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In JoVE (1)
- Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts with a Four Transcription Factor, Doxycycline Inducible Lentiviral Transduction System
Other Publications (10)
- Journal of Virology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cell Stem Cell
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
- Cell Stem Cell
- Journal of Virology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Cell Stem Cell
Articles by G Grant Welstead in JoVE
Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts with a Four Transcription Factor, Doxycycline Inducible Lentiviral Transduction System
Brad Hamilton1, Qiang Feng1, Mike Ye1, G Grant Welstead2
1Stemgent, 2Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Stemgent Dox Inducible Mouse TF Lentivirus Set can reprogram mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Here we demonstrate the protocol for DOX-inducible expression of mouse reprogramming transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc to generate iPS colonies that express common mES pluripotency markers.
Other articles by G Grant Welstead on PubMed
Mechanism of CD150 (SLAM) Down Regulation from the Host Cell Surface by Measles Virus Hemagglutinin Protein
Journal of Virology. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15331699
Measles virus has been reported to enter host cells via either of two cellular receptors, CD46 and CD150 (SLAM). CD46 is found on most cells of higher primates, while SLAM is expressed on activated B, T, and dendritic cells and is an important regulatory molecule of the immune system. Previous reports have shown that measles virus can down regulate expression of its two cellular receptors on the host cell surface during infection. In this study, the process of down regulation of SLAM by measles virus was investigated. We demonstrated that expression of the hemagglutinin (H) protein of measles virus was sufficient for down regulation. Our studies provided evidence that interactions between H and SLAM in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can promote the down regulation of SLAM but not CD46. In addition, we demonstrated that interactions between H and SLAM at the host cell surface can also contribute to SLAM down regulation. These results indicate that two mechanisms involving either intracellular interactions between H and SLAM in the ER or receptor-mediated binding to H at the surfaces of host cells can lead to the down regulation of SLAM during measles virus infection.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16260741
A transgenic mouse containing the complete human SLAM (hSLAM/CD150) gene, including its endogenous promoter for transcription, was generated by using human genomic DNA cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. hSLAM, the primary receptor for measles viruses (MV), was expressed on activated B, T, and dendritic cells with an expression profile equivalent to that of humans. We demonstrated that hSLAM(+) cells obtained from the transgenic mouse, including activated B, T, and dendritic cells, were susceptible to MV infection in a receptor-dependent manner. Evidence was provided for transient infection in the nasal lymph nodes of hSLAM(+) mice after intranasal inoculation. Virus was rapidly cleared without signs of secondary replication. To improve the efficiency of MV production, the hSLAM(+) mice were bred with mice having a Stat1-deficient background. These mice were more susceptible to MV infection and produced more virus particles. After intranasal and intraperitoneal inoculation of these mice with MV, infections of the thymus, spleen, nasal, mesenteric, and leg lymph nodes were detected. Upon necropsy, enlarged lymph nodes and spleen were apparent. Flow cytometric analysis showed that abnormally large numbers of mature neutrophils and natural killer cells caused the splenomegaly. The hSLAM transgenic mouse constitutes an improved rodent model for studying the interaction of MV with immune cells that more accurately reflects the infection pattern found in humans.
Cell Stem Cell. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18159219
The Pou domain containing transcription factor Oct4 is a well-established regulator of pluripotency in the inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocyst as well as in embryonic stem cells. While it has been shown that the Oct4 gene is inactivated through a series of epigenetic modifications following implantation, recent studies have detected Oct4 activity in a variety of somatic stem cells and tumor cells. Based on these observations it has been suggested that Oct4 may also function in maintaining self-renewal of somatic stem cells and, in addition, may promote tumor formation. We employed a genetic approach to determine whether Oct4 is important for maintaining pluripotency in the stem cell compartments of several somatic tissues including the intestinal epithelium, bone marrow (hematopoietic and mesenchymal lineages), hair follicle, brain, and liver. Oct4 gene ablation in these tissues revealed no abnormalities in homeostasis or regenerative capacity. We conclude that Oct4 is dispensable for both self-renewal and maintenance of somatic stem cells in the adult mammal.
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18239456
Since its discovery as a critical regulator of pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells and the inner cells mass of the developing blastocyst, the Pou domain-containing transcription factor Oct4 has become a proxy for "stemness" in numerous studies of somatic stem cells as its presence is often taken as evidence of pluripotency in these cells. Recent studies, however, have demonstrated that not only is Oct4 dispensable for maintaining potency in somatic stem cell compartments, but also that the methods applied to detect Oct4 and the interpretation of the resulting data may be flawed. Here we contrast pathways known to govern pluripotency in embryonic stem cells with those in adult stem cells and critically discuss the concept of pluripotency in adult stem cells of the mammalian soma.
Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18356040
In metazoans, lineage-specific transcription factors and epigenetic modifiers function to establish and maintain proper gene expression programs during development. Recent landmark studies in both mouse and human have defined a set of transcription factors whose ectopic expression by retroviral transduction is capable of reprogramming a somatic nucleus to the pluripotent state. The identification of factors that are sufficient for the induction of pluripotency suggests that rewiring transcriptional regulatory networks at the molecular level can be used to manipulate cell fate in vitro. These findings have broad implications for understanding development and disease and for the potential use of stem cells in therapeutic applications.
Cell Stem Cell. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18371436
Pluripotency can be induced in differentiated murine and human cells by retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. We have devised a reprogramming strategy in which these four transcription factors are expressed from doxycycline (dox)-inducible lentiviral vectors. Using these inducible constructs, we derived induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and found that transgene silencing is a prerequisite for normal cell differentiation. We have analyzed the timing of known pluripotency marker activation during mouse iPS cell derivation and observed that alkaline phosphatase (AP) was activated first, followed by stage-specific embryonic antigen 1 (SSEA1). Expression of Nanog and the endogenous Oct4 gene, marking fully reprogrammed cells, was only observed late in the process. Importantly, the virally transduced cDNAs needed to be expressed for at least 12 days in order to generate iPS cells. Our results are a step toward understanding some of the molecular events governing epigenetic reprogramming.
Measles Virus Infection of Alveolar Macrophages and Dendritic Cells Precedes Spread to Lymphatic Organs in Transgenic Mice Expressing Human Signaling Lymphocytic Activation Molecule (SLAM, CD150)
Journal of Virology. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20042501
Recent studies of primate models suggest that wild-type measles virus (MV) infects immune cells located in the airways before spreading systemically, but the identity of these cells is unknown. To identify cells supporting primary MV infection, we took advantage of mice expressing the MV receptor human signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, CD150) with human-like tissue specificity. We infected these mice intranasally (IN) with a wild-type MV expressing green fluorescent protein. One, two, or three days after inoculation, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), the lungs, several lymph nodes (LNs), the spleen, and the thymus were collected and analyzed by microscopy and flow cytometry, and virus isolation was attempted. One day after inoculation, MV replication was documented only in the airways, in about 2.5% of alveolar macrophages (AM) and 0.5% of dendritic cells (DC). These cells expressed human SLAM, and it was observed that MV infection temporarily enhanced SLAM expression. Later, MV infected other immune cell types, including B and T lymphocytes. Virus was isolated from lymphatic tissue as early as 2 days post-IN inoculation; the mediastinal lymph node was an early site of replication and supported high levels of infection. Three days after intraperitoneal inoculation, 1 to 8% of the mediastinal LN cells were infected. Thus, MV infection of alveolar macrophages and subepithelial dendritic cells in the airways precedes infection of lymphocytes in lymphatic organs of mice expressing human SLAM with human-like tissue specificity.
Derivation of Pre-X Inactivation Human Embryonic Stem Cells Under Physiological Oxygen Concentrations
Cell. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20471072
The presence of two active X chromosomes (XaXa) is a hallmark of the ground state of pluripotency specific to murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Human ESCs (hESCs) invariably exhibit signs of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) and are considered developmentally more advanced than their murine counterparts. We describe the establishment of XaXa hESCs derived under physiological oxygen concentrations. Using these cell lines, we demonstrate that (1) differentiation of hESCs induces random XCI in a manner similar to murine ESCs, (2) chronic exposure to atmospheric oxygen is sufficient to induce irreversible XCI with minor changes of the transcriptome, (3) the Xa exhibits heavy methylation of the XIST promoter region, and (4) XCI is associated with demethylation and transcriptional activation of XIST along with H3K27-me3 deposition across the Xi. These findings indicate that the human blastocyst contains pre-X-inactivation cells and that this state is preserved in vitro through culture under physiological oxygen.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21106759
Developmental programs are controlled by transcription factors and chromatin regulators, which maintain specific gene expression programs through epigenetic modification of the genome. These regulatory events at enhancers contribute to the specific gene expression programs that determine cell state and the potential for differentiation into new cell types. Although enhancer elements are known to be associated with certain histone modifications and transcription factors, the relationship of these modifications to gene expression and developmental state has not been clearly defined. Here we interrogate the epigenetic landscape of enhancer elements in embryonic stem cells and several adult tissues in the mouse. We find that histone H3K27ac distinguishes active enhancers from inactive/poised enhancer elements containing H3K4me1 alone. This indicates that the amount of actively used enhancers is lower than previously anticipated. Furthermore, poised enhancer networks provide clues to unrealized developmental programs. Finally, we show that enhancers are reset during nuclear reprogramming.
Reprogramming Factor Stoichiometry Influences the Epigenetic State and Biological Properties of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Cell Stem Cell. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22136932
We compared two genetically highly defined transgenic systems to identify parameters affecting reprogramming of somatic cells to a pluripotent state. Our results demonstrate that the level and stoichiometry of reprogramming factors during the reprogramming process strongly influence the resulting pluripotency of iPS cells. High expression of Oct4 and Klf4 combined with lower expression of c-Myc and Sox2 produced iPS cells that efficiently generated "all-iPSC mice" by tetraploid (4n) complementation, maintained normal imprinting at the Dlk1-Dio3 locus, and did not create mice with tumors. Loss of imprinting (LOI) at the Dlk1-Dio3 locus did not strictly correlate with reduced pluripotency though the efficiency of generating "all-iPSC mice" was diminished. Our data indicate that stoichiometry of reprogramming factors can influence epigenetic and biological properties of iPS cells. This concept complicates efforts to define a "generic" epigenetic state of iPSCs and ESCs and should be considered when comparing different iPS and ES cell lines.