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In JoVE (1)
- Delivery of Therapeutic Agents Through Intracerebroventricular (ICV) and Intravenous (IV) Injection in Mice
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Ferrill F. Rose in JoVE
Delivery of Therapeutic Agents Through Intracerebroventricular (ICV) and Intravenous (IV) Injection in Mice
Jacqueline J. Glascock1, Erkan Y. Osman1, Tristan H. Coady2, Ferrill F. Rose1, Monir Shababi3, Christian L. Lorson3
1Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, 3Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri
This article demonstrates two very different methods of injection: 1) into the brain (intracerebroventricular) and 2) systemic (intravenous) to introduce the therapeutic agents into the central nervous system of neonatal mice.
Other articles by Ferrill F. Rose on PubMed
The Wallerian Degeneration Slow (Wld(s)) Gene Does Not Attenuate Disease in a Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18680723
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe neuromuscular disease characterized by loss of spinal alpha-motor neurons, resulting in the paralysis of skeletal muscle. SMA is caused by deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein levels. Recent evidence has highlighted an axon-specific role for SMN protein, raising the possibility that axon degeneration may be an early event in SMA pathogenesis. The Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) gene is a spontaneous dominant mutation in mice that delays axon degeneration by approximately 2-3 weeks. We set out to examine the effect of Wld(s) on the phenotype of a mouse model of SMA. We found that Wld(s) does not alter the SMA phenotype, indicating that Wallerian degeneration does not directly contribute to the pathogenesis of SMA development.
Nature. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19098894
Spinal muscular atrophy is one of the most common inherited forms of neurological disease leading to infant mortality. Patients have selective loss of lower motor neurons resulting in muscle weakness, paralysis and often death. Although patient fibroblasts have been used extensively to study spinal muscular atrophy, motor neurons have a unique anatomy and physiology which may underlie their vulnerability to the disease process. Here we report the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from skin fibroblast samples taken from a child with spinal muscular atrophy. These cells expanded robustly in culture, maintained the disease genotype and generated motor neurons that showed selective deficits compared to those derived from the child's unaffected mother. This is the first study to show that human induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to model the specific pathology seen in a genetically inherited disease. As such, it represents a promising resource to study disease mechanisms, screen new drug compounds and develop new therapies.
Delivery of Recombinant Follistatin Lessens Disease Severity in a Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Human Molecular Genetics. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19074460
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by loss of functional survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), resulting in death of spinal motor neurons. Current therapeutic research focuses on modulating the expression of a partially functioning copy gene, SMN2, which is retained in SMA patients. However, a treatment strategy that improves the SMA phenotype by slowing or reversing the skeletal muscle atrophy may also be beneficial. Myostatin, a member of the TGF-beta super-family, is a potent negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Follistatin is a natural antagonist of myostatin, and over-expression of follistatin in mouse muscle leads to profound increases in skeletal muscle mass. To determine whether enhanced muscle mass impacts SMA, we administered recombinant follistatin to an SMA mouse model. Treated animals exhibited increased mass in several muscle groups, elevation in the number and cross-sectional area of ventral horn cells, gross motor function improvement and mean lifespan extension by 30%, by preventing some of the early deaths, when compared with control animals. SMN protein levels in spinal cord and muscle were unchanged in follistatin-treated SMA mice, suggesting that follistatin exerts its effect in an SMN-independent manner. Reversing muscle atrophy associated with SMA may represent an unexploited therapeutic target for the treatment of SMA.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19945425
Proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a leading genetic cause of infant death. Patients with SMA lose alpha-motor neurons in the ventral horn of the spinal cord which leads to skeletal muscle weakness and atrophy. SMA is the result of reduction in Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) expression. Transgenic mouse models of SMA have been generated and are extremely useful in understanding the mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration in SMA and in developing new therapeutic candidates for SMA patients. Several research groups have reported varying average lifespans of SMNDelta7 SMA mice (SMN2(+/+);SMNDelta7(+/+);mSmn(-/-)), the most commonly used mouse model for preclinical therapeutic candidate testing. One environmental factor that varied between research groups was maternal diet. In this study, we compared the effects of two different commercially available rodent chows (PicoLab20 Mouse diet and Harlan-Teklad 22/5 diet) on the survival and motor phenotype of the SMNDelta7 mouse model of SMA. Specifically, the PicoLab20 diet significantly extends the average lifespan of the SMNDelta7 SMA mice by approximately 25% and improved the motor phenotype as compared to the Harlan diet. These findings indicate that maternal diet alone can have considerable impact on the SMA phenotype.
The Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mouse Model, SMAΔ7, Displays Altered Axonal Transport Without Global Neurofilament Alterations
Acta Neuropathologica. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21681521
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from decreased levels of survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) protein. Reduced SMN1 levels are linked to pathology at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), which includes decreased vesicle density and organization, decreased quantal release, increased endplate potential duration, and neurofilament (NF) accumulations. This work presents a first study towards defining molecular alterations that may lead to the development of NMJ pathology in SMA. Fast, anterograde transport of synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2-c) and synaptotagmin (Syt1) proteins was reduced 2 days prior to the observed decrease in synaptic vesicle density. Moreover, reduced accumulation of SV2-c or Syt1 was not due to reduced protein expression or reduced kinesin activity. Dynein levels were reduced at times that are consistent with NF accumulations at NMJs. Furthermore, NF distribution, from cell body to sciatic nerve, appeared normal in SMA∆7 mice. Taken together, these results suggest that reduced axonal transport may provide a mechanistic explanation for reduced synaptic vesicle density and concomitant synaptic transmission defects, while providing evidence that suggests NF accumulations result from local NMJ alterations to NFs.
Transgenic Inactivation of Murine Myostatin Does Not Decrease the Severity of Disease in a Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Neuromuscular Disorders : NMD. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22079083
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease and is a leading genetic cause of infantile death. SMA is caused by the homozygous loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). The presence of a nearly identical copy gene called SMN2 has led to the development of several strategies that are designed to elevate SMN levels, and it is clear that SMN2 is an important modifier gene. However, the possibility exists that SMN-independent strategies to lessen the severity of the SMA phenotype could provide insight into disease development as well as aid in the identification of potential therapeutic targets. Muscle enhancement has been considered an interesting target for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including SMA. Previously we have shown in SMA mice that delivery of recombinant follistatin resulted in an extension in survival and a general lessening of disease severity. Follistatin is known to functionally block myostatin (MSTN), a potent inhibitor of muscle development. However, follistatin is a multifaceted protein involved in a variety of cellular pathways. To determine whether MSTN inhibition was the primary pathway associated with the previously reported follistatin results, we generated an animal model of SMA in which Mstn was genetically inactivated. In this report we characterize the novel SMA/Mstn model and demonstrate that Mstn inactivation does not significantly enhance muscle development in neonatal animals, nor does it result in an amelioration of the SMA phenotype.