease symptoms, mean numbers of GFP+ F4/80+ cells comprised less than 20% of all F4/80+ cells and did not increase with disease progression. Furthermore, the relative rates of proliferation in CD45+GFP- and CD45+GFP+ cells were comparable. Thus, we demonstrate that the microgliosis present in spinal cord tissue of mSOD mice is primarily due to an expansion of resident microglia and not to the recruitment of microglial precursors from the circulation.
Adrenomedullin Antagonizes Angiotensin II-stimulated Proliferation of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells
Peptides. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16797107
The vasodilating peptide adrenomedullin has been reported to regulate vascular tone as well as proliferation and differentiation of various cell types in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Conflicting data have been reported on the adrenomedullin (AM) effect on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, a process involved in the progression of vascular remodeling and atherosclerotic lesion. In this paper we investigate the effect of AM on proliferation of human aorta smooth muscle cell (HASMC). AM showed a potent dose-dependent inhibiting effect on angiotensin II (AngII) induced-proliferation and a stimulatory effect on proliferation of quiescent cells. The cAMP/PKA pathway was involved in the AM inhibitory effect of AngII-induced proliferation in HASMC. PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were involved in the proliferative effect exerted by AM per se. Our results suggest that AM plays a role in the regulation of HASMC growth antagonizing the AngII effect and may be involved in conditions of altered regulation of the blood vessels.
Atherosclerosis. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16949080
Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor, is produced by the oxyntic cells of the stomach and is involved in the regulation of energy balance. However, an increasing number of direct ghrelin cardiovascular effects, and, among them, high ghrelin binding in atherosclerotic coronary arteries, are being reported. We investigated whether ghrelin affects migration of human aorta endothelial cells (HAEC). HAEC bound ghrelin in specific, saturable manner. Ghrelin, as such, did not affect HAEC migration, however it inhibited the angiotensin II-induced migration, and this effect was inhibited by the antagonist (D-Lys(3))-GHRP-6. In HAEC, ghrelin elicited increased intracellular concentration of cAMP that was involved in its effect on AngII-induced HAEC migration, as the AMP cyclase inhibitor SQ22.536 and PKA inhibitor KT5720, respectively, inhibited and blunted it. These findings suggest a role of ghrelin in the control of endothelial cell migration and its possible involvement in vascular changes present in disorders characterized by low plasma ghrelin.
Ex Vivo Expansion of Rat Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Microcarrier Beads in Spin Culture
Biomaterials. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17433434
Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSC) are attractive candidates for connective tissue regeneration. Currently, their use is limited by poor overall cell survival and high apoptosis rates upon transplantation in vivo. We hypothesized that disruption of cell-extracellular matrix contact either during cell expansion or immediately prior to cell transplantation may impair cell viability and facilitate apoptosis. We therefore investigated whether BM-MSC can be expanded on microcarrier beads in spin culture and directly transplanted. This novel approach removes the need for the repeated trypsinizations that are usually required for expansion and transplantation. CultiSpher-S gelatin microcarrier beads supported Fisher and transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP)(+) Sprague Dawley rat BM-MSC expansion. Bead-expanded BM-MSC could still be differentiated along the chondrogenic, osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. In the short term, direct subcutaneous transplantation of cells expanded on microcarriers was associated with significantly less apoptosis than trypsinized control cells. In the long term, BM-MSC expanded on microcarrier beads induced de novo trabecular bone formation in vivo. This novel approach present several advantages over current expansion-transplantation protocols for mesenchymal tissue regeneration.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17597313
Cyclodextrin-PEG hydrogels were prepared by reaction of hexamethlyene isocyanate-activated beta-cyclodextrins with 1.9kDa NH(2)PEGNH(2). The reaction was carried out in anhydrous dimethylsulfoxide by using 0.25:1, 0.33:1, 0.5:1, 0.67:1, 1:1, and 2:1 CD/PEG molar ratios. The addition of acetic acid to the reaction mixture was found to slow the cross-linking reaction, yielding homogeneous matrices. The mechanical characterization indicated that the elasticity of the matrices increased as the CD content in the hydrogel increased while the elongation was irrespective of the hydrogel composition. By incubation in water and ethanol, the hydrogels underwent complete swelling in 5-10min. The water up-take increased logarithmically as the CD/PEG ratio decreased to reach a swelling degree of 800% (swollen hydrogel/dry hydrogel, w/w%). The ethanol uptake increased with a power correlation as the CD/PEG ratio decreased to reach a swelling degree of about 1000% with 0.25:1 CD/PEG hydrogel. Lysozyme, beta-estradiol, and quinine were loaded by swell embedding. The lysozyme loading increased as the CD/PEG ratio decreased while the incorporation of beta-estradiol and quinine displayed inverse correlation with respect to the CD/PEG ratio. The maximal incorporation (loaded drug/dry hydrogel, w/w%) for lysozyme, beta-estradiol and quinine was 2, 0.6, and 2.4%, respectively. Lysozyme was quickly released from the matrices, and the release was faster as the CD/PEG ratio decreased. Also, beta-estradiol and quinine release rates were inversely proportional to the CD/PEG ratio, but in these cases, the release profiles were strongly affected by the drug interaction with the hexamethylated beta-cyclodextrins in the matrices.
Nature Neuroscience. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18026097
Microgliosis is a common response to multiple types of damage in the CNS. However, the origin of the cells involved in this process is still controversial and the relative importance of local expansion versus recruitment of microglia progenitors from the bloodstream is unclear. Here, we investigated the origin of microglia using chimeric animals obtained by parabiosis. We found no evidence of microglia progenitor recruitment from the circulation in denervation or CNS neurodegenerative disease, suggesting that maintenance and local expansion of microglia are solely dependent on the self-renewal of CNS resident cells in these models.
Strategies for the Transfusion of Subjects with Complex Red Cell Immunisation: the Bank of Rare Blood Donors of the Region of Lombardy
Blood Transfusion = Trasfusione Del Sangue. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 19204778
Selecting units of rare blood for transfusion to patients with complex immunisation is one of the most critical processes of a Transfusion Centre. In January 2005 the 'Rare Blood Components Bank - Reference Centre of the Region of Lombardy' w as established with the following goals: 1) identifying regional rare blood donors; 2) creating a regional registry of rare donors; 3) organising a regional bank of liquid and frozen rare blood units; 4) setting up a regional Immunohaematology Reference Laboratory (IRL) to type donors and resolve complex cases.
Nature Cell Biology. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18425116
Transplanted bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) have been reported to fuse with cells of diverse tissues, but the extremely low frequency of fusion has led to the view that such events are biologically insignificant. Nonetheless, in mice with a lethal recessive liver disease (tyrosinaemia), transplantation of wild-type BMDCs restored liver function by cell fusion and prevented death, indicating that cell fusion can have beneficial effects. Here we report that chronic inflammation resulting from severe dermatitis or autoimmune encephalitis leads to robust fusion of BMDCs with Purkinje neurons and formation of hundreds of binucleate heterokaryons per cerebellum, a 10-100-fold higher frequency than previously reported. Single haematopoietic stem-cell transplants showed that the fusogenic cell is from the haematopoietic lineage and parabiosis experiments revealed that fusion can occur without irradiation. Transplantation of rat bone marrow into mice led to activation of dormant rat Purkinje neuron-specific genes in BMDC nuclei after fusion with mouse Purkinje neurons, consistent with nuclear reprogramming. The precise neurological role of these heterokaryons awaits elucidation, but their frequency in brain after inflammation is clearly much higher than previously appreciated.
Peptides. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18675863
The direct ghrelin (Ghr) involvement in cardiovascular (CV) system homeostasis has been suggested by the expression of its receptor in CV tissues and by evidence that ghrelin mediates CV activities in animals and in humans. Moreover, low Ghr plasma levels have been reported in pathological conditions characterized by high cardiovascular risk. In the present study, we investigated Ghr effect on proliferation of human aortic endothelial cell (HAEC) and involved transduction pathways. Our results indicate that ghrelin elicited proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) about of 5nmol/L) in cultured HAEC, and that this effect was inhibited by the receptor antagonist (D-Lys3)-GHRP-6. Western blot experiments documented an activation of external receptor activated kinases (ERK1/2) and Akt in a dose-dependent fashion, as well as involvement of the cAMP pathway in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Experiments conducted with appropriate pharmacological inhibitors to investigate Ghr-induced HAEC proliferation confirmed the involvement of ERK1/2 and I3P/Akt pathways, as well as the role of AMP cyclase/PKA pathway in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Our results indicate that Ghr promotes HAEC proliferation, and thus may be a protective factor against vascular damage. The low ghrelin serum levels reported in insulin-resistant states may not be able to effectively counteract endothelial cell injury.
Sca-1 Expression is Required for Efficient Remodeling of the Extracellular Matrix During Skeletal Muscle Regeneration
Developmental Biology. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19059231
Sca-1 (Stem Cell Antigen-1) is a member of the Ly-6 family proteins that functions in cell growth, differentiation, and self-renewal in multiple tissues. In skeletal muscle Sca-1 negatively regulates myoblast proliferation and differentiation, and may function in the maintenance of progenitor cells. We investigated the role of Sca-1 in skeletal muscle regeneration and show here that Sca-1 expression is upregulated in a subset of myogenic cells upon muscle injury. We demonstrate that extract from crushed muscle upregulates Sca-1 expression in myoblasts in vitro, and that this effect is reversible and independent of cell proliferation. Sca-1(-/-) mice exhibit defects in muscle regeneration, with the development of fibrosis following injury. Sca-1(-/-) muscle displays reduced activity of matrix metalloproteinases, critical regulators of extracellular matrix remodeling. Interestingly, we show that the number of satellite cells is similar in wild-type and Sca-1(-/-) muscle, suggesting that in satellite cells Sca-1 does not play a role in self-renewal. We hypothesize that Sca-1 upregulates, directly or indirectly, the activity of matrix metalloproteinases, leading to matrix breakdown and efficient muscle regeneration. Further elucidation of the role of Sca-1 in matrix remodeling may aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of fibrotic diseases.
Ghrelin Inhibits Contraction and Proliferation of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells by CAMP/PKA Pathway Activation
Atherosclerosis. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18667202
Ghrelin (Ghr), the natural ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor, is principally produced by the stomach. An interesting aspect in Ghr cardiovascular effects was elicited by the identification of ghrelin and GHS (growth hormone secretagogue) receptor mRNA expression in several cardiovascular tissues and cell types. In man, Ghr administration induced lowering of blood pressure, and decreased plasma levels were reported in several pathological conditions. The present investigation was performed to elucidate ghrelin effect on contraction and proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Ghrelin receptor expression in HASMC was evaluated by RT-PCR, and binding studies were performed to elucidate the receptor kinetics. Ghr effect on angiotensin II-induced HASMC contraction and proliferation was evaluated in vitro. In addition, involvement of cAMP, ERK, and Akt pathways was investigated. PCR documented GHS-R1a expression. Binding of [(125)I-His(9)]-Ghrelin to HASMC was saturable in a dose-dependent manner. Scatchard analysis showed a single class of binding sites (Kd 1.58+/-0.23nM, B(max) 5848+/-291fmol/10(5) cells). In competition binding, (d-Lys(3))-GHRP-6 showed a capacity to compete with [(125)I-His(9)]-Ghrelin with Ki of 4.25nM. Ghrelin was able to inhibit angiotensin II-induced proliferation and contraction in a dose-response fashion via the cAMP/PKA pathway. Our data document that Ghr affects several HASMC functions, opening the way to consider ghrelin as a possible therapeutic target in many pathological conditions associated with vascular damage and remodelling.
Bone Marrow-derived Cells in the Central Nervous System of a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Are Associated with Blood Vessels and Express CX(3)CR1
Glia. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19243075
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is associated with increased numbers of microglia within the CNS. However, it is unclear to what extent bone marrow (BM)-derived cells contribute to this microgliosis. We have studied the adoptive transfer of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled whole BM cells and BM from mice that express GFP only in CX(3)CR1+ cells (CX(3)CR1(+/GFP)) into the CNS of a murine model of ALS having over-expression of mutant superoxide dismutase (mSOD), and wt littermates. We find that most GFP+ and CX(3)CR1(+/GFP) cells are found adjacent to the microvasculature within the CNS, both in mSOD and wt mice. GFP+ and CX(3)CR1(+/GFP) cells within the CNS have a variety of morphologies, including cells with an elongated appearance, weak Iba-1 immunoreactivity, and often mannose receptor immunoreactivity, indicating that these cells are perivascular microglia. Typically, less than 10% of BM-derived cells had a stellate-shape and expressed strong Iba-1 immunoreactivity, as expected for parenchymal microglia, indicating that BM-derived cells uncommonly generate parenchymal microglia. Adoptive transfer of BM-derived cells from CX(3)CR1(+/GFP) mice revealed that many elongated cells are GFP+, demonstrating that some perivascular cells are derived from BM cells of the CX(3)CR1+ lineage. The significantly greater numbers of BM cells in mSOD than in control mice indicate that the presence of these BM cells in the spinal cord is regulated by conditioning stimuli that may include irradiation and inflammatory factors within the CNS.
Thymic Progenitor Homing and Lymphocyte Homeostasis Are Linked Via S1P-controlled Expression of Thymic P-selectin/CCL25
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19289576
Thymic T cell progenitor (TCP) importation is a periodic, gated event that is dependent on the expression of functional P-selectin ligands on TCPs. Occupancy of intrathymic TCP niches is believed to negatively regulate TCP importation, but the nature of this feedback mechanism is not yet resolved. We show that P-selectin and CCL25 are periodically expressed in the thymus and are essential parts of the thymic gate-keeping mechanism. Periodicity of thymic TCP receptivity and the size of the earliest intrathymic TCP pool were dependent on the presence of functional P-selectin ligand on TCPs. Furthermore, we show that the numbers of peripheral blood lymphocytes directly affected thymic P-selectin expression and TCP receptivity. We identified sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) as one feedback signal that could mediate influence of the peripheral lymphocyte pool on thymic TCP receptivity. Our findings suggest a model whereby thymic TCP importation is controlled by both early thymic niche occupancy and the peripheral lymphocyte pool via S1P.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19338754
Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) differentiation and proliferation are controlled by numerous growth factors and hormones. Continuous parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment has been shown to decrease osteoblast differentiation, whereas pulsatile PTH increases osteoblast differentiation. However, the effects of PTH treatments on MSCs have not been investigated. This study showed continuous PTH treatment in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX) promoted osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs in vitro, as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, number of ALP expressing cells, and up-regulation of PTH receptor-1, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNA expressions. In contrast, pulsatile PTH treatment was found to suppress osteogenesis of rat MSCs, possibly by promoting the maintenance of undifferentiated cells. Additionally, the observed effects of PTH were strongly dependent on the presence of DEX. MSC proliferation however was not influenced by PTH independent of treatment regimen and presence or absence of DEX. Furthermore, our work raised the possibility that PTH treatment may modulate stem/progenitor cell activity within MSC cultures.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19415111
The Cre-loxP system has been used to enable tissue specific activation, inactivation and mutation of many genes in vivo and has thereby greatly facilitated the genetic dissection of several cellular and developmental processes. In such studies, Cre-reporter strains, which carry a Cre-activated marker gene, are frequently utilized to validate the expression profile of Cre transgenes, to act as a surrogate marker for excision of a second allele, and to irreversibly label cells for lineage tracing experiments.
A Case of Philadelphia Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia with Three Different Phenotypic Lineage, Each One Presenting the Same BCR-ABL Hybrid Transcript
Leukemia Research. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19476999
Le Fort I Osteotomy with Interpositional Graft and Immediate Loading of Delayed Modified SLActive Surface Dental Implants for Rehabilitation of Extremely Atrophied Maxilla: a Case Report
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery : Official Journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19531422
To describe a successful clinical case of immediate prosthetic loading of modified sandblasting and acid-etching surface ITI dental implants inserted in a grafted maxilla after Le Fort I osteotomy.
Depot-specific Differences in Adipogenic Progenitor Abundance and Proliferative Response to High-fat Diet
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19658193
White adipose tissue (fat) is the primary organ for energy storage and its regulation has serious implications on human health. Excess fat tissue causes significant morbidity, and adipose tissue dysfunction caused by excessive adipocyte hypertrophy has been proposed to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. Studies in both humans and animal models show that metabolic dysfunction is more closely associated with visceral than subcutaneous fat accumulation. Here, we show that in mice fed a high-fat diet, visceral fat (VAT) grows mostly by hypertrophy and subcutaneous fat (SAT) by hyperplasia, providing a rationale for the different effects of specific adipose depots on metabolic health. To address whether depot expansion is controlled at the level of stem/progenitor cells, we developed a strategy to prospectively identify adipogenic progenitors (APs) from both depots. Clonogenic assays and in vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) studies show that APs are eightfold more abundant in SAT than VAT, and that AP proliferation is significantly increased in SAT but not VAT in response to high-fat diet. Our results suggest that depot-specific differences in AP abundance and proliferation underlie whether a fat depot expands by hypertrophy or hyperplasia, and thus may have important implications on the development of metabolic disease. In addition, we provide the first evidence that dietary inputs can modulate the proliferation of adipogenic progenitors in adults.
The Differential in Vitro and in Vivo Responses of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Novel Porous Gelatin-alginate Scaffolds
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19685485
Tissue engineering and stem cell therapy hold great potential of being able to fully restore, repair and replace damaged, diseased or lost tissues in the body. Biocompatible porous scaffolds are used for the delivery of cells to the regeneration sites. Marrow stromal cells (MSCs), also referred to as mesenchymal stem cells, are an attractive cell source for tissue engineering, due to the relative ease of isolation and the ability of in vitro expanded MSCs to generate multiple cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This study utilized a novel technique called microwave vacuum drying to fabricate porous gelatin-alginate scaffolds for the delivery of MSCs and investigated the differential in vitro and in vivo responses of MSCs seeded on these scaffolds. Scaffold total porosity was found to decrease with increased cross-link density but the pore size and pore size distribution were not affected. Although highly porous, the scaffold had relatively small pores and limited interconnectivity. The porous gelatin-alginate scaffold demonstrated excellent biocompatibility with neovascularization on the surfaces and was bioresorbed completely in vivo, depending upon the cross-link density. MSCs were able to attach and proliferate at the same rate on the scaffolds, and the self-renewal potential of MSC cultures was similar during both in vitro culture and in vivo implantation. However, the subcutaneous microenvironment was found to suppress MSC differentiation along the osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages compared to in vitro conditions, highlighting the differential responses of MSCs cultured in vitro compared to implantation in vivo.
Nature Cell Biology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20081841
Efficient tissue regeneration is dependent on the coordinated responses of multiple cell types. Here, we describe a new subpopulation of fibro/adipogenic progenitors (FAPs) resident in muscle tissue but arising from a distinct developmental lineage. Transplantation of purified FAPs results in the generation of ectopic white fat when delivered subcutaneously or intramuscularly in a model of fatty infiltration, but not in healthy muscle, suggesting that the environment controls their engraftment. These cells are quiescent in intact muscle but proliferate efficiently in response to damage. FAPs do not generate myofibres, but enhance the rate of differentiation of primary myogenic progenitors in co-cultivation experiments. In summary, FAPs expand upon damage to provide a transient source of pro-differentiation signals for proliferating myogenic progenitors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20336765
Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are ideally suited for tissue engineered bone grafts since they have the potential to regenerate bone, but may also maintain the homeostasis of the repaired tissue through their ability for self-renewal. An ideal bone graft substitute should support MSC self-renewal as well as differentiation to ensure complete bone defect regeneration and maintenance. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of different substrate materials on MSC expansion and differentiation. Calcium polyphosphate (CPP), bone and hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) were seeded with rat MSCs and maintained in culture conditions that promote cell expansion. At 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days cell numbers were determined by measuring their metabolic activity using a MTT assay and the frequency of cycling cells by 24 hr BrdU incorporation. Osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic marker expression in these cultures was measured by qRT-PCR. An initial drop in cell numbers was observed on all substrates. CPP and bone, but not HA/TCP supported an increase in proliferating cells at day 14 and 21. In addition, no upregulation of mature bone markers was observed in cells cultured on CPP and bone, which suggests that these substrates support the expansion of undifferentiated MSCs. In contrast, cell numbers on HA/TCP decreased with time and only rare BrdU positive cells were observed. This decrease in proliferation correlated with the down regulation of osteogenic progenitor markers and the substantial increase in mature osteocyte markers, indicating that HA/TCP favors MSC differentiation and maturation along the osteogenic lineage.
Activating and Inhibitory Functions for the Histone Lysine Methyltransferase G9a in T Helper Cell Differentiation and Function
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20421388
Accumulating evidence suggests that the regulation of gene expression by histone lysine methylation is crucial for several biological processes. The histone lysine methyltransferase G9a is responsible for the majority of dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9me2) and is required for the efficient repression of developmentally regulated genes during embryonic stem cell differentiation. However, whether G9a plays a similar role in adult cells is still unclear. We identify a critical role for G9a in CD4(+) T helper (Th) cell differentiation and function. G9a-deficient Th cells are specifically impaired in their induction of Th2 lineage-specific cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and fail to protect against infection with the intestinal helminth Trichuris muris. Furthermore, G9a-deficient Th cells are characterised by the increased expression of IL-17A, which is associated with a loss of H3K9me2 at the Il17a locus. Collectively, our results establish unpredicted and complex roles for G9a in regulating gene expression during lineage commitment in adult CD4(+) T cells.
HDL Cholesterol is a Strong Determinant of Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects
Microvascular Research. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20478316
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) can repair the endothelial layer and are considered a component of the cardiovascular system. EPC number and function may change under pathological conditions, including cardiovascular risk factors. The study was carried out to investigate circulating EPC number, in vitro function and relationship with LDL-C, HDL-C and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Forty-one male and 39 female subjects, age>35 and<45, LDL cholesterol plasma level>130 mg/dl with normal (> or =50 mg/dl females and> or =40 mg/dl males) or low HDL-C, absence of any concomitant disorders and/or drug treatment, at their first diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia, were consecutively recruited in the Outpatient Service of the Medical Pathophysiology Department of Rome Sapienza University. In high LDL-C patients, circulating EPC number was decreased and EPC capability to migrate was impaired as well. This pattern was far less evident in the normal HDL-C subgroup. The endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) was significantly decreased according to the HDL-C decrease in male but not in female subjects. Univariate analysis showed a direct correlation between EPC number and EDV, and the association persisted after adjustment for sex, age and HDL-C, which were all significantly correlated to EDV, which may suggest a protective role of EPC on endothelium in vivo. Our study documented that, in hypercholesterolemic subjects, HDL-C is a strong determinant of EPC number and function, and EPC number decrease is an independent risk factor for endothelial dysfunction.
Cellular Microbiology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20497179
CD34 is a highly glycosylated sialomucin expressed on a variety of cells, ranging from vascular endothelial cells to haematopoietic stem cells. Depending on its glycosylation state, CD34 has been shown to promote or inhibit cell adhesion and migration; however, a functional role for CD34 in the gut has not been determined. Using a model of Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis, we investigated the role of CD34 in the context of infection. Upon oral infection, the number of CD34+ cells detected in the submucosa, vascular endothelium and lamina propria significantly increased in S. Typhimurium-infected C57Bl/6 mice. The pathology of S. Typhimurium-infected C57Bl/6 mice was characterized by recruitment of neutrophils to the site of inflammation, submucosal oedema and crypt destruction. In contrast, Cd34(-/-) mice showed a delayed pathology, a defect in inflammatory cell migration into the intestinal tissue and enhanced survival. Importantly, this was not due to a lack of chemotactic signals in Cd34(-/-) mice as these mice had either similar or significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines post infection when compared with infected C57/Bl6 control mice. In summary, we demonstrate a novel role for CD34 in enhancing migration of inflammatory cells and thereby exacerbating host-mediated immunopathology in the intestine of S. Typhimurium-infected mice.
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20505371
Early Loading of Single Crowns Supported by 6-mm-long Implants with a Moderately Rough Surface: a Prospective 2-year Follow-up Cohort Study
Clinical Oral Implants Research. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20701620
To evaluate prospectively the clinical and radiographic outcomes after 2 years of loading of 6 mm long moderately rough implants supporting single crowns in the posterior regions.
Biomaterials. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20832109
Regeneration of lost periodontium is a challenge in that both hard (alveolar bone, cementum) and soft (periodontal ligament) connective tissues need to be restored to their original architecture. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) appear to be an attractive candidate for connective tissue regeneration. We hypothesized that BM-MSCs are able to sense biological cues from the local microenvironment and organize appropriately to contribute to the regeneration of both soft and hard periodontal connective tissues. To test this hypothesis, we transplanted GFP(+) rat BM-MSCs expanded ex vivo on microcarrier gelatin beads into a surgically created rat periodontal defect. After three weeks, evidence of regeneration of bone, cementum and periodontal ligament was observed in both transplanted and control animals. However, the animals that received BM-MSCs regenerated significantly greater new bone. In addition, the animals that had received the cells and beads transplant had significantly more appropriately orientated periodontal ligament fibers, indicative of functional restoration. Finally, donor-derived BM-MSCs were found integrated in newly formed bone, cementum and periodontal ligament, suggesting that they can directly contribute to the regeneration of cells of these tissues.
Convergent Genesis of an Adult Neural Crest-like Dermal Stem Cell from Distinct Developmental Origins
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20848654
Skin-derived precursors (SKPs) are multipotent dermal stem cells that reside within a hair follicle niche and that share properties with embryonic neural crest precursors. Here, we have asked whether SKPs and their endogenous dermal precursors originate from the neural crest or whether, like the dermis itself, they originate from multiple developmental origins. To do this, we used two different mouse Cre lines that allow us to perform lineage tracing: Wnt1-cre, which targets cells deriving from the neural crest, and Myf5-cre, which targets cells of a somite origin. By crossing these Cre lines to reporter mice, we show that the endogenous follicle-associated dermal precursors in the face derive from the neural crest, and those in the dorsal trunk derive from the somites, as do the SKPs they generate. Despite these different developmental origins, SKPs from these two locations are functionally similar, even with regard to their ability to differentiate into Schwann cells, a cell type only thought to be generated from the neural crest. Analysis of global gene expression using microarrays confirmed that facial and dorsal SKPs exhibit a very high degree of similarity, and that they are also very similar to SKPs derived from ventral dermis, which has a lateral plate origin. However, these developmentally distinct SKPs also retain differential expression of a small number of genes that reflect their developmental origins. Thus, an adult neural crest-like dermal precursor can be generated from a non-neural crest origin, a finding with broad implications for the many neuroendocrine cells in the body.
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21128750
The airway epithelium is constantly faced with inflammatory and potentially injurious stimuli. Following damage, rapid repair mechanisms involving proliferation and differentiation of resident progenitor and stem cell pools are necessary in order to maintain a protective barrier. In asthma, evidence pointing to a compromised ability of the epithelium to properly repair and regenerate is rapidly accumulating. The consequences of this are presently unknown but are likely to have a significant impact on lung function. Mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to serve as a universal source for replacement of specific cells in several diseases and thus offer hope as a potential therapeutic intervention for the treatment of the chronic remodeling changes that occur in the asthmatic epithelium. However, controversy exists regarding whether these cells can actually home to and engraft within the airways and contribute to tissue function or whether this mechanism is necessary, since they can have potent paracrine immunomodulatory effects. This article focuses on the current knowledge about specific stem cell populations that may contribute to airway epithelial regeneration and discusses the use of mesenchymal stem cells as a potential therapeutic intervention.
Effects of Granulocyte-colony Stimulating Factor on Bone Marrow-derived Progenitor Cells in Murine Cardiac Transplantation
Cardiovascular Pathology : the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology. Jan-Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19144547
Current Topics in Developmental Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21621070
Although classical dogma dictates that satellite cells are the primary cell type involved in skeletal muscle regeneration, alternative cell types such as a variety of inflammatory and stromal cells are also actively involved in this process. A model describing myogenic cells as direct contributors to regeneration and nonmyogenic cells from other developmental sources as important accessories has emerged, with similar systems having been described in numerous other tissues in the body. Increasing evidence supports the notion that inflammatory cells function as supportive accessory cells, and are not merely involved in clearing damage following skeletal muscle injury. Additionally, recent studies have highlighted the role of tissue resident mesenchymal cell populations as playing a central role in regulating regeneration. These "accessory" cell populations are proposed to influence myogenesis via direct cell contact and secretion of paracrine trophic factors. The basic foundations of accessory cell understanding should be recognized as a crucial component to all prospects of regenerative medicine, and this chapter intends to provide a comprehensive background on the current literature describing immune and tissue-resident mesenchymal cells' role in skeletal muscle regeneration.
Prolonged Self-renewal Activity Unmasks Telomerase Control of Telomere Homeostasis and Function of Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Blood. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21730353
Strategies for expanding hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could have significant utility for transplantation-based therapies. However, deleterious consequences of such manipulations remain unknown. Here we examined the impact of HSC self-renewal divisions in vitro and in vivo on their subsequent regenerative and continuing ability to sustain blood cell production in the absence of telomerase. HSC expansion in vitro was obtained using a NUP98-HOXA10hd transduction strategy and, in vivo, using a serial transplant protocol. We observed ~ 10kb telomere loss in leukocytes produced in secondary mice transplanted with HSCs regenerated in primary recipients of NUP98-HOXA10hd-transduced and in vitro-expanded Tert(-/-) HSCs 6 months before. The second generation leukocytes also showed elevated expression of γH2AX (relative to control) indicative of greater accumulating DNA damage. In contrast, significant telomere shortening was not detected in leukocytes produced from freshly isolated, serially transplanted wild-type (WT) or Tert(-/-) HSCs, suggesting that HSC replication posttransplant is not limited by telomere shortening in the mouse. These findings document a role of telomerase in telomere homeostasis, and in preserving HSC functional integrity on prolonged self-renewal stimulation.
Infiltrating Monocytes Trigger EAE Progression, but Do Not Contribute to the Resident Microglia Pool
Nature Neuroscience. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21804537
In multiple sclerosis and the experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model, two pools of morphologically indistinguishable phagocytic cells, microglia and inflammatory macrophages, accrue from proliferating resident precursors and recruitment of blood-borne progenitors, respectively. Whether these cell types are functionally equivalent is hotly debated, but is challenging to address experimentally. Using a combination of parabiosis and myeloablation to replace circulating progenitors without affecting CNS-resident microglia, we found a strong correlation between monocyte infiltration and progression to the paralytic stage of EAE. Inhibition of chemokine receptor-dependent recruitment of monocytes to the CNS blocked EAE progression, suggesting that these infiltrating cells are essential for pathogenesis. Finally, we found that, although microglia can enter the cell cycle and return to quiescence following remission, recruited monocytes vanish, and therefore do not ultimately contribute to the resident microglial pool. In conclusion, we identified two distinct subsets of myelomonocytic cells with distinct roles in neuroinflammation and disease progression.
Molecular Cell. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21855805
Methylation of specific lysine residues in the C terminus of p53 is thought to govern p53-dependent transcription following genotoxic and oncogenic stress. In particular, Set7/9 (KMT7)-mediated monomethylation of human p53 at lysine 372 (p53K372me1) was suggested to be essential for p53 activation in human cell lines. This finding was confirmed in a Set7/9 knockout mouse model (Kurash et al., 2008). In an independent knockout mouse strain deficient in Set7/9, we have investigated its involvement in p53 regulation and find that cells from these mice are normal in their ability to induce p53-dependent transcription following genotoxic and oncogenic insults. Most importantly, we detect no impairment in canonical p53 functions in these mice, indicating that Set7/9-mediated methylation of p53 does not seem to represent a major regulatory event and does not appreciably control p53 activity in vivo.
Journal of Biomaterials Applications. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21926147
Current problems associated with bone allografts include risk of disease transmission, limited availability, and cost. Synthetic scaffolds have been proposed as substitute graft materials to address these issues. Calcium polyphosphate is a novel synthetic scaffold material that has shown good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Here, we evaluated calcium polyphosphate in terms of its ability to support cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo. Calcium polyphosphate, morsellized cancellous bone, and hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate particles were seeded with marrow stromal cells and implanted subcutaneously in the back of NOD/Scid mice. At 7, 14, and 28 days the samples were harvested and the proliferation characteristics and gene expression were analyzed. All tested graft materials had similar proliferation characteristics and gene expression. The subcutaneous environment had a stronger impact on the proliferation and differentiation of the cells than the scaffold material itself. However, it was shown that calcium polyphosphate is superior to hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate and bone in its ability to support cell survival in vivo. The study confirmed that calcium polyphosphate has potential for replacing morsellized cancellous bone as a graft material for bone regeneration.
Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira Para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa Em Cirurgia. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21952653
To investigate the effects of a new electrocautery device to provoke endovascular venous thermal injury.
CD34 Promotes Satellite Cell Motility and Entry into Proliferation to Facilitate Efficient Skeletal Muscle Regeneration
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21997891
Expression of the cell surface sialomucin CD34 is common to many adult stem cell types, including muscle satellite cells. However, no clear stem cell or regeneration-related phenotype has ever been reported in mice lacking CD34, and its function on these cells remains poorly understood. Here, we assess the functional role of CD34 on satellite cell-mediated muscle regeneration. We show that Cd34(-/-) mice, which have no obvious developmental phenotype, display a defect in muscle regeneration when challenged with either acute or chronic muscle injury. This regenerative defect is caused by impaired entry into proliferation and delayed myogenic progression. Consistent with the reported antiadhesive function of CD34, knockout satellite cells also show decreased motility along their host myofiber. Altogether, our results identify a role for CD34 in the poorly understood early steps of satellite cell activation and provide the first evidence that beyond being a stem cell marker, CD34 may play an important function in modulating stem cell activity.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22039476
Induced cell fusion has enabled several important discoveries, including the phenomenon of nuclear reprogramming and may yet be applied as a novel therapy for degenerative diseases. However, existing fusogens lack the efficiency required to enable investigation of the epigenetic modifications underlying nuclear reprogramming and the specificity required for clinical application. Here we present a chimeric measles hemagglutinin, Hα7, which specifically and efficiently mediates the fusion of diverse cell types with skeletal muscle both in vitro and in vivo. When compared directly to polyethylene glycol, Hα7 consistently generated a substantial increase in heterokaryon yield and exhibited insignificant levels of toxicity. Moreover, this increased fusion efficiency enabled detection of chromatin modifications associated with nuclear reprogramming following Hα7-mediated fusion of human fibroblasts and mouse myotubes. Finally, Hα7 was also capable of increasing the contribution of transplanted fibroblasts to skeletal muscle repair in vivo, suggesting that this strategy could be used for therapeutic gene delivery.
Influence of Implants with Different Sizes and Configurations Installed Immediately into Extraction Sockets on Peri-implant Hard and Soft Tissues: an Experimental Study in Dogs
Clinical Oral Implants Research. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22092491
AIM: To study the influence on the healing of soft and hard peri-implant tissues when implants of different sizes and configurations were installed into sockets immediately after tooth extraction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Transmucosal cylindrical implants, 3.3 mm in diameter in the control sites, and conical 5 mm in diameter in the test sites, were installed into the distal socket of the fourth mandibular premolars in dogs immediately after tooth extraction. After 4 months, the hard and soft tissue healing was evaluated histologically. RESULTS: All implants were integrated in mineralized mature bone. Both at the test and control sites, the alveolar crest underwent resorption. The buccal bony surface at the implant test sites (conical; 3.8 mm) was more resorbed compared with the control sites (cylindrical; 1.6 mm). The soft tissue dimensions were similar in both groups. However, in relation to the implant shoulder, the peri-implant mucosa was located more apically at the test compared with the control sites. CONCLUSION: The present study confirmed that the distance between the implant surface and the outer contour of the buccal alveolar bony crest influenced the degree of resorption of the buccal bone plate. Consequently, in relation to the implant shoulder, the peri-implant mucosa will be established at a more apical level, if the distance between the implant surface and the outer contour of the alveolar crest is small.
Endocrine Journal. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22095000
The relation between thyroid ultrasonography and laboratory, and the relationship of thyroid volume with clinical and anthropometric parameters, are not well clarified. Aim of the study was to investigate normal and hypoechoic-inhomogeneous not nodular thyroid gland in predicting thyroid tests, and to assess the correlation of thyroid volume with several clinical parameters. The series included 434 subjects (244 with normal thyroid ultrasonography, and 190 with hypoechoic-inhomogeneous thyroid) at their first evaluation. Subjects with normal ultrasonography and skewed tests were re-evaluated after one year. All subjects with normal ultrasound showed normal free-T(4), while TSH was elevated in 9.8% of cases and thyroid antibodies were positive in another 9.8%. In patients with hypoechoic-inhomogeneous thyroid, free-T(4) was low in 33.2%, TSH was elevated in 78.4% and thyroid antibodies were positive in 76.3%. Normal ultrasonography matched with normal tests in 81.1% of cases while hypoechoic-inhomogeneous thyroid in 9.5% (p<0.001). The re-evaluation of tests showed no significant difference. In subjects with both normal ultrasonography and tests, thyroid volume was correlated with age (p=0.001), weight (p=0.003), BMI (p=0.04), body surface area (p=0.002). Thyroid laboratory assessment was different between subjects with ultrasonographically normal or hypoechoic-inhomogeneous thyroid. Thyroid volume of thyroid diseases-free subjects was correlated with age, weight, BMI and body surface area, and this should be of interest to investigate the references of normality of thyroid size.
Lysine Methyltransferase G9a is Required for De Novo DNA Methylation and the Establishment, but Not the Maintenance, of Proviral Silencing
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21427230
Methylation on lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me) and DNA methylation play important roles in the transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. Both marks are detected on class I and II endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Recently, we reported that the H3K9-specific lysine methyltransferase (KMTase) Eset/Setdb1/KMT1E is required for H3K9me3 and the maintenance of silencing of ERVs in mESCs. In contrast, G9a/Ehmt2/KMT1C is dispensable, despite the fact that this KMTase is required for H3K9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) and efficient DNA methylation of these retroelements. Transcription of the exogenous retrovirus (XRV) Moloney murine leukemia virus is rapidly extinguished after integration in mESCs, concomitant with de novo DNA methylation. However, the role that H3K9 KMTases play in this process has not been addressed. Here, we demonstrate that G9a, but not Suv39h1 or Suv39h2, is required for silencing of newly integrated Moloney murine leukemia virus-based vectors in mESCs. The silencing defect in G9a(-/-) cells is accompanied by a reduction of H3K9me2 at the proviral LTR, indicating that XRVs are direct targets of G9a. Furthermore, de novo DNA methylation of newly integrated proviruses is impaired in the G9a(-/-) line, phenocopying proviral DNA methylation and silencing defects observed in Dnmt3a-deficient mESCs. Once established, however, maintenance of silencing of XRVs, like ERVs, is dependent exclusively on the KMTase Eset. Taken together, these observations reveal that in mESCs, the H3K9 KMTase G9a is required for the establishment, but not for the maintenance, of silencing of newly integrated proviruses.
Bone Healing Pattern in Surgically Created Circumferential Defects Around Submerged Implants: an Experimental Study in Dog
Clinical Oral Implants Research. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21443594
To describe the healing of marginal defects below or above 1 mm of dimension around submerged implants in a dog model.