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In JoVE (1)
- Investigating Outer Hair Cell Motility with a Combination of External Alternating Electrical Field Stimulation and High-speed Image Analysis
Other Publications (15)
- Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO
- Hearing Research
- Audiology & Neuro-otology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Hearing Research
- Hearing Research
- Biophysical Journal
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
- International Journal of Radiation Biology
- Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
- Biophysical Journal
- Communicative & Integrative Biology
- Hearing Research
- Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Articles by Federico Kalinec in JoVE
Investigating Outer Hair Cell Motility with a Combination of External Alternating Electrical Field Stimulation and High-speed Image Analysis
Rei Kitani, Federico Kalinec
Division of Cell Biology and Genetics, House Ear Institute
A reliable method to investigate outer hair cell (OHC) motile responses, including electromotility, slow motility and bending, is described. OHC motility is elicited by stimulation with an external alternating electrical field, and the method takes advantage of high-speed image recording, LED-based illumination, and last generation image analysis software.
Other articles by Federico Kalinec on PubMed
Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology : JARO. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12382104
The basal and lateral regions of the plasma membrane of cochlear outer hair cells are structurally and functionally distinct. The lateral region contains thousands of motor proteins but few voltage-gated channels. The basal region, conversely, contains a high number of voltage-gated channels but is devoid of motor proteins. It has been suggested that the cortical cytoskeleton is responsible for maintaining this regional distinction. Toward elucidating the structure of the outer hair cell's electromotile mechanism, we investigated the physical organization of the lateral plasma membrane in living guinea pig outer hair cells by analyzing the distribution pattern of the anionic long-chain carbocyanine SP-DiIC18(3) within this area, before and after electrical stimulation and with an intact and a disrupted cytoskeleton. We observed punctate, intensely fluorescent patches as well as areas of weaker fluorescence, with clear local maxima and minima, upon labeling the cells with this membrane-soluble probe. This discrete distribution of SP-DilC18(3) suggests that the lateral plasma membrane of guinea pig outer hair cells may be composed of small structural domains (microdomains). Disrupting the cytoskeleton with either trypsin or toxin B from Clostridium difficile did not change this pattern of distribution, thus indicating that this treatment did not facilitate the lateral diffusion of the probes. Electrical stimulation using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, on the other hand, induced two responses: fast motility and reversible displacement of the fluorescent probes. Both responses were inhibited by internal perfusion with salicylate, while disruption of the cytoskeleton did not inhibit OHC fast motility but affected the electrically induced redistribution of fluorescent probes. Together, these results suggest that the lateral plasma membrane of guinea pig outer hair cells contains structural microdomains and that the cytoskeleton does not appear to be playing a major role in maintaining the lateral separation of these distinct molecular regions.
Hearing Research. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12433395
Cisplatin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent, has a major limitation due to its ototoxicity. Previous studies have shown that cisplatin induces apoptosis in auditory sensory cells, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, cisplatin was found to induce apoptosis in a cochlear cell line, in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. Specific caspase assays revealed an early (6 h) but transient increase in caspase 8 activity, and a delayed (12 h) increase in caspase 9 activity. The enhanced caspase 8 activity was preceded by upregulation of p53 expression, and coincided with cleavage of Bid to its truncated form. This was followed temporally by activation and mitochondrial translocation of Bax, induction of mitochondrial permeability transition, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, activation of caspase 9, and entry into the execution phase of apoptosis. Our results indicate the involvement of both the death receptor mechanisms as well as mitochondrial pathways in cisplatin-induced apoptosis of auditory cells in an in vitro model system.
Audiology & Neuro-otology. Jul-Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12811000
Aminoglycoside antibiotics, loop diuretics, antineoplastic agents and other commonly used pharmacological drugs are ototoxic. Understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying drug ototoxicity, however, has been hampered by the limited availability of inner ear tissues and drug side effects on laboratory animals. Immortalized cell lines derived from the auditory sensory organ, sensitive to ototoxic drugs and growing in environments that can be systematically manipulated, would facilitate the research directed at elucidating these mechanisms. Such immortalized cell lines could also be used to discover novel therapeutic agents for preventing drug-induced sensorineural hearing loss. Here, we report a conditionally immortalized organ of Corti-derived epithelial cell line, which shows evidence of activation of apoptosis when exposed to known ototoxic drugs. This cell line may be an excellent in vitro system to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in ototoxicity and for screening of the potential ototoxicity or otoprotective properties of new pharmacological drugs.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12837763
Outer hair cell electromotility is crucial for the proper function of the cochlear amplifier, the active process that enhances sensitivity and frequency discrimination of the mammalian ear. Previous work (Kalinec, F., Zhang, M., Urrutia, R., and Kalinec, G. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 28000-28005) has suggested a role for Rho GTPases in the regulation of outer hair cell electromotility, although the signaling pathways mediated by these enzymes remain to be established. Here we have investigated the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the homeostatic regulation of the electromotile response of guinea pig outer hair cells. Our findings defined a ROCK-mediated signaling cascade that continuously modulates outer hair cell electromotility by selectively targeting the cytoskeleton. A distinct ROCK-independent pathway functions as a fast resetting mechanism for this system. Neither pathway affects the function of prestin, the unique molecular motor of outer hair cells. These results extend our understanding of a basic mechanism of both normal human hearing and deafness, revealing the key role of the cytoskeleton in the regulation of outer hair cell electromotility and suggesting ROCK as a molecular target for modulating the function of the cochlear amplifier.
Protective Effect of T-type Calcium Channel Blocker Flunarizine on Cisplatin-induced Death of Auditory Cells
Hearing Research. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15925198
Changes in intracellular Ca2+ level are involved in a number of intracellular events, including triggering of apoptosis. The role of intracellular calcium mobilization in cisplatin-induced hair cell death, however, is still unknown. In this study, the effect of calcium channel blocker flunarizine (Sibelium), which is used to prescribe for vertigo and tinnitus, on cisplatin-induced hair cell death was investigated in a cochlear organ of Corti-derived cell line, HEI-OC1, and the neonatal (P2) rat organ of Corti explant. Cisplatin induced apoptotic cell death showing nuclear fragmentation, DNA ladder, and TUNEL positive in both HEI-OC1 and primary organ of Corti explant. Flunarizine significantly inhibited the cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Unexpectedly, flunarizine increased the intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels of HEI-OC1. However, the protective effect of flunarizine against cisplatin was not mediated by modulation of intracellular calcium level. Treatment of cisplatin resulted in ROS generation and lipid peroxidation in HEI-OC1. Flunarizine did not attenuate ROS production but inhibited lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial permeability transition in cisplatin-treated cells. This result suggests that the protective mechanism of flunarizine on cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity is associated with direct inhibition of lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial permeability transition.
Hearing Research. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16000248
The motile response of isolated guinea pig outer hair cells (OHCs) was investigated using a combination of whole-cell patch clamp recording and continuous video image analysis. OHC's length, width, and area were measured from video images and the cell volume estimated from these values. Morphological data was then correlated with electrophysiological recordings of whole-cell current, membrane potential and voltage-dependent non-linear capacitance. Electromotility was evoked either by manipulating the membrane potential under voltage-clamp conditions or by exposing OHCs to high K+ solutions. Other motile responses were investigated in voltage-clamp experiments at constant holding potential, or exposing OHCs to solutions that did not affect the membrane potential. We found that electrical stimulation evoked voltage-dependent changes in OHC's length, width and area but not in cell volume regardless of the time course of stimulation. Moreover, changes in cell area were always associated with both voltage-dependent motility and non-linear capacitance, suggesting prestin dependency. In contrast, voltage-independent motile responses at constant membrane potential, which are presumed to be prestin-independent, were associated with changes in cell length, width and volume without significant changes in area. Area measurements, then, become a tool to investigate the simultaneous occurrence of both prestin-dependent and prestin-independent OHC motilities, and for evaluating the individual contribution of each mechanism to the total cell movement.
Extraction of Prestin-dependent and Prestin-independent Components from Complex Motile Responses in Guinea Pig Outer Hair Cells
Biophysical Journal. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16199492
Electromotility of cochlear outer hair cells (OHC) is associated with conformational changes in the integral membrane protein prestin. We have recently reported that electrical stimulation evokes significant prestin-dependent changes in the length, width, and area of the longitudinal section of OHCs, but not in their volume. In contrast, prestin-independent responses elicited at constant membrane potential are associated with changes in cell length, width, and volume without significant changes in their longitudinal section area. In this report we describe a novel analytical technique, based on a simple theoretical model and continuous measurement of changes in cell length and longitudinal section area, to evaluate the contribution of each one of these mechanisms to the motile response of OHCs. We demonstrate that if the relative change in OHC length (L) during the motile response is expressed as L = A2 x V(-1) (with A and V being the relative changes in longitudinal section area and volume, respectively), A2 will describe the contribution of the prestin-dependent mechanism whereas V(-1) will describe the contribution of the prestin-independent mechanism. Thus, relative changes in any two of these cellular morphological parameters (L, A, or V) would be necessary and sufficient for characterizing any OHC motile response. This simple approach provides access to information previously unavailable, and may become a novel and important tool for increasing our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of OHC motility.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16239342
Gentamicin is a widely used ototoxic agent. In this study, we shed light on the mechanisms underlying gentamicin-induced hearing loss. More importantly, we demonstrate in vivo and in vitro the effectiveness of a strategy for preventing drug-induced hearing loss using l-carnitine (LCAR), a safe micronutrient that plays a key role in energy metabolism and detoxification [Rebouche, C. J. & Seim, H. (1998) Annu. Rev. Nutr. 18, 39-61]. We show that LCAR prevents changes in hearing threshold and cochlear damage in newborn guinea pigs exposed to gentamicin in utero. Mechanistically, gentamicin-induced apoptosis of auditory cells is mediated by the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway through up-regulation of the proapoptotic factor Harakiri (Hrk). Most important, small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments demonstrate that Hrk up-regulation is crucial for gentamicin-induced apoptosis. LCAR, in contrast, prevents both gentamicin-induced Hrk up-regulation and apoptosis acting by means of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Together, these results outline pathways for gentamicin-induced hearing loss and its prevention and assign a key role to Hrk in these processes. Thus, our data offer a conceptual framework for designing clinical trials using a safe micronutrient, LCAR, as a simple preventive strategy for iatrogenically induced ototoxicity.
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16610968
Ototoxicity is a trait shared by aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics, loop diuretics, platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents, some NSAIDs and antimalarial medications. Because their benefits in combating certain life-threatening diseases often outweigh the risks, the use of these ototoxic drugs cannot simply be avoided. In this review, the authors discuss some of the most frequently used ototoxic drugs and what is currently known about the cell and molecular mechanisms underlying their noxious effects. The authors also provide suggestions for the clinical management of ototoxic medications, including ototoxic detection and drug monitoring. Understanding the mechanisms of drug ototoxicity may lead to new strategies for preventing and curing drug-induced hearing loss, as well as developing new pharmacological drugs with less toxic side effects.
International Journal of Radiation Biology. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19016139
Radiofrequency (RF) exposure at the frequency of mobile phones has been reported not to induce cellular damage in in vitro and in vivo models. We chose HEI-OC1 immortalized mouse auditory hair cells to characterize the cellular response to 1763 MHz RF exposure, because auditory cells could be exposed to mobile phone frequencies.
Acetaminophen Ototoxicity After Acetaminophen/hydrocodone Abuse: Evidence from Two Parallel in Vitro Mouse Models
Otolaryngology--head and Neck Surgery : Official Journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20493351
Acetaminophen/hydrocodone, a commonly used analgesic preparation, has been linked to rapidly progressing sensorineural hearing loss in human patients. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the ototoxic effects of this drug combination are currently unknown, but are usually associated with high doses of hydrocodone. This study was aimed at identifying the specific agent responsible for hearing loss from toxic killing of cochlear sensory cells.
Biophysical Journal. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20923640
Cochlear outer hair cells undergo reversible changes in shape when externally stimulated. This response, known as OHC motility, is a central component of the cochlear amplifier, the mechanism responsible for the high sensitivity of mammalian hearing. We report that actin depolymerization, as regulated by activation/inhibition of LIMK/cofilin-mediated pathways, has a pivotal role in OHC motility. LIMK-mediated cofilin phosphorylation, which inhibits the actin depolymerizing activity of this protein, increases both electromotile amplitude and total length of guinea pig OHCs. In contrast, a decrease in cofilin phosphorylation reduces both OHC electromotile amplitude and OHC length. Experiments with acetylcholine and lysophosphatidic acid indicate that the effects of these agents on OHC motility are associated with regulation of cofilin phosphorylation via different signaling cascades. On the other hand, nonlinear capacitance measurements confirmed that all observed changes in OHC motile response were independent of the performance of the motor protein prestin. Altogether, these results strongly support the hypothesis that the cytoskeleton has a major role in the regulation of OHC motility, and identify actin depolymerization as a key process for modulating cochlear amplification.
Linking LIMK1 Deficiency to Hyperacusis and Progressive Hearing Loss in Individuals with Williams Syndrome
Communicative & Integrative Biology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21655442
Williams syndrome (a.k.a. Williams-Beuren Syndrome) is a multisystem disorder caused by the hemizygous deletion of a 1.6 Mb region at 7q11.23 encompassing about 26 genes, including that encoding LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1). Individuals with Williams Syndrome manifest hyperacusis and progressive hearing loss, and hyperacusis early onset suggests that it could be associated with one of the deleted genes. Based on our results about the critical role of LIM kinases in the regulation of the motile responses of cochlear outer hair cells (OHC) and cochlear amplification, we propose here that a reduced expression of LIMK1 in OHC would be the major underlying cause of the hyperacusis and progressive hearing loss observed in patients with Williams Syndrome. Moreover, we propose a novel model of gain-control for cochlear amplification based on LIMK-mediated regulation of OHC's slow motility.
Hearing Research. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21664265
The goal of the present study was to evaluate and characterize the motile responses of guinea pig OHCs, stimulated at frequencies varying from 50 Hz to 4 kHz, using high-definition, high-speed video recording and fully automatic image analysis software. Cells stimulated in continuous, burst and sweeping modes with an external alternating electrical field showed robust fast and slow motility, which were dependent on frequency, mode and intensity of stimulation. In response to continuous stimulation, electromotile amplitude ranged from 0.3% to 3.2% of total cell length, whereas cell length usually decreased in amounts varying from 0.1% to 4.3%. Electromotile amplitude in OHCs stimulated with square wave's sweeps was near constant up to 200 Hz, progressively decreased between 200 Hz and 2 kHz, and then remained constant up to 4 kHz. In continuous and burst modes electromotility followed cycle-by-cycle the electrical stimulus, but it required 1-2 s to fully develop and reach maximal amplitude. Instead, slow cell length changes started about 0.6 s after the beginning and continuously developed up to 3 s after the end of electrical stimulation. Incubation of OHCs with 10 mM salicylate affected electromotility but not slow motility, whereas incubation with 3 mM gadolinium affected both. Thus, combination of external electrical stimulation, high-speed video recording and advanced image analysis software provides information about OHC motile responses at acoustic frequencies with an unprecedented detail, opening new areas of research in the field of OHC mechanics.
Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21999330
INTRODUCTION: Drug ototoxicity represents one of the main preventable causes of deafness. Ototoxicity is a trait shared by aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics, antimalarial medications, loop diuretics, platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents, some NSAIDs and most recently described, acetaminophen when abused with narcotic medication. These medications are prescribed despite their side effects, which includes inner ear toxicity, because they are life-saving drugs or there is a lack of better treatment. AREAS COVERED: This review will discuss in vitro and in vivo models of ototoxicity highlighting recently published ototoxicity research. The reader will learn the strengths and limitations of different ototoxicity models and what molecular insights have been gained from their application. A better understanding of the cellular mechanisms of these ototoxins will help in the discovery of ways to prevent and treat hearing loss associated with ototoxic medications. EXPERT OPINION: There are benefits to both in vitro and in vivo models of ototoxicity. Research of a particular medication and its ototoxic mechanisms should draw from several models, enabling a better answer to the clinical question of prevention and treatment of inner ear drug toxicity.