Translate this page to:
In JoVE (5)
- Sanal Sosyal Etkileşimleri Gözlem Sinir Bağlantılı Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
- Duygusal Otobiyografik Anımsama Sinir Bağlantılı Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
- Emotion Yönetmeliği'nin Sinir Bağlantılı Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
- Duygu Bellek Artırıcı Etkisi Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
- Biliş üzerine Duygu bozarak Etkisi Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
Other Publications (30)
- Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
- Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
- Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
- Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Brain Research
- Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
- The American Journal of Psychiatry
- Psychiatry Research
- Journal of Psychiatric Research
- Psychological Science
- Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
- PloS One
- Neurobiology of Aging
- BMC Psychiatry
- Journal of Cognitive Psychology (Hove, England)
- The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry : Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry
- Journal of Psychiatric Research
- Journal of Psychiatric Research
- Emotion (Washington, D.C.)
- Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
This translation into Turkish was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Florin Dolcos in JoVE
Sanal Sosyal Etkileşimleri Gözlem Sinir Bağlantılı Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
Keen Sung1, Sanda Dolcos2, Sophie Flor-Henry3, Crystal Zhou3, Claudia Gasior4, Jennifer Argo5, Florin Dolcos2,6,7
1Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta, 2Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, 3Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 4Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, 5Department of Marketing, Business Economics, and Law, University of Alberta, 6Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 7Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Bu makale, tüm vücut animasyon karakterleri, sanal sosyal etkileşimler gözlemleyerek sinirsel ilgisi araştırmak için fonksiyonel manyetik rezonans görüntüleme (fMRI) ile birlikte kullanıldığı deneysel bir tasarım ortaya koymaktadır.
Duygusal Otobiyografik Anımsama Sinir Bağlantılı Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
Ekaterina Denkova1, Trisha Chakrabarty1, Sanda Dolcos1,2, Florin Dolcos1,2,3,4
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 2Psychology Department, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 3Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 4Beckman Institute for Advanced Science & Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Biz, fonksiyonel manyetik rezonans görüntüleme kullanarak, duygusal otobiyografik anılar recollecting nöral ögelerinden soruşturma sağlayan bir protokol sunuyoruz. Bu protokol, sağlıklı hem de klinik katılımcılar ile kullanılabilir.
Emotion Yönetmeliği'nin Sinir Bağlantılı Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
Sanda Dolcos1, Keen Sung2, Ekaterina Denkova3, Roger A. Dixon4,5, Florin Dolcos1,6,7
1Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 2Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 4Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 5Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 6Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 7Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Biz, fonksiyonel manyetik rezonans görüntüleme kullanarak kasıtlı ve otomatik duygu düzenleme, sinirsel ilgisi soruşturma sağlayan bir protokol sunuyoruz. Bu protokol, sağlıklı, genç ve yaşlı, hem de hastaların klinik hem de kullanılabilir.
Duygu Bellek Artırıcı Etkisi Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
Andrea Shafer1, Alexandru Iordan2, Roberto Cabeza3, Florin Dolcos1,4
1Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 3Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, 4Psychology Department, Neuroscience Program, & Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Biz, duygu belleği arttırıcı etkisi sinirsel ilgisi araştırmak için fonksiyonel manyetik rezonans görüntüleme kullanan bir protokol mevcut. Bu protokol, daha genel bir algısal işleme aykırı bellekle ilgili işleme, özellikle bağlantılı beyin aktivitesinin belirlenmesi sağlar ve sağlıklı ve klinik nüfus ile kullanılabilir.
Biliş üzerine Duygu bozarak Etkisi Beyin Görüntüleme İncelenmesi
Gloria Wong1,2, Sanda Dolcos1,3, Ekaterina Denkova1, Rajendra Morey4,5,6, Lihong Wang4,5, Gregory McCarthy6,7, Florin Dolcos1,2,3,8,9
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, 2Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 3Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, 4Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University, 5Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University, 6Mid-Atlantic Mental Illness Research Education and Clinical Center, VA Medical Center, 7Department of Psychology, Yale University, 8Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, 9Beckman Institute for Advanced Science & Technology, University of Illinois
Biz, fonksiyonel manyetik rezonans görüntüleme kullanarak biliş duygu zararlı etkisi aracılık eden nöral mekanizmaların araştırılması sağlayan bir protokol mevcut. Bu protokol, hem sağlıklı ve hem de klinik katılımcı ile kullanılabilir.
Other articles by Florin Dolcos on PubMed
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12470693
We review evidence for two models of hemispheric asymmetry and aging: the right hemi-aging model, which proposes that the right hemisphere shows greater age-related decline than the left hemisphere, and the hemispheric asymmetry reduction in old adults (HAROLD) model, which proposes that frontal activity during cognitive performance tends to be less lateralized in older than in younger adults. The right hemi-aging model is supported by behavioral studies in the domains of cognitive, affective, and sensorimotor processing, but the evidence has been mixed. In contrast, available evidence is generally consistent with the HAROLD model, which is supported primarily by functional neuroimaging evidence in the domains of episodic memory encoding and retrieval, semantic memory retrieval, working memory, perception, and inhibitory control. Age-related asymmetry reductions may reflect functional compensation or dedifferentiation, and the evidence, although scarce, tends to support the compensation hypothesis. The right hemi-aging and the HAROLD models are not incompatible. For example, the latter may apply to prefrontal regions and the former to other brain regions.
Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12775189
Emotional events tend to be remembered better than nonemotional events. We investigated this phenomenon by measuring two event-related potential (ERP) effects: the emotion effect (more positive ERPs for pleasant or unpleasant stimuli than for neutral stimuli) and the subsequent memory effect (more positive ERPs for subsequently remembered items than for subsequently forgotten items). ERPs were measured while subjects rated the emotional content of pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. As was expected, subsequent recall was better for pleasant and unpleasant pictures than for neutral pictures. The emotion effect was sensitive to arousal in parietal electrodes and to both arousal and valence in frontocentral electrodes. The subsequent memory effect at centroparietal electrodes was greater for emotional pictures than for neutral pictures during an early epoch (400-600 msec). This result suggests that emotional information has privileged access to processing resources, possibly leading to better memory formation.
Similarities and Differences in the Neural Correlates of Episodic Memory Retrieval and Working Memory
NeuroImage. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12030819
Functional neuroimaging studies have shown that different cognitive functions activate overlapping brain regions. An activation overlap may occur because a region is involved in operations tapped by different cognitive functions or because the activated area comprises subregions differentially involved in each of the functions. To investigate these issues, we directly compared brain activity during episodic retrieval (ER) and working memory (WM) using event-related functional MRI (fMRI). ER was investigated with a word recognition test, and WM was investigated with a word delayed-response test. Two-phase trials distinguished between retrieval mode and cue-specific aspects of ER, as well as between encoding/maintenance and retrieval aspects of WM. The results revealed a common fronto-parieto-cerebellar network for ER and WM, as well as subregions differentially involved in each function. Specifically, there were two main findings. First, the results differentiated common and specific subregions within the prefrontal cortex: (i) left dorsolateral areas were recruited by both functions, possibly reflecting monitoring operations; (ii) bilateral anterior and ventrolateral areas were more activated during ER than during WM, possibly reflecting retrieval mode and cue-specific ER operations, respectively; and (iii) left posterior/ventral (Broca's area) and bilateral posterior/dorsal areas were more activated during WM than during ER, possibly reflecting phonological and generic WM operations, respectively. Second, hippocampal and parahippocampal regions were activated not only for ER but also for WM. This result suggests that indexing operations mediated by the medial temporal lobes apply to both long-term and short-term memory traces. Overall, our results show that direct cross-function comparisons are critical to understand the role of different brain regions in various cognitive functions.
Neuropsychologia. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12457763
In functional neuroimaging studies of episodic retrieval (ER), activations in prefrontal, parietal, anterior cingulate, and thalamic regions are typically attributed to episodic retrieval processes. However, these activations are also frequent during visual attention (VA) tasks, suggesting that their role in ER may reflect attentional rather than mnemonic processes. To investigate this possibility, we directly compared brain activity during ER and VA tasks using event-related fMRI. The ER task was a word recognition test with a retrieval mode component, and the VA task was a target detection task with a sustained attention component. The study yielded three main findings. First, a common fronto-parietal-cingulate-thalamic network was found for ER and VA, suggesting that the involvement of these regions during ER reflects general attentional processes. This idea is compatible with some of the interpretations proposed in the ER literature (e.g. postretrieval monitoring), which may be rephrased in terms of attentional processes. Second, several subregions were differentially involved in ER versus VA. For example, the frontopolar cortex and the precuneus were more activated for ER than for VA, possibly reflecting retrieval mode and processing of internally generated stimuli, respectively. Finally, the study yielded an unexpected finding: some medial temporal lobe regions were similarly activated for ER and VA. This finding suggests that the medial temporal lobes may be involved in indexing representations within the focus of consciousness, regardless of whether they are mnemonic or perceptual. Overall, the present results suggest that many of the activations attributed to specific cognitive processes, such as episodic memory, may actually reflect more general cognitive operations.
Task-independent and Task-specific Age Effects on Brain Activity During Working Memory, Visual Attention and Episodic Retrieval
Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15028641
It is controversial whether the effects of aging on various cognitive functions have the same common cause or several different causes. To investigate this issue, we scanned younger and older adults with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing three different tasks: working memory, visual attention and episodic retrieval. There were three main results. First, in all three tasks, older adults showed weaker occipital activity and stronger prefrontal and parietal activity than younger adults. The occipital reduction is consistent with the view that sensory processing decline is a common cause in cognitive aging, and the prefrontal increase may reflect functional compensation. Secondly, older adults showed more bilateral patterns of prefrontal activity than younger adults during working memory and visual attention tasks. These findings are consistent with the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Finally, compared to younger adults, older adults showed weaker hippocampal formation activity in all three tasks but stronger parahippocampal activity in the episodic retrieval task. The former finding suggests that age-related hippocampal deficits may have a global effect in cognition, and the latter is consistent with an age-related increase in familiarity-based recognition. Taken together, the results indicate that both common and specific factors play an important role in cognitive aging.
Interaction Between the Amygdala and the Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System Predicts Better Memory for Emotional Events
Neuron. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15182723
Emotional events are remembered better than neutral events possibly because the amygdala enhances the function of medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system (modulation hypothesis). Although this hypothesis has been supported by much animal research, evidence from humans has been scarce and indirect. We investigated this issue using event-related fMRI during encoding of emotional and neutral pictures. Memory performance after scanning showed a retention advantage for emotional pictures. Successful encoding activity in the amygdala and MTL memory structures was greater and more strongly correlated for emotional than for neutral pictures. Moreover, a double dissociation was found along the longitudinal axis of the MTL memory system: activity in anterior regions predicted memory for emotional items, whereas activity in posterior regions predicted memory for neutral items. These results provide direct evidence for the modulation hypothesis in humans and reveal a functional specialization within the MTL regarding the effects of emotion on memory formation.
Dissociable Effects of Arousal and Valence on Prefrontal Activity Indexing Emotional Evaluation and Subsequent Memory: an Event-related FMRI Study
NeuroImage. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15325353
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity associated with emotional evaluation and subsequent memory was investigated with event-related functional MRI (fMRI). Participants were scanned while rating the pleasantness of emotionally positive, negative, and neutral pictures, and memory for the pictures was tested after scanning. Emotional evaluation was measured by comparing activity during the picture rating task relative to baseline, and successful encoding was measured by comparing activity for subsequently remembered versus forgotten pictures (Dm effect). The effect of arousal on these measures was indicated by greater activity for both positive and negative pictures than for neutral ones, and the effect of valence was indicated by differences in activity between positive and negative pictures. The study yielded three main results. First, consistent with the valence hypothesis, specific regions in left dorsolateral PFC were more activated for positive than for negative picture evaluation, whereas regions in right ventrolateral PFC showed the converse pattern. Second, dorsomedial PFC activity was sensitive to emotional arousal, whereas ventromedial PFC activity was sensitive to positive valence, consistent with evidence linking these regions, respectively, to emotional processing and self-awareness or appetitive behavior. Finally, successful encoding (Dm) activity in left ventrolateral and dorsolateral PFC was greater for arousing than for neutral pictures. This finding suggests that the enhancing effect of emotion on memory formation is partly due to an augmentation of PFC-mediated strategic, semantic, and working memory operations. These results underscore the critical role of PFC in emotional evaluation and memory, and disentangle the effects of arousal and valence across PFC regions associated with different cognitive functions.
Brain Activity During Episodic Retrieval of Autobiographical and Laboratory Events: an FMRI Study Using a Novel Photo Paradigm
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15622612
Functional neuroimaging studies of episodic memory retrieval generally measure brain activity while participants remember items encountered in the laboratory ("controlled laboratory condition") or events from their own life ("open autobiographical condition"). Differences in activation between these conditions may reflect differences in retrieval processes, memory remoteness, emotional content, retrieval success, self-referential processing, visual/spatial memory, and recollection. To clarify the nature of these differences, a functional MRI study was conducted using a novel "photo paradigm," which allows greater control over the autobiographical condition, including a measure of retrieval accuracy. Undergraduate students took photos in specified campus locations ("controlled autobiographical condition"), viewed in the laboratory similar photos taken by other participants (controlled laboratory condition), and were then scanned while recognizing the two kinds of photos. Both conditions activated a common episodic memory network that included medial temporal and prefrontal regions. Compared with the controlled laboratory condition, the controlled autobiographical condition elicited greater activity in regions associated with self-referential processing (medial prefrontal cortex), visual/spatial memory (visual and parahippocampal regions), and recollection (hippocampus). The photo paradigm provides a way of investigating the functional neuroanatomy of real-life episodic memory under rigorous experimental control.
Remembering One Year Later: Role of the Amygdala and the Medial Temporal Lobe Memory System in Retrieving Emotional Memories
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15703295
The memory-enhancing effect of emotion can be powerful and long-lasting. Most studies investigating the neural bases of this phenomenon have focused on encoding and early consolidation processes, and hence little is known regarding the contribution of retrieval processes, particularly after lengthy retention intervals. To address this issue, we used event-related functional MRI to measure neural activity during the retrieval of emotional and neutral pictures after a retention interval of 1 yr. Retrieval activity for emotional and neutral pictures was separately analyzed for successfully (hits) vs. unsuccessfully (misses) retrieved items and for responses based on recollection vs. familiarity. Recognition performance was better for emotional than for neutral pictures, and this effect was found only for recollection-based responses. Successful retrieval of emotional pictures elicited greater activity than successful retrieval of neutral pictures in the amygdala, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus. Moreover, in the amygdala and hippocampus, the emotion effect was greater for recollection than for familiarity, whereas in the entorhinal cortex, it was similar for both forms of retrieval. These findings clarify the role of the amygdala and the medial temporal lobe memory regions in recollection and familiarity of emotional memory after lengthy retention intervals.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16481440
Flexible behavior depends on our ability to cope with distracting stimuli that can interfere with the attainment of goals. Emotional distracters can be particularly disruptive to goal-oriented behavior, but the neural systems through which these detrimental effects are mediated are not known. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the effect of emotional and nonemotional distracters on a delayed-response working memory (WM) task. As expected, this task evoked robust activity during the delay period in typical WM regions (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lateral parietal cortex). Presentation of emotional distracters during the delay interval evoked strong activity in typical emotional processing regions (amygdala and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) while simultaneously evoking relative deactivation of the WM regions and impairing WM performance. These results provide the first direct evidence that the detrimental effect of emotional distracters on ongoing cognitive processes entails the interaction between a dorsal neural system associated with "cold" executive processing and a ventral system associated with "hot" emotional processing.
Neuroreport. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17001274
The role of inferior frontal cortex in coping with emotional distracters presented concurrently with a working memory task was investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. The study yielded two main findings: (i) processing of emotional distracters was associated with enhanced functional coupling between the amygdala and the inferior frontal cortex and (ii) the inferior frontal cortex showed a left-lateralized activation pattern discriminating successful from unsuccessful trials in the presence of emotional distraction. These findings provide evidence that coping with emotional distraction entails interactions between brain regions responsible for detection and inhibition of emotional distraction, and identified a hemispheric specialization in the inferior frontal cortex in controlling the impact of distracting emotions on cognitive performance (left hemisphere) vs. controlling the subjective feeling of being distracted (right hemisphere).
Regional Brain Differences in the Effect of Distraction During the Delay Interval of a Working Memory Task
Brain Research. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17459348
Working memory (WM) comprises operations whose coordinated action contributes to our ability to maintain focus on goal-relevant information in the presence of distraction. The present study investigated the nature of distraction upon the neural correlates of WM maintenance operations by presenting task-irrelevant distracters during the interval between the memoranda and probes of a delayed-response WM task. The study used a region of interest (ROIs) approach to investigate the role of anterior (e.g., lateral and medial prefrontal cortex--PFC) and posterior (e.g., parietal and fusiform cortices) brain regions that have been previously associated with WM operations. Behavioral results showed that distracters that were confusable with the memorandum impaired WM performance, compared to either the presence of non-confusable distracters or to the absence of distracters. These different levels of distraction led to differences in the regional patterns of delay interval activity measured with event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the anterior ROIs, dorsolateral PFC activation was associated with WM encoding and maintenance, and in maintaining a preparatory state, and ventrolateral PFC activation was associated with the inhibition of distraction. In the posterior ROIs, activation of the posterior parietal and fusiform cortices was associated with WM and perceptual processing, respectively. These findings provide novel evidence concerning the neural systems mediating the cognitive and behavioral responses during distraction, and places frontal cortex at the top of the hierarchy of the neural systems responsible for cognitive control.
Neural Correlates of Promotion and Prevention Goal Activation: an FMRI Study Using an Idiographic Approach
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17583991
Regulatory focus theory [Higgins, E. T. Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280-1300, 1997] postulates two social-cognitive motivational systems, the promotion and prevention systems, for self-regulation of goal pursuit. However, the neural substrates of promotion and prevention goal activation remain unclear. Drawing on several literatures, we hypothesized that priming promotion versus prevention goals would activate areas in the left versus right prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively, and that activation in these areas would be correlated with individual differences in chronic regulatory focus. Sixteen participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while engaged in a depth-of-processing task, during which they were exposed incidentally to their own promotion and prevention goals. Task-related cortical activation was consistent with previous studies. At the same time, incidental priming of promotion goals was associated with left orbital PFC activation, and activation in this area was stronger for individuals with a chronic promotion focus. Findings regarding prevention goal priming were not consistent with predictions. The data illustrate the centrality of self-regulation and personal goal pursuit within the multilayered process of social cognition.
Opposing Influences of Emotional and Non-emotional Distracters Upon Sustained Prefrontal Cortex Activity During a Delayed-response Working Memory Task
Neuropsychologia. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17765933
Performance in delayed-response working memory (WM) tasks is typically associated with sustained activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) that spans the delay between the memoranda and the memory probe. Recent studies have demonstrated that novel distracters presented during the delay interval both affect sustained activation and impair WM performance. However, the effect of the performance-impairing distracters upon sustained dlPFC delay activity was related to the characteristics of the distracters: memoranda-confusable distracters increased delay activity, whereas memoranda-nonconfusable emotional distracters decreased delay activity. Because these different effects were observed in different studies, it is possible that different dlPFC regions were involved and the paradox is more apparent than real. To investigate this possibility, event-related fMRI data were recorded while subjects performed a WM task for faces with memoranda-confusable (novel faces) and memoranda-nonconfusable emotional (novel scenes) distracters presented during the delay interval. Consistent with previous findings, confusable face distracters increased dlPFC delay activity, while nonconfusable emotional distracters decreased dlPFC delay activity, and these opposing effects modulated activity in the same dlPFC regions. These results provide direct evidence that specific regions of the dlPFC are generally involved in mediating the effects of distraction, while showing sensitivity to the nature of distraction. These findings are relevant for understanding alterations in the neural mechanisms associated with both general impairment of cognitive control and with specific impairment in the ability to control emotional distraction, such as those observed in aging and affective disorders, respectively.
Role of Amygdala Connectivity in the Persistence of Emotional Memories over Time: an Event-related FMRI Investigation
Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18375529
According to the consolidation hypothesis, enhanced memory for emotional information reflects the modulatory effect of the amygdala on the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system during consolidation. Although there is evidence that amygdala-MTL connectivity enhances memory for emotional stimuli, it remains unclear whether this enhancement increases over time, as consolidation processes unfold. To investigate this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure encoding activity predicting memory for emotionally negative and neutral pictures after short (20-min) versus long (1-week) delays. Memory measures distinguished between vivid remembering (recollection) and feelings of knowing (familiarity). Consistent with the consolidation hypothesis, the persistence of recollection over time (long divided by short) was greater for emotional than neutral pictures. Activity in the amygdala predicted subsequent memory to a greater extent for emotional than neutral pictures. Although this advantage did not vary with delay, the contribution of amygdala-MTL connectivity to subsequent memory for emotional items increased over time. Moreover, both this increase in connectivity and amygdala activity itself were correlated with individual differences in recollection persistence for emotional but not neutral pictures. These results suggest that the amygdala and its connectivity with the MTL are critical to sustaining emotional memories over time, consistent with the consolidation hypothesis.
Depressive State- and Disease-related Alterations in Neural Responses to Affective and Executive Challenges in Geriatric Depression
The American Journal of Psychiatry. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18450929
Geriatric depression has been associated with a heterogeneous neuropathology. Identifying both depressive state-related and disease-related alterations in brain regions associated with emotion and cognitive function could provide useful diagnostic information in geriatric depression.
Prefrontal Mechanisms for Executive Control over Emotional Distraction Are Altered in Major Depression
Psychiatry Research. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18455373
A dysfunction in the interaction between executive function and mood regulation has been proposed as the pathophysiology of depression. However, few studies have investigated the alteration in brain systems related to executive control over emotional distraction in depression. To address this issue, 19 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 20 healthy controls were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed an emotional oddball task in which infrequently presented circle targets required detection while sad and neutral pictures were irrelevant novel distractors. Hemodynamic responses were compared for targets, sad distractors, and for targets that followed sad or neutral distractors (Target-after-Sad and Target-after-Neutral). Patients with MDD revealed attenuated activation overall to targets in executive brain regions. Behaviorally, MDD patients were slower in response to Target-after-Sad than Target-after-Neutra stimuli. Patients also revealed a reversed activation pattern from controls in response to this contrast in the left anterior cingulate, insula, right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and bilateral middle frontal gyrus. Those patients who engaged the right IFG more during Target-after-Neutral stimuli responded faster to targets, confirming a role of this region in coping with emotional distraction. The results provide direct evidence of an alteration in the neural systems that interplay cognition with mood in MDD.
The Role of Trauma-related Distractors on Neural Systems for Working Memory and Emotion Processing in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Journal of Psychiatric Research. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19091328
The relevance of emotional stimuli to threat and survival confers a privileged role in their processing. In PTSD, the ability of trauma-related information to divert attention is especially pronounced. Information unrelated to the trauma may also be highly distracting when it shares perceptual features with trauma material. Our goal was to study how trauma-related environmental cues modulate working memory networks in PTSD. We examined neural activity in participants performing a visual working memory task while distracted by task-irrelevant trauma and non-trauma material. Recent post-9/11 veterans were divided into a PTSD group (n=22) and a trauma-exposed control group (n=20) based on the Davidson trauma scale. Using fMRI, we measured hemodynamic change in response to emotional (trauma-related) and neutral distraction presented during the active maintenance period of a delayed-response working memory task. The goal was to examine differences in functional networks associated with working memory (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and lateral parietal cortex) and emotion processing (amygdala, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and fusiform gyrus). The PTSD group showed markedly different neural activity compared to the trauma-exposed control group in response to task-irrelevant visual distractors. Enhanced activity in ventral emotion processing regions was associated with trauma distractors in the PTSD group, whereas activity in brain regions associated with working memory and attention regions was disrupted by distractor stimuli independent of trauma content. Neural evidence for the impact of distraction on working memory is consistent with PTSD symptoms of hypervigilance and general distractibility during goal-directed cognitive processing.
Effects of Aging on Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala for Subsequent Memory of Negative Pictures: a Network Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data
Psychological Science. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19152542
Aging is associated with preserved enhancement of emotional memory, as well as with age-related reductions in memory for negative stimuli, but the neural networks underlying such alterations are not clear. We used a subsequent-memory paradigm to identify brain activity predicting enhanced emotional memory in young and older adults. Activity in the amygdala predicted enhanced emotional memory, with subsequent-memory activity greater for negative stimuli than for neutral stimuli, across age groups, a finding consistent with an overall enhancement of emotional memory. However, older adults recruited greater activity in anterior regions and less activity in posterior regions in general for negative stimuli that were subsequently remembered. Functional connectivity of the amygdala with the rest of the brain was consistent with age-related reductions in memory for negative stimuli: Older adults showed decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and the hippocampus, but increased functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. These findings suggest that age-related differences in the enhancement of emotional memory might reflect decreased connectivity between the amygdala and typical subsequent-memory regions, as well as the engagement of regulatory processes that inhibit emotional responses.
Neural Correlates of Idiographic Goal Priming in Depression: Goal-specific Dysfunctions in the Orbitofrontal Cortex
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19433416
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether depressed (vs non-depressed) adults showed differences in cortical activation in response to stimuli representing personal goals. Drawing upon regulatory focus theory as well as previous research, we predicted that depressed patients would manifest attenuated left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) activation in response to their own promotion goals as well as exaggerated right OFC activation in response to their own prevention goals. Unmedicated adults with major depression (n = 22) and adults with no history of affective disorder (n = 14) completed questionnaires and a personal goal interview. Several weeks later, they were scanned during a judgment task which (unknown to them) included stimuli representing their promotion and prevention goals. Both groups showed similar patterns of task-related activation. Consistent with predictions, patients showed significantly decreased left OFC and increased right OFC activation compared to controls on trials in which they were exposed incidentally to their promotion and prevention goals, respectively. The results suggest that depression involves dysfunction in processing two important types of personal goals. The findings extend models of the etiology of depression to incorporate cognitive and motivational processes underlying higher order goal representation and ultimately may provide an empirical basis for treatment matching.
Sleep. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21061852
We determined if sleep deprivation would amplify the effect of negative emotional distracters on working memory.
The Impact of Anxiety-inducing Distraction on Cognitive Performance: a Combined Brain Imaging and Personality Investigation
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21152391
Previous investigations revealed that the impact of task-irrelevant emotional distraction on ongoing goal-oriented cognitive processing is linked to opposite patterns of activation in emotional and perceptual vs. cognitive control/executive brain regions. However, little is known about the role of individual variations in these responses. The present study investigated the effect of trait anxiety on the neural responses mediating the impact of transient anxiety-inducing task-irrelevant distraction on cognitive performance, and on the neural correlates of coping with such distraction. We investigated whether activity in the brain regions sensitive to emotional distraction would show dissociable patterns of co-variation with measures indexing individual variations in trait anxiety and cognitive performance.
Effects of Aging on Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala During Negative Evaluation: a Network Analysis of FMRI Data
Neurobiology of Aging. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 18455837
Previous evidence has suggested both preserved emotional function in aging and age-related differences in emotional processing, but the neural networks underlying such processing alterations in the context of preserved affective function are not clear. Using event-related fMRI, we scanned young and older adults while they made valence ratings for emotional pictures. Behavioral results showed a similar pattern of emotional evaluation, but older adults experienced negatively valenced pictures as being less negative. Consistent with behavioral findings, we identified common activity in the right amygdala, but age-related differences in the functional connectivity of this region with the rest of the brain. Compared to young adults, older adults had greater functional connectivity between the right amygdala and ventral anterior cingulate cortex, possibly reflecting increased emotional regulation. Conversely, older adults showed decreased functional connectivity with posterior brain regions, likely reflecting decreased perceptual processing. Thus, age-related differences in evaluating negatively valenced stimuli might reflect decreased perceptual processing of these stimuli, as well as the engagement of control processes that inhibit the response to negative emotion.
Serotonin Transporter Gene Polymorphisms and Brain Function During Emotional Distraction from Cognitive Processing in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
BMC Psychiatry. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21545724
Serotonergic system dysfunction has been implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Genetic polymorphisms associated with serotonin signaling may predict differences in brain circuitry involved in emotion processing and deficits associated with PTSD. In healthy individuals, common functional polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have been shown to modulate amygdala and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in response to salient emotional stimuli. Similar patterns of differential neural responses to emotional stimuli have been demonstrated in PTSD but genetic factors influencing these activations have yet to be examined.
Neural Correlates of Emotion-cognition Interactions: A Review of Evidence from Brain Imaging Investigations
Journal of Cognitive Psychology (Hove, England). Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22059115
Complex dynamic behaviour involves reciprocal influences between emotion and cognition. On the one hand, emotion is a "double-edged sword" that may affect various aspects of our cognition and behaviour, by enhancing or hindering them and exerting both transient and long-term influences. On the other hand, emotion processing is also susceptible to cognitive influences, typically exerted in the form of emotion regulation. Noteworthy, both of these reciprocal influences are subjective to individual differences that may affect the way we perceive, experience, and eventually remember emotional experiences, or respond to emotionally challenging situations. Understanding these relationships is critical, as unbalanced emotion-cognition interactions may lead to devastating effects, such as those observed in mood and anxiety disorders. The present review analyses the reciprocal relationships between emotion and cognition, based on evidence derived from brain imaging investigations focusing on three main topics: (1) the impact of emotion on cognition, (2) the impact of cognition on emotion, and (3) the role of individual differences in emotion-cognition interactions. This evidence will be discussed in the context of identifying aspects that are fundamental to understanding the mechanisms underlying emotion-cognition interactions in healthy functioning, and to understanding changes associated with affective disorders.
The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry : Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22157280
OBJECTIVES:: Persistent cognitive impairment (PCI) after remission of depressive symptoms is a major adverse outcome of late-life depression (LLD). The purpose of this study was to examine neural substrates associated with PCI in LLD. DESIGN:: Longitudinal study. SETTING:: Outpatient depression treatment study at Duke University. PARTICIPANTS:: Twenty-three patients with LLD completed a 2-year follow-up study, and were in a remitted or partially remitted state at Year 2. METHODS:: At first entry to the study (Year 0), all participants had a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while performing an emotional oddball task. For the purpose of this report, the primary functional magnetic resonance imaging outcome was brain activation during target detection, which is a measure of executive function. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery was used to assess cognitive status yearly, and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale was used to assess severity of depression at Year 0 and every 6 months thereafter for 2 years. We investigated changes in brain activation at Year 0 associated with PCI over 2 years. RESULTS:: Patients with PCI at the 2-year follow-up date had significantly decreased activation at Year 0 in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, inferior frontal cortex, and insula compared to non-PCI patients. CONCLUSIONS:: Our results suggest individuals who have LLD with PCI have decreased activation in the similar neural networks associated with the development of Alzheimer disease among nondepressed individuals. Measuring neural activity in these regions in individuals with LLD may help identify patients at-risk for cognitive impairment.
Neural Correlates of Emotional Processing in Depression: Changes with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Predictors of Treatment Response
Journal of Psychiatric Research. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20934190
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by the presence of disturbances in emotional processing. However, the neural correlates of these alterations, and how they may be affected by therapeutic interventions, remain unclear. The present study addressed these issues in a preliminary investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine neural responses to positive, negative, and neutral pictures in unmedicated MDD patients (N = 22) versus controls (N = 14). After this initial scan, MDD patients were treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and scanned again after treatment. Within regions that showed pre-treatment differences between patients and controls, we tested the association between pre-treatment activity and subsequent treatment response as well as activity changes from pre- to post-treatment. This study yielded three main findings. First, prior to treatment and relative to controls, patients exhibited overall reduced activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), diminished discrimination between emotional and neutral items in the amygdala, caudate, and hippocampus, and enhanced responses to negative versus positive stimuli in the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) and right dorsolateral PFC. Second, CBT-related symptom improvement in MDD patients was predicted by increased activity at baseline in ventromedial PFC as well as the valence effects in the ATL and dorsolateral PFC. Third, from pre- to post-treatment, MDD patients exhibited overall increases in ventromedial PFC activation, enhanced arousal responses in the amygdala, caudate, and hippocampus, and a reversal of valence effects in the ATL. The study was limited by the relatively small sample that was able to complete both scan sessions, as well as an inability to determine the influence of comorbid disorders within the current sample. Nevertheless, components of the neural networks corresponding to emotion processing disturbances in MDD appear to resolve following treatment and are predictive of treatment response, possibly reflecting improvements in emotion regulation processes in response to CBT.
Reduced Hippocampal and Amygdala Activity Predicts Memory Distortions for Trauma Reminders in Combat-related PTSD
Journal of Psychiatric Research. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21047644
Neurobiological models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that altered activity in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during encoding of traumatic memories contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, there is little direct evidence in the PTSD literature to support these models. The goal of the present study was to examine MTL activity during trauma encoding in combat veterans using the subsequent memory paradigm. Fifteen combat veterans diagnosed with PTSD and 14 trauma-exposed control participants viewed trauma-related and neutral pictures while undergoing event-related fMRI. Participants returned one week after scanning for a recognition memory test. Region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-wise whole brain analyses were conducted to examine the neural correlates of successful memory encoding. Patients with PTSD showed greater false alarm rates for novel lures than the trauma-exposed control group, suggesting reliance on gist-based representations in lieu of encoding contextual details. Imaging analyses revealed reduced activity in the amygdala and hippocampus in PTSD patients during successful encoding of trauma-related stimuli. Reduction in left hippocampal activity was associated with high arousal symptoms on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The behavioral false alarm rate for traumatic stimuli co-varied with activity in the bilateral precuneus. These results support neurobiological theories positing reduced hippocampal activity under conditions of high stress and arousal. Reduction in MTL activity for successfully encoded stimuli and increased precuneus activity may underlie reduced stimulus-specific encoding and greater gist memory in patients with PTSD, leading to maintenance of the disorder.
Reliving Emotional Personal Memories: Affective Biases Linked to Personality and Sex-related Differences
Emotion (Washington, D.C.). Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22251043
Although available evidence suggests that the emotional valence and recollective properties of autobiographical memories (AMs) may be influenced by personality- and sex-related differences, overall these relationships remain poorly understood. The present study investigated these issues by comparing the effect of general personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) and specific traits linked to emotion regulation (ER) strategies (reappraisal and suppression) on the retrieval of emotional AMs and on the associated postretrieval emotional states, in men and women. First, extraversion predicted recollection of positive AMs in both men and women, whereas neuroticism predicted the proportion of negative AMs in men and the frequency of rehearsing negative AMs in women. Second, reappraisal predicted positive AMs in men, and suppression predicted negative AMs in women. Third, while reliving of positive memories had an overall indirect effect on postretrieval positive mood through extraversion, reliving of negative AMs had a direct effect on postretrieval negative mood, which was linked to inefficient engagement of suppression in women. Our findings suggest that personality traits associated with positive affect predict recollection of positive AMs and maintenance of a positive mood, whereas personality traits associated with negative affect, along with differential engagement of habitual ER strategies in men and women, predict sex-related differences in the recollection and experiencing of negative AMs. These findings provide insight into the factors that influence affective biases in reliving AMs, and into their possible link to sex-related differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Processing of Emotional Distraction Is Both Automatic and Modulated by Attention: Evidence from an Event-related FMRI Investigation
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22332805
Traditionally, emotional stimuli have been thought to be automatically processed via a bottom-up automatic "capture of attention" mechanism. Recently, this view has been challenged by evidence that emotion processing depends on the availability of attentional resources. Although these two views are not mutually exclusive, direct evidence reconciling them is lacking. One limitation of previous investigations supporting the traditional or competing views is that they have not systematically investigated the impact of emotional charge of task-irrelevant distraction in conjunction with manipulations of attentional demands. Using event-related fMRI, we investigated the nature of emotion-cognition interactions in a perceptual discrimination task with emotional distraction by manipulating both the emotional charge of the distracting information and the demands of the main task. Findings suggest that emotion processing is both automatic and modulated by attention, but emotion and attention were only found to interact when finer assessments of emotional charge (comparison of most vs. least emotional conditions) were considered along with an effective manipulation of processing load (high vs. low). The study also identified brain regions reflecting the detrimental impact of emotional distraction on performance as well as regions involved in helping with such distraction. Activity in the dorsomedial pFC and ventrolateral pFC was linked to a detrimental impact of emotional distraction, whereas the dorsal ACC and lateral occipital cortex were involved in helping with emotional distraction. These findings demonstrate that task-irrelevant emotion processing is subjective to both the emotional content of distraction and the level of attentional demand.