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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Gabriel C. Knop in JoVE
Electrophysiological Characterization of GFP-Expressing Cell Populations in the Intact Retina
Mark Pottek, Gabriel C. Knop, Reto Weiler, Karin Dedek
Department of Neurobiology, University of Oldenburg
This article depicts the recording of individual cells from fluorescently tagged neuronal populations in the intact mouse retina. By using two-photon infrared excitation transgenetically labeled cells were targeted for patch-clamp recording to study their light responses, receptive field properties, and morphology.
Other articles by Gabriel C. Knop on PubMed
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19019198
Hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels contribute to pacemaker activity, and co-determine the integrative behaviour of neurons and shape their response to synaptic stimulation. Four channel isoforms, HCN1-4, have been described in mammals. Recent studies showed particularly strong expression of HCN1 channels in rods and cones of the rat retina, suggesting that HCN1 channels are involved in the shaping of light responses in both types of photoreceptors. Therefore, the loss of HCN1 channels should lead to pronounced changes in light-induced electrical responses under both scotopic and photopic conditions. This was tested using a mouse transgenic approach. We used immunohistochemistry and patch-clamp recording to study the distribution of HCN1 channels in the mouse retina. HCN1 channels were strongly expressed in rod and cone photoreceptors, as well as in some bipolar, amacrine and ganglion cell types. In electroretinograms (ERGs) from animals in which the HCN1 channel gene had been knocked out, the b-wave amplitudes were unaltered (scotopic conditions) or somewhat reduced (photopic conditions), whereas the duration of both scotopic and photopic ERG responses was strikingly prolonged. Our data suggest that in visual information processing, shortening and shaping of light responses by activation of HCN1 at the level of the photoreceptors is an important step in both scotopic and photopic pathways.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19636375
Mammalian retinae have rod photoreceptors for night vision and cone photoreceptors for daylight and colour vision. For colour discrimination, most mammals possess two cone populations with two visual pigments (opsins) that have absorption maxima at short wavelengths (blue or ultraviolet light) and long wavelengths (green or red light). Microchiropteran bats, which use echolocation to navigate and forage in complete darkness, have long been considered to have pure rod retinae. Here we use opsin immunohistochemistry to show that two phyllostomid microbats, Glossophaga soricina and Carollia perspicillata, possess a significant population of cones and express two cone opsins, a shortwave-sensitive (S) opsin and a longwave-sensitive (L) opsin. A substantial population of cones expresses S opsin exclusively, whereas the other cones mostly coexpress L and S opsin. S opsin gene analysis suggests ultraviolet (UV, wavelengths <400 nm) sensitivity, and corneal electroretinogram recordings reveal an elevated sensitivity to UV light which is mediated by an S cone visual pigment. Therefore bats have retained the ancestral UV tuning of the S cone pigment. We conclude that bats have the prerequisite for daylight vision, dichromatic colour vision, and UV vision. For bats, the UV-sensitive cones may be advantageous for visual orientation at twilight, predator avoidance, and detection of UV-reflecting flowers for those that feed on nectar.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21451016
In the mammalian retina, two types of catecholaminergic amacrine cells have been described. Although dopaminergic type 1 cells are well characterized, the physiology of type 2 cells is, so far, unknown. To target type 2 cells specifically, we used a transgenic mouse line that expresses green fluorescent protein under the control of the tyrosine hydroxylase promoter. Type 2 cells are GABAergic and have an extensive dendritic arbor, which stratifies in the middle of the inner plexiform layer. Our data suggest that type 2 cells comprise two subpopulations with identical physiological properties: one has its somata located in the inner nuclear layer and the other in the ganglion cell layer. Immunostaining with bipolar cell markers suggested that type 2 cells receive excitatory inputs from type 3 OFF and type 5 ON bipolar cells. Consistently, patch-clamp recordings showed that type 2 cells are ON-OFF amacrine cells. Blocking excitatory inputs revealed that different rod and cone pathways are active under scotopic and mesopic light conditions. Blockade of inhibitory inputs led to membrane potential oscillations in type 2 cells, suggesting that GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells strongly influence type 2 cell signaling. Among the glycinergic amacrine cells, we identified the VGluT3-immunoreactive amacrine cell as a likely candidate. Collectively, light responses of type 2 cells were remarkably uniform over a wide range of light intensities. These properties point toward a general function of type 2 cells that is maintained under scotopic and mesopic conditions.