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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (44)
- Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation : Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
- Immunological Reviews
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
- Cancer Research
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation : Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
- Experimental Hematology
- Nature Immunology
- Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation : Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
- Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
- Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)
- Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
- Leukemia Research
- Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
- British Journal of Haematology
- Pediatric Blood & Cancer
- Pediatric Transplantation
- Stem Cells and Development
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Human Gene Therapy
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Nature Biotechnology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Pediatric Research
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
- Journal of Clinical Immunology
- Experimental Hematology
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Articles by Gay M. Crooks in JoVE
בידוד של הכבד CD133 + בתאי גזע משובטים עבור הרחבת
C. Bart Rountree1, Wei Ding1, Hein Dang1, Colleen VanKirk2, Gay M. Crooks3
1Department of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles, School of Medicine
כאן אנו מתארים את הבידוד של CD133 לבטא בתאי גזע כבד סרטן בתאי גזע מהכבד Murine שלם, תהליך הדורש עיכול רקמות, העשרה התא cytometry בידוד תזרים. אנו כוללים שיטות מתקדמות בידוד תא בודד והרחבת משובט.
Other articles by Gay M. Crooks on PubMed
Second Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Pediatric Patients: Overall Survival and Long-term Follow-up
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation : Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12014811
Despite potent intensive conditioning regimens, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may fail because of either relapse of the malignancy or the rejection of the graft. We report on 27 pediatric patients who received a second HSCT from an allogeneic donor for relapsed malignancy or graft failure. One-year, 5-year, and 10-year probabilities of survival for all patients were 53%, 36%, and 24%, respectively. Twenty patients received second HSCTs for relapsed malignancy, of whom 6 were alive and disease free at the time of this report. Seven patients received a second HSCT for graft failure, of whom 3 were alive and well as of this report. Twenty-five patients were tested for immune reconstitution following their second HSCT. Sixteen patients developed antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses; the median time to development of antigen-specific responses was 13 months. There was no significant neurocognitive decline in patients tested 1 to 3 years following their second HSCT. Endocrine evaluations revealed deficiencies in growth hormone (7 patients), gonadal function (3 patients), and thyroid function (2 patients). Three patients developed significant abnormalities of tooth development, including absence of secondary teeth. These results show that a second HSCT offers curative therapy for selected pediatric patients whose first HSCT failed. Although toxicity is considerable following a second transplantation, the major causes of mortality continue to be relapse and infection.
Immunological Reviews. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12366682
The ultimate goal of developmental immunology is to understand the normal processes that give rise to the immune system in order to diagnose and develop effective treatments for diseases that occur as a consequence of immune system defects. Central to achieving this goal is understanding the complex interplay between microenvironmental signals and transcription factors that direct human hematopoietic differentiation and lineage commitment. The ability to isolate highly purified populations of human hematopoietic cells at critical points in differentiation make it possible to answer very specific questions about the hematopoietic process and lineage restriction. This review describes the use of surface immunophenotypes to identify human hematopoietic cells at particular points in differentiation or with particular patterns of lineage restriction. Culture models are discussed in the context of the ability to detect, characterize and determine the lineage potential of human hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. Variations in hematopoeises that correspond to ontogeny will be examined. Potential roles for the HOX and Ikaros proteins in human lineage commitment will be considered. Also included will be discussion of a number of factors that provide challenges to experimental design, to experimental interpretation, and to the development of a comprehensive model of human hematopoiesis.
Expression from Second-generation Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Vectors is Impaired in Human Hematopoietic Cells
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12409263
Vectors based on the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) have been developed as an alternative to those based on another lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), because of theoretical safety advantages. We compared the efficiency of gene transfer and expression in human and feline hematopoietic progenitors using second-generation HIV-1 and FIV-based vectors. Vector pairs were tested using either human cytomegalovirus or murine phospho-glycerate kinase (PGK) internal promoters and were pseudotyped with the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G). Vector proviral copy numbers were similar in human and feline hematopoietic primary cells and cell lines transduced by HIV-1 or FIV vectors, demonstrating that both vectors are able to transfer genes efficiently to these cell types. HIV-1 vectors were well expressed in human primary hematopoietic cells and cell lines. However, transgene expression from FIV vectors was almost undetectable in human hematopoietic cells. In contrast, the FIV vector was expressed well in primary hematopoietic feline cells and human non-hematopoietic cells, demonstrating that low transgene expression from the FIV vector is a phenomenon specific to human hematopoietic cells. Northern blot analysis demonstrated decreased vector transcript levels in human CEM cells transduced with FIV relative to cells transduced with HIV-1, despite high vector copy numbers. No evidence of vector transcript instability was seen in studies of transduced CEM cells treated with actinomycin D. We conclude that FIV vectors can transfer genes into human hematopoietic cells as effectively as HIV-1 vectors, but that unknown elements in the current FIV backbone inhibit expression from FIV vectors in human hematopoietic cells.
Albumin-expressing Hepatocyte-like Cells Develop in the Livers of Immune-deficient Mice That Received Transplants of Highly Purified Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Blood. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12560238
Rodent bone marrow cells can contribute to liver. If these findings are applicable to humans, marrow stem cells could theoretically be harvested from a patient and used to repair his/her damaged liver. To explore this potential, CD34(+) or highly purified CD34(+)CD38(-)CD7(-) human hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood and bone marrow were transplanted into immunodeficient mice. One month after transplantation, carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) was administered into the mice to induce liver damage and hepatocyte proliferation. Mice were analyzed in comparison with CCl(4)-injured mice that did not receive transplants and noninjured controls that received transplants with the same stem cell populations, one month after liver damage. Human-specific albumin mRNA and protein were expressed in the mouse liver and human albumin was detected in the serum of mice that had received CCl(4) injury. Human alpha-fetoprotein was never expressed, but in some mice, human cytokeratin 19 was expressed, which may indicate bile duct development in addition to the albumin-secreting hepatocyte-like cells. Human albumin was not expressed in the starting stem cell populations in injured mice that did not receive transplants nor in noninjured mice that had received transplants of human stem cells. Human albumin expression was detected only in CCl(4)-treated mice that received transplants of human stem cells, and recovery was increased by administration of human hepatocyte growth factor 48 hours after the CCl(4)-mediated liver injury. Our studies provide evidence that human "hematopoietic" stem/progenitor cell populations have the capacity to respond to the injured liver microenvironment by inducing albumin expression.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12626565
The Ikaros gene is alternately spliced to generate multiple DNA-binding and nonbinding isoforms that have been implicated as regulators of hematopoiesis, particularly in the lymphoid lineages. Although early reports of Ikaros mutant mice focused on lymphoid defects, these mice also show significant myeloid, erythroid, and stem cell defects. However, the specific Ikaros proteins expressed in these cells have not been determined. We recently described Ikaros-x (Ikx), a new Ikaros isoform that is the predominant Ikaros protein in normal human hematopoietic cells. In this study, we report that the Ikx protein is selectively expressed in human myeloid lineage cells, while Ik1 predominates in the lymphoid and erythroid lineages. Both Ik1 and Ikx proteins are expressed in early human hematopoietic cells (Lin(-)CD34(+)). Under culture conditions that promote specific lineage differentiation, Ikx is up-regulated during myeloid differentiation but down-regulated during lymphoid differentiation from human Lin(-)CD34(+) cells. We show that Ikx and other novel Ikaros splice variants identified in human studies are also expressed in murine bone marrow. In mice, as in humans, the Ikx protein is selectively expressed in the myeloid lineage. Our studies suggest that Ikaros proteins function in myeloid, as well as lymphoid, differentiation and that specific Ikaros isoforms may play a role in regulating lineage commitment decisions in mice and humans.
Blood. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12946998
The standard approach to assess hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment in experimental bone marrow transplantation models relies on detection of donor hematopoietic cells in host bone marrow following death; this approach provides data from only a single time point after transplantation for each animal. In vivo bioluminescence imaging was therefore explored as a method to gain a dynamic, longitudinal profile of human HSC engraftment in a living xenogeneic model. Luciferase expression using a lentiviral vector allowed detection of distinctly different patterns of engraftment kinetics from human CD34+ and CD34+CD38- populations in the marrow NOD/SCID/beta 2mnull mice. Imaging showed an early peak (day 13) of engraftment from CD34+ cells followed by a rapid decline in signal. Engraftment from the more primitive CD34+CD38- population was relatively delayed but by day 36 increased to significantly higher levels than those from CD34+ cells (P <.05). Signal intensity from CD34+CD38-engrafted mice continued to increase during more than 100 days of analysis. Flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow from mice after death demonstrated that levels of 1% donor cell engraftment could be readily detected by bioluminescence imaging; higher engraftment levels corresponded to higher image signal intensity. In vivo bioluminescence imaging provides a novel method to track the dynamics of engraftment of human HSC and progenitors in vivo.
Busulfan and Cyclophosphamide As a Conditioning Regimen for Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation
Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14767194
Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has become the standard therapy for children with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The authors report their experience with histocompatible BMT for 52 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia conditioned with a non-total body irradiation (TBI) regimen using busulfan and cyclophosphamide (Bu/Cy). The efficacy and long-term toxicity of the Bu/Cy regimen were determined. Overall survival was 35%. One-year, 3-year, and 7-year event-free survival rates were 54%, 33%, and 23%, respectively. Of the 52 BMT recipients, 26 relapsed. Thirteen of the relapsed patients received a second BMT and three were surviving as of this writing. The most frequent cause of death was leukemia relapse. An initial remission duration of less than 18 months was a factor in decreasing the event-free survival. The Bu/Cy regimen was well tolerated, with minimal transplant-related mortality. Neurocognitive function was tested before BMT and 1 year after BMT. When 1-year posttransplant neurocognitive test scores were compared with pretransplant scores, there was no decrease. However, there was a significant decrease in the pretransplant neurocognitive test scores in BMT recipients compared with their normal siblings. The use of Bu/Cy as a conditioning regimen for BMT does not appear to affect posttransplant neurocognitive function. Other long-term side effects, such as endocrinopathies and secondary malignancies, were also minimal. These data show that the Bu/Cy regimen is well tolerated, but the overall survival rate remains low.
Distinct Homeostatic Requirements of CD4+ and CD4- Subsets of Valpha24-invariant Natural Killer T Cells in Humans
Blood. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15328159
CD1d-restricted Valpha24-invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs) are important in immunoregulation. CD4(+) and CD4(-) iNKTs develop with similar frequencies in murine thymus and depend on interleukin-15 (IL-15) in periphery. However, homeostatic requirements of iNKTs have not been analyzed in humans. We evaluated thymic production, peripheral dynamics, and functional maturation of human iNKTs. CD4(+) subset comprises 90% of iNKTs in mature thymocytes and cord blood (CB) but only 40% in adult blood. Using T-cell receptor excision circle (TREC) analysis, we directly measured in vivo replicative history of CD4(+) and CD4(-) iNKT cells. Compared to CD4(+), CD4(-) iNKTs contain fewer TRECs, express higher levels of IL-2Rbeta, and proliferate with higher rate in response to IL-15. In contrast, CD4(+) cells express higher levels of IL-7Ralpha and better respond to IL-7. Neither thymic nor CB iNKTs are able to produce cytokines unless they are induced to proliferate. Therefore, unlike in the mouse, human CD4(+) iNKTs are mainly supported by thymic output and limited peripheral expansion, whereas CD4(-) cells undergo extensive peripheral expansion, and both subsets develop their functions in periphery. These findings reveal important differences in homeostatic requirements and functional maturation between murine and human iNKTs that are to be considered for clinical purposes.
The Contribution of Bone Marrow-derived Cells to the Tumor Vasculature in Neuroblastoma is Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Dependent
Cancer Research. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15833851
The contribution of the tumor stroma to cancer progression has been increasingly recognized. We had previously shown that in human neuroblastoma tumors orthotopically implanted in immunodeficient mice, stromal-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the formation of a mature vasculature by promoting pericyte recruitment along endothelial cells. Here we show that MMP-9 is predominantly expressed by bone marrow-derived CD45-positive leukocytes. Using a series of bone marrow transplantation experiments in MMP-9(+/+) and MMP-9(-/-) mice xenotransplanted with human neuroblastoma tumors, we show that bone marrow-derived MMP-9 is critical for the recruitment of leukocytes from bone marrow into the tumor stroma and for the integration of bone marrow-derived endothelial cells into the tumor vasculature. Expression of MMP-9 by bone marrow-derived cells in the tumor stroma is also critical for the formation of a mature vasculature and coverage of endothelial cells with pericytes. Furthermore, in primary human neuroblastoma tumor specimens of unfavorable histology, we observed a higher level of tumor infiltration with MMP-9 expressing phagocytic cells and a higher degree of coverage of endothelial cells by pericytes when compared with tumor specimens with a favorable histology. Taken together, the data show that in neuroblastoma, MMP-9 plays a critical role in the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells to the tumor microenvironment where they positively contribute to angiogenesis and tumor progression.
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Jun-Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15917481
The stem cell leukemia (SCL or tal-1) gene was initially identified as a translocation partner in a leukemia that possessed both lymphoid and myeloid differentiation potential. Mice that lacked SCL expression showed a complete block in hematopoiesis; thus, SCL was associated with hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. More recent studies show a role for SCL in murine erythroid differentiation. However, the expression pattern and the role of SCL during early stages of human hematopoietic differentiation are less clear. In this study we chart the pattern of human SCL expression from HSCs, through developmentally sequential populations of lymphoid and myeloid progenitors to mature cells of the hematopoietic lineages. Using recently defined surface immunophenotypes, we fluorescence-activated cell-sorted (FACS) highly purified populations of primary human hematopoietic progenitors for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of SCL expression. Our data show that SCL mRNA is easily detectable in all hematopoietic populations with erythroid potential, including HSCs, multipotential progenitors, common myeloid progenitors, megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors, and nucleated erythroid lineage cells. SCL mRNA expression was present but rapidly downregulated in the common lymphoid progenitor and granulocyte/monocyte progenitor populations that lack erythroid potential. SCL expression was undetectable in immature cells of nonerythroid lineages, including pro-B cells, early thymic progenitors, and myeloid precursors expressing the M-CSF receptor. SCL expression was also absent from all mature cells of the nonerythroid lineages. Although low levels of SCL were detected in lymphoid- and myeloid-restricted progenitors, our studies show that abundant SCL expression is normally tightly linked with erythroid differentiation potential.
Pediatrics. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16199719
Histocompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was conducted on a 4.5-year-old girl with Niemann-Pick disease type B. The donor was her unaffected brother. At the time of transplantation, she had severe pulmonary disease. After her first HSCT, she developed graft failure. Five years after her second HSCT, her sphingomyelinase levels are within normal levels, she has no pulmonary symptoms, and aside from persistent graft versus host disease, she is doing well.
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation : Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16399583
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16510429
Recent reports suggest that bone marrow-derived cells engraft and differentiate into pancreatic tissue at very low frequency after pancreatic injury. All such studies have used adult recipients. The aim of our studies was to investigate the potential of bone marrow to contribute to the exocrine and endocrine components of the pancreas during the normal rapid growth of the organ that occurs during the neonatal period. Five to ten million bone marrow cells from adult, male, transgenic, green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were injected into neonatal nonobese diabetic/severely compromised immunodeficient/beta2microglobulin-null mice 24 hours after birth. Two months after bone marrow transplantation, pancreas tissue was analyzed with fluorescence immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Co-staining of GFP, with anticytokeratin antibody, and with FISH for the presence of donor Y chromosome indicated that up to 40% of ducts (median 4.6%) contained epithelial cells derived from donor bone marrow. In some of these donor-derived ducts, there were clusters of large and small ducts, all comprised of GFP+ epithelium, suggesting that whole branching structures were derived from donor bone marrow. In addition, rare cells that coexpressed GFP and insulin were found within islets. Unlike pancreatic damage models, no bone marrow-derived vascular endothelial cells were found. In contrast to the neonatal recipients, bone marrow transplanted into adult mice rarely generated ductal epithelium or islet cells (p<.05 difference between adult and neonate transplants). These findings demonstrate the existence in bone marrow of pluripotent stem cells or epithelial precursors that can migrate to the pancreas and differentiate into complex organ-specific structures during the neonatal period.
Fluorescent Immunohistochemistry and in Situ Hybridization Analysis of Mouse Pancreas Using Low-power Antigen-retrieval Technique
The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16549508
To facilitate the immunological reaction of antibodies with antigens in fixed tissues, it is necessary to unmask or retrieve the antigens through pretreatment of the specimens. However, adjustment of heating-induced antigen retrieval is always required for different tissues and antigens. In this study, by using a low-power antigen-retrieval technique with appropriate dilution of antibodies, we successfully immunostained key antigens in pancreas such as insulin, PDX-1, glucagon, cytokeratin, and CD31, which have previously presented a particular challenge for investigators because of the rapid autodigestion and high nonspecific antibody binding in this tissue. Satisfactory results were obtained when immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were combined in the same slides.
Experimental Hematology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16982326
Methods of gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells that result in stable integration may provide treatments for many inherited and acquired blood diseases. It has been demonstrated previously that a gene delivery system based on the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon can be derived where a plasmid transiently expressing the SB transposase can mediate the stable chromosomal integration of a codelivered second plasmid containing a gene expression unit flanked by the inverted repeats derived from the transposon.
The Effects of Campath 1H Upon Graft-versus-host Disease, Infection, Relapse, and Immune Reconstitution in Recipients of Pediatric Unrelated Transplants
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation : Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17448918
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a cause of serious morbidity and mortality in >50% of recipients of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We performed a trial using Campath 1 H pre- and post-HSCT in an attempt to decrease the incidence of GVHD without increasing the risk of infection or relapse. Patients were retrospectively compared to a population of patients who received antithymocyte globulin (ATG) pre- and post-HSCT. Twenty-seven patients were evaluated for this study. Fourteen patients received Campath 1H and 13 patients received ATG. Demographics of patients who received Campath 1H consisted of 9 males and 5 females, with a median age of 13 years (3-17.8 years). Thirteen patients received unrelated bone marrow and 1 patient received unrelated PBSC. Demographics of patients receiving ATG consisted of 9 males, 4 females with a median age of 7.4 years (21 months-19 years). Twelve patients received unrelated bone marrow and 1 patient received unrelated PBSC. Diagnoses were similar between the 2 groups. Patients who received Campath1H received a total dose of 52 mg/m(2) pre-HSCT and 20 mg/m(2) post-HSCT. Patients who received ATG received a total dose of 60 mg/kg pre-HSCT and 100 mg/kg post-HSCT. GVHD prophylaxis and supportive care measures were similar in both groups, including aggressive antimicrobial therapy. There was a significant difference in the incidence of severe (grade III and grade IV) GVHD between the 2 groups (Campath [0 of 14] versus ATG [6 of 13], P = .006). Among the patients who were transplanted for leukemia, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of relapse (Campath [2 of 14] versus ATG [4 of 9], P = 0.16). The 100-day survival between the 2 groups was not significantly different. Patients receiving Campath 1H had the presence of CD3(+) T cells (>30 cells/mL) in their peripheral blood later than in those who received ATG (64.5 days [Campath 1H] versus 27days [ATG], P = .001). The median time to the development of a normal PHA response occurred later in the Campath 1H arm (283 days[(Campath 1H] versus 88 days [ATG], P = .0001). The median time to an antigen specific response also occurred later in those receiving Campath 1H (365 days [Campath 1H] versus 150 days [ATG], P = .004). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of fungal or viral infections. Campath 1H is effective in decreasing the incidence of GVHD without increasing the risk of relapse. Although there is a significant delay in immune reconstitution, there was no increase in infectious complications or relapse in recipients of Campath 1H. Further studies are warranted to assess if a lack of difference in infection rates are still demonstrated in larger cohorts.
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17464997
Recent reports have provided conflicting conclusions regarding the role for bone marrow (BM)-derived cells in the regeneration of liver. Our aim was to investigate the potential of BM to contribute to liver epithelium using different BM transplant models designed to explore differentiation during normal liver development and regeneration after toxic injury. BM cells from transgenic green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice were injected into neonatal and adult immunodeficient and neonatal immune-competent mice. Three distinct models of liver injury were employed to test the contribution of marrow to the regeneration of hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and oval cells in immune-deficient adult animals after neonatal transplant. Immunohistochemistry was combined with flow cytometry (FACS) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the analyses. Although GFP+ marrow-derived cells were observed in the livers of all transplanted animals, immunohistochemistry failed to demonstrate any marrow derived hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. FACS confirmed that GFP+ marrow-derived cells in the liver maintained expression of CD45, a leukocyte marker. Gene expression studies of GFP+ cells isolated by FACS failed to demonstrate expression of liver specific genes in these marrow-derived cells. CONCLUSION: Through highly sensitive and specific analyses, we were unable to demonstrate any evidence of transdifferentiation of BM-derived cells into epithelial hepatic tissue during the period of rapid growth in the neonatal period. Furthermore, although increased migration of hematopoietic cells to the liver occurred after toxic injury, these cells did not contribute directly to the replacement of hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, or oval cells.
Immunity. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17582340
Much of the current understanding in hematopoietic stem cell differentiation into immune-cell lineages comes from mouse studies, but how well does it translate to the human system?
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17585168
Although oval cells are postulated to be adult liver stem cells, a well-defined phenotype of a bipotent liver stem cell remains elusive. The heterogeneity of cells within the oval cell fraction has hindered lineage potential studies. Our goal was to identify an enriched population of bipotent oval cells using a combination of flow cytometry and single cell gene expression in conjunction with lineage-specific liver injury models. Expression of cell surface markers on nonparenchymal, nonhematopoietic (CD45-) cells were characterized. Cell populations were isolated by flow cytometry for gene expression studies. 3,5-Diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine toxic injury induced cell cycling and expansion specifically in the subpopulation of oval cells in the periportal zone that express CD133. CD133+CD45- cells expressed hepatoblast and stem cell-associated genes, and single cells coexpressed both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte-associated genes, indicating bilineage potential. CD133+CD45- cells proliferated in response to liver injury. Following toxic hepatocyte damage, CD133+CD45- cells demonstrated upregulated expression of the hepatocyte gene Albumin. In contrast, toxic cholangiocyte injury resulted in upregulation of the cholangiocyte gene Ck19. After 21-28 days in culture, CD133+CD45- cells continued to generate cells of both hepatocyte and cholangiocyte lineages. Thus, CD133 expression identifies a population of oval cells in adult murine liver with the gene expression profile and function of primitive, bipotent liver stem cells. In response to lineage-specific injury, these cells demonstrate a lineage-appropriate genetic response. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.
Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 is Critical for Liver Growth During Embryogenesis and Controls Hepatoblast Survival Via Beta-catenin Activation
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17668871
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling and beta-catenin activation have been shown to be crucial for early embryonic liver development. This study determined the significance of FGF10-mediated signaling in a murine embryonic liver progenitor cell population as well as its relation to beta-catenin activation. We observed that Fgf10(-/-) and Fgfr2b(-/-) mouse embryonic livers are smaller than wild-type livers; Fgf10(-/-) livers exhibit diminished proliferation of hepatoblasts. A comparison of beta-galactosidase activity as a readout of Fgf10 expression in Fgf10(+/LacZ) mice and of beta-catenin activation in TOPGAL mice, demonstrated peak Fgf10 expression from E9 to E13.5 coinciding with peak beta-catenin activation. Flow cytometric isolation and marker gene expression analysis of LacZ(+) cells from E13.5 Fgf10(+/LacZ) and TOPGAL livers, respectively, revealed that Fgf10 expression and beta-catenin signaling occur distinctly in stellate/myofibroblastic cells and hepatoblasts, respectively. Moreover, hepatoblasts express Fgfr2b, which strongly suggests they can respond to recombinant FGF10 produced by stellate cells. Fgfr2b(-/-)/TOPGAL(+/+) embryonic livers displayed less beta-galactosidase activity than livers of Fgfr2b(+/+)/TOPGAL(+/+) littermates. In addition, cultures of whole liver explants in Matrigel or cell in suspension from E12.5 TOPGAL(+/+)mice displayed a marked increase in beta-galactosidase activity and cell survival upon treatment with recombinant FGF10, indicating that FGFR (most likely FGFR2B) activation is upstream of beta-catenin signaling and promote hepatoblast survival. CONCLUSION: Embryonic stellate/myofibroblastic cells promote beta-catenin activation in and survival of hepatoblasts via FGF10-mediated signaling. We suggest a role for stellate/myofibroblastic FGF10 within the liver stem cell niche in supporting the proliferating hepatoblast.
Leukemia Research. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17027955
Quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer scale fluorescent semiconductors that are increasingly used as labeling tools in biological research. These nanoparticles have physical properties, such as high quantum yield and resistance to photobleaching, that make them attractive molecular probes for tracking hematologic cells. Here, we show that QDs attached to a transporter protein effectively label all hematologic cells tested, including cell lines and malignant and non-malignant patient samples. We demonstrate that dividing cells can be tracked through at least four cell divisions. In leukemic cell lines, some cells remain labeled for 2 weeks. We show that QDs can be used to follow cells as they differentiate. QDs are seen in monocyte-like and neutrophil-like progeny of labeled HL-60 myeloblasts exposed to Vitamin D analogues and DMSO, respectively. QDs are also observed in monocytes generated from labeled CD34+ cells. In addition, QDs attached to streptavidin can target cells with differing cell surface markers, including CD33. In summary, QDs have the ability to bind to specific cells of interest, be taken up by a diverse range of hematologic cells, and followed through many divisions and through differentiation. These results establish QDs as extremely useful molecular imaging tools for the study of hematologic cells.
Prolonged Pancytopenia in a Gene Therapy Patient with ADA-deficient SCID and Trisomy 8 Mosaicism: a Case Report
Blood. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16973956
A patient with adenosine deaminase-deficient severe combined immune deficiency (ADA-SCID) was enrolled in a study of retroviral-mediated ADA gene transfer to bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells. After the discontinuation of ADA enzyme replacement, busulfan (75 mg/m2) was administered for bone marrow cytoreduction, followed by infusion of autologous, gene-modified CD34+ cells. The expected myelosuppression developed after busulfan but then persisted, necessitating the administration of untransduced autologous bone marrow back-up at day 40. Because of sustained pancytopenia and negligible gene marking, diagnostic bone marrow biopsy and aspirate were performed at day 88. Analyses revealed hypocellular marrow and, unexpectedly, evidence of trisomy 8 in 21.6% of cells. Trisomy 8 mosaicism (T8M) was subsequently diagnosed by retrospective analysis of a pretreatment marrow sample that might have caused the lack of hematopoietic reconstitution. The confounding effects of this preexisting marrow cytogenetic abnormality on the response to gene transfer highlights another challenge of gene therapy with the use of autologous hematopoietic stem cells.
Human Intrathymic Lineage Commitment is Marked by Differential CD7 Expression: Identification of CD7- Lympho-myeloid Thymic Progenitors
Blood. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17959857
The identity and lineage potential of the cells that initiate thymopoiesis remain controversial. The goal of these studies was to determine, at a clonal level, the immunophenotype and differentiation pathways of the earliest progenitors in human thymus. Although the majority of human CD34(+)lin(-) thymocytes express high levels of CD7, closer analysis reveals that a continuum of CD7 expression exists, and 1% to 2% of progenitors are CD7(-). CD34(+)lin(-) thymocytes were fractionated by CD7 expression and tested for lineage potential in B-lymphoid, T-lymphoid, and myeloid-erythroid conditions. Progressive restriction in lineage potential correlated with CD7 expression, that is, the CD7(hi) fraction produced T and NK cells but lacked B and myelo-erythroid potential, the CD7(int) (CD10(+)) fraction produced B, T, and NK cells, but lacked myelo-erythroid potential. The CD7(-) fraction produced all lymphoid and myelo-erythroid lineages and expressed HSC-associated genes. However, CD34(+)lin(-)CD7(-) thymocytes also expressed early T lymphoid genes Tdt, pTalpha, and IL-7Ralpha and lacked engraftment capacity, suggesting the signals that direct lymphoid commitment and corresponding loss of HSC function are rapidly initiated on arrival of HSC in the human thymus. Thus, differential levels of CD7 identify the progressive stages of lineage commitment in human thymus, initiated from a primitive CD7(-) lympho-myeloid thymic progenitor.
Expansion of Liver Cancer Stem Cells During Aging in Methionine Adenosyltransferase 1A-deficient Mice
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18167064
Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine. Hepatic MAT activity falls in chronic liver diseases, and mice lacking Mat1a are predisposed to liver injury and develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) spontaneously by 18 months. The current work examined the hypothesis that liver cancer stem cells contribute to HCC in this model. Livers from 6- and 18-month-old Mat1a-knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were fractionated and isolated by flow cytometry. CD45- nonparenchymal (NP) cells were cultured using liver stem cell conditions. Cells were analyzed by real-time PCR and fluorescent immunohistochemistry (FIHC). Tumor formation was assessed by injecting 1 x 10(6) CD133+CD49f+ cells intraperitoneally into immune-deficient mice. The proportion of CD49f+ and CD133+ cells in the CD45-NP fraction increased 4.5- to 5.5-fold from 6 to 18 months in KO mice but not in their WT littermates. Compared to CD49f- cells from old KO mice, CD49f+ cells from the same animals had a markedly increased expression of several oncogenes. CD133+ cells with CD49f coexpression were selected in vitro and exhibited rapid growth, with the expression of biliary cytokeratins, alpha-fetoprotein, and c-Met by FIHC. Clonal expansion of single CD133+CD49f+ cells revealed maintenance of bipotency. After CD133+CD49f+ cells were injected into immune-deficient mice, 3 of the 8 mice developed tumors of liver epithelial cells after 6-8 weeks. Conclusion: Mat1a(-/-) mice have expansion of liver stem cells as they age. These cells have increased expression of several oncogenes and are tumorigenic in vivo. This is the first demonstration of adult liver stem cells possessing tumorigenic potential without the use of a carcinogen or manipulation of tumor-suppressor or oncogene expression.
Expansion of Multipotent and Lymphoid-committed Human Progenitors Through Intracellular Dimerization of Mpl
Blood. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18174381
Self-renewal capacity is rapidly lost during differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells to lineage-committed progenitors. We demonstrate here that regulated intracellular signaling through the cytokine receptor Mpl induces profound expansion of not only multipotent (ie, lymphomyeloid) but also lymphoid-committed human hematopoietic progenitors. A fusion protein containing the intracellular signaling domain of Mpl and a dimerization domain was constitutively expressed in populations enriched in human lymphomyeloid progenitor/stem cells (CD34(+)CD38(-)Lin(-)CD7(-)) and multilymphoid progenitors (CD34(+)CD38(-)Lin(-)CD7(+)). Intracellular dimerization of Mpl in target cells was induced by in vitro or in vivo administration of a diffusible synthetic ligand. In vitro, Mpl dimerization produced divisions of clonogenic, multilineage CD34(+) cells able to engraft immunodeficient mice. When dimerization was induced in vivo after transplantation of either lymphomyeloid or multilymphoid progenitors, donor-derived hematopoiesis was sustained for at least 12 weeks and primitive CD34(+)Lin(-) progenitors were expanded more than 1000-fold. Lineage potential of progenitors was not altered and differentiation was not prevented by synthetically induced Mpl signaling. These data demonstrate that dimerization of a single cytokine receptor can deliver a profound expansion signal in both uncommitted and lymphoid-committed human hematopoietic progenitors.
British Journal of Haematology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18410448
Genome duplication inevitably results in replication errors. A priori, the more times a genome is copied, the greater the average number of replication errors. This principle could be used to 'count' mitotic divisions. Although somatic mutations are rare, cytosine methylation is also copied after DNA replication, but measurably increases with aging at certain CpG rich sequences in mitotic tissues, such as the colon. To further test whether such age-related methylation represents replication errors, these CpG rich 'clock' sequences were measured in leucocytes. Leucocytes within an individual have identical chronological ages (time since birth) but their mitotic ages (numbers of divisions since the zygote) may differ. Neutrophils, B-lymphocytes, and red cell progenitors are produced from relatively quiescent stem cells throughout life, but T-lymphocyte production largely ceases after puberty when the thymus disappears. However, T-lymphocyte genomes may continue to replicate throughout life in response to immunological stimulation. Consistent with this biology, clock methylation significantly increased with aging for T-lymphocyte genomes, but no significant increase was measured in other cell populations. Moreover, this methylation was greater in genomes isolated from their corresponding neoplastic populations. These studies tentatively support the hypothesis that methylation at certain CpG rich sequences in leucocytes could record their mitotic ages.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18819128
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of infancy and childhood that is invariably fatal if not treated. We report on the first patient to receive post-natal HSCT for HLH after receiving in utero chemotherapy for disease stabilization.
Pediatric Transplantation. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18822103
OS has been described as a clinical phenotype in infants characterized by SCID, diffuse erythroderma, and other distinct features. The pathogenesis is secondary to autologous, auto-reactive T cells produced as rare escapees from the SCID blockade. Mutations in either the RAG1 or RAG2 gene that lead to partial recombinase activity are responsible for many of the patients with these clinical features. We report on two patients, one with an atypical phenotype of OS (absence of rash but presence of other typical features) who harbored a previously undescribed mutation in RAG1, and a second who had many of the classic features of OS but was found to have a mutation in the common gamma chain (gamma(c)) cytokine receptor gene. These cases highlight the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of OS.
Identification of the Critical Extracellular Matrix Proteins That Promote Human Embryonic Stem Cell Assembly
Stem Cells and Development. Jul-Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19021502
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) exist as large colonies containing tightly adherent, undifferentiated cells. Disaggregation of hESC as single cells significantly affects their survival and differentiation, suggesting that adhesion mechanisms are critical for the assembly and maintenance of hESC colonies. The goal of these studies was to determine the key extracellular matrix (ECM) components that regulate assembly and growth of hESC. Our studies demonstrate that undifferentiated hESC express a specific subtype of laminin (laminin-511) and nidogen-1. The addition of a purified protein complex comprised of human laminin-511 and nidogen-1 to single-cell suspensions of hESC is sufficient to restore hESC assembly in the absence of murine embryonic fibroblasts or exogenous chemicals. The mechanism of hESC aggregation is through binding of the alpha6beta1 integrin receptor highly expressed in the membranes of undifferentiated hESC; aggregation can be inhibited by an antibody against alpha6 and almost completely blocked by an antibody against the beta1 subunit. Reassembly of defined numbers of purified hESC with the laminin-nidogen complex allows consistent production of uniform embryoid bodies (EBs) ("LN-EBs") that differentiate into endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal derivatives, and are highly efficient in generating hematoendothelial progenitors. These data reveal for the first time the crucial role of the ECM proteins laminin-511 and nidogen-1 in hESC assembly, and provide a novel practical tool to investigate hESC differentiation in a xenogen-free microenvironment.
Blood. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19088378
Although the mechanisms of cross-talk that regulate the hematopoietic and epithelial compartments of the thymus are well established, the interactions of these compartments with the thymic endothelium have been largely ignored. Current understanding of the thymic vasculature is based on studies of adult thymus. We show that the neonatal period represents a unique phase of thymic growth and differentiation, marked by endothelium that is organized as primitive, dense networks of capillaries dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF dependence in neonates is mediated by significantly higher levels of both VEGF production and endothelial VEGF receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) expression than in the adult thymus. VEGF is expressed locally in the neonatal thymus by immature, CD4(-)CD8(-) "double negative" (DN) thymocytes and thymic epithelium. Relative to adult thymus, the neonatal thymus has greater thymocyte proliferation, and a predominance of immature thymocytes and cortical thymic epithelial cells (cTECs). Inhibition of VEGF signaling during the neonatal period results in rapid loss of the dense capillaries in the thymus and a marked reduction in the number of thymocytes. These data demonstrate that, during the early postnatal period, VEGF mediates cross-talk between the thymocyte and endothelial compartments of the thymus.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19504251
To facilitate the immunological reaction of antibodies with antigens in fixed tissues, it is necessary to unmask or retrieve the antigens through pretreatment of the specimens. However, adjustment of heat-induced antigen retrieval is always required for different tissues and antigens. Using a low-power antigen retrieval technique, with appropriate dilution of antibodies, we successfully immunostained key antigens in the pancreas such as insulin, PDX-1, glucagon, cytokeratin, and CD31, which have presented a particular challenge for investigators in the past, because of the rapid autodigestion and high nonspecific antibody binding in the tissue. Satisfactory results were obtained when immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were combined in the same slides.
Stable Transgene Expression in Primitive Human CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem/progenitor Cells, Using the Sleeping Beauty Transposon System
Human Gene Therapy. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19689196
Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-mediated integration has been shown to achieve long-term transgene expression in a wide range of host cells. In this study, we improved the SB transposon-mediated gene transfer system for transduction of human CD34(+) stem/progenitor cells by two approaches: (1) to increase the transposition efficacy, a hyperactive mutant of SB, HSB, was used; (2) to improve the expression of the SB transposase and the transgene cassette carried by the transposon, different viral and cellular promoters were evaluated. SB components were delivered in trans into the target cells by Nucleoporation. The SB transposon-mediated integration efficacy was assessed by integrated transgene (enhanced green fluorescent protein [eGFP]) expression both in vitro and in vivo. In purified human cord blood CD34(+) cells, HSB achieved long-term transgene expression in nearly 7-fold more cells than the original SB transposase. Significantly brighter levels of eGFP expression (5-fold) were achieved with the human elongation factor 1alpha (EF1-alpha) promoter in Jurkat human T cells, compared with that achieved with the modified myeloproliferative sarcoma virus long terminal repeat enhancer-promoter (MNDU3); in contrast, the MNDU3 promoter expressed eGFP at the highest level in K-562 myeloid cells. In human CD34(+) cord blood cells studied under conditions directing myeloid differentiation, the highest transgene integration and expression were achieved using the EF1-alpha promoter to express the SB transposase combined with the MNDU3 promoter to express the eGFP reporter. Stable transgene expression was achieved at levels up to 27% for more than 4 weeks of culture after improved gene transfer to CD34(+) cells (average, 17%; n = 4). In vivo studies evaluating engraftment and differentiation of the SB-modified human CD34(+) cells demonstrated that SB-modified human CD34(+) cells engrafted in NOD/SCID/gamma chain(null) (NSG) mice and differentiated into multilineage cell types with eGFP expression. More importantly, secondary transplantation studies demonstrated that the integrated transgene was stably expressed in more primitive CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with long-term repopulating capability. This study demonstrates that an improved HSB gene transfer system can stably integrate genes into primitive human HSCs while maintaining the pluripotency of the stem cells, which shows promise for further advancement of non-virus-based gene therapy using hematopoietic stem cells.
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20389286
Although pancreatic beta-cell transplantation may serve as a potential cure for diabetes mellitus (DM), limited donor tissue availability poses a major challenge. Thus, there is a great demand to find new sources for pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we present a lentiviral vector-based approach to achieve beta-cell proliferation through the beta-cell-specific activation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/cmet signaling pathway. The methodology is based on the beta-cell-specific expression of a ligand-inducible, chimeric receptor (F36Vcmet), under transcriptional control of the promoter from the human insulin gene, and its ability to induce HGF/cmet signaling in the presence of a synthetic ligand (AP20187). High transduction efficiency of human pancreatic islets was achieved utilizing this approach with chimeric receptor expression confined to the beta-cell population. In addition, specific proliferation of human pancreatic beta-cells was induced utilizing this approach. Selective, regulated beta-cell expansion may help to provide greater availability of cells for transplantation in patients with DM.
Human Hematopoietic Stem/progenitor Cells Modified by Zinc-finger Nucleases Targeted to CCR5 Control HIV-1 in Vivo
Nature Biotechnology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20601939
CCR5 is the major HIV-1 co-receptor, and individuals homozygous for a 32-bp deletion in CCR5 are resistant to infection by CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), we disrupted CCR5 in human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) at a mean frequency of 17% of the total alleles in a population. This procedure produces both mono- and bi-allelically disrupted cells. ZFN-treated HSPCs retained the ability to engraft NOD/SCID/IL2rgamma(null) mice and gave rise to polyclonal multi-lineage progeny in which CCR5 was permanently disrupted. Control mice receiving untreated HSPCs and challenged with CCR5-tropic HIV-1 showed profound CD4(+) T-cell loss. In contrast, mice transplanted with ZFN-modified HSPCs underwent rapid selection for CCR5(-/-) cells, had significantly lower HIV-1 levels and preserved human cells throughout their tissues. The demonstration that a minority of CCR5(-/-) HSPCs can populate an infected animal with HIV-1-resistant, CCR5(-/-) progeny supports the use of ZFN-modified autologous hematopoietic stem cells as a clinical approach to treating HIV-1.
Mapping the First Stages of Mesoderm Commitment During Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20643952
Our understanding of how mesodermal tissue is formed has been limited by the absence of specific and reliable markers of early mesoderm commitment. We report that mesoderm commitment from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is initiated by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as shown by gene expression profiling and by reciprocal changes in expression of the cell surface proteins, EpCAM/CD326 and NCAM/CD56. Molecular and functional assays reveal that the earliest CD326-CD56+ cells, generated from hESCs in the presence of activin A, BMP4, VEGF, and FGF2, represent a multipotent mesoderm-committed progenitor population. CD326-CD56+ progenitors are unique in their ability to generate all mesodermal lineages including hematopoietic, endothelial, mesenchymal (bone, cartilage, fat, fibroblast), smooth muscle, and cardiomyocytes, while lacking the pluripotency of hESCs. CD326-CD56+ cells are the precursors of previously reported, more lineage-restricted mesodermal progenitors. These findings present a unique approach to study how germ layer specification is regulated and offer a promising target for tissue engineering.
Effects of Sublethal Irradiation on Patterns of Engraftment After Murine Bone Marrow Transplantation
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation : Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21176787
Attempts to reduce the toxicity of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have led to the use of various immunosuppressive, yet nonmyeloablative preparative regimens that often include low-dose irradiation. To determine the effects of low-dose irradiation on the dynamics of donor cell engraftment after bone marrow transplantation (BMT), we coupled standard endpoint flow cytometric analysis with in vivo longitudinal bioluminescence imaging performed throughout the early (<10 days) and late (days 10-90) post-BMT periods. To exclude the contribution of irradiation on reducing immunologic rejection, severely immune-deficient mice were chosen as recipients of allogeneic bone marrow. Flow cytometric analysis showed that sublethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI) significantly increased long-term (14 weeks) donor chimerism in the bone marrow compared with nonirradiated recipients (P < .05). Bioluminescence imaging demonstrated that the effect of TBI (P < .001) on chimerism occurred only after the first 7 days post-BMT. Flow cytometric analysis on day 3 showed no increase in the number of donor cells in irradiated bone marrow, confirming that sublethal irradiation does not enhance marrow chimerism early after transplantation. Local irradiation also significantly increased late (but not early) donor chimerism in the irradiated limb. Intrafemoral injection of donor cells provided efficient early chimerism in the injected limb, but long-term systemic donor chimerism was highest with i.v. administration (P < .05). Overall, the combination of TBI and i.v. administration of donor cells provided the highest levels of long-term donor chimerism in the marrow space. These findings suggest that the major effect of sublethal irradiation is to enhance long-term donor chimerism by inducing proliferative signals after the initial phase of homing.
Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21179006
The generation of hematopoietic cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) has raised the possibility of using hESC as an alternative donor source for transplantation. However, functional defects identified in hESC-derived cells limit their use for full lymphohematopoietic reconstitution. The purpose of the present study was to define and quantitate key functional and molecular differences between CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor subsets derived from hESC and CD34(+) subsets from umbilical cord blood (UCB) representing definitive hematopoiesis. Two distinct sub-populations were generated following mesodermal differentiation from hESC, a CD34(bright) (hematoendothelial) and CD34(dim) (hematopoietic-restricted) subset. Limiting dilution analysis revealed profound defects in clonal proliferation relative to UCB particularly in B lymphoid conditions. Transcription factors normally expressed at specific commitment stages during B lymphoid development from UCB-CD34(+) cells were aberrantly expressed in hESC-derived CD34(+) cells. Moreover, strong negative regulators of lymphopoiesis such as the adaptor protein LNK and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (CEBPα), were exclusively expressed in hESC-CD34(+) subsets. Knockdown of LNK lead to an increase in hematopoietic progenitors generated from hESCs. The aberrant molecular profile seen in hESC-CD34(+) cells represents persistence of transcripts first expressed in undifferentiated hESC and/or CD326-CD56(+) mesoderm progenitors, and may contribute to the block in definitive hematopoiesis from hESC.
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21232565
The concept that stem cells can be used to replace and regenerate tissue was founded over half a century ago using hematopoietic stem cells in the clinical field of bone marrow transplantation. The development of human embryonic stem cell lines and patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells has the potential to overcome the problem presented by shortages of immunologically compatible hematopoietic stem cell donors. This review summarizes the current advances made and limitations to be overcome in order to realize the full potential of engineering blood from pluripotent stem cells for clinical use.
Blood. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21372158
The report by Ehrlich et al in this issue of Blood reveals that assigning lineage potential to hematopoietic progenitors can be a challenging task, with interpretations differing widely depending on which functional assays are used. The findings add a new angle to the controversy of how the lymphoid and myeloid lineages are related during normal differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells.
Anti-CD52 Antibody-mediated Immune Ablation with Autologous Immune Recovery for the Treatment of Refractory Juvenile Polymyositis
Journal of Clinical Immunology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21541793
Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used for the treatment of both adult and pediatric autoimmune diseases. However, HSCT has significant side effects (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, infertility, cardiotoxicity) and costs (HSC collection/harvesting, blood product support). In an attempt to avoid the toxicities and costs associated with HSCT, we investigated whether immune ablation similar to that achieved following myeloablative HSCT could be achieved by the intensive administration of an anti-CD52 antibody (Campath-1H antibody). The first patient treated with the treatment regime, who had refractory juvenile polymyositis, achieved immune ablation (the elimination of pre-therapy antigen-specific T lymphocyte immunity) and has had stable clinical improvement for more than 6 years.
Combined Preconditioning and In Vivo Chemoselection with 6-thioguanine Alone Achieves Highly Efficient Reconstitution of Normal Hematopoiesis with HPRT-deficient Bone Marrow
Experimental Hematology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22001673
Purine analogs such as 6-thioguanine (6TG) cause myelotoxicity upon conversion into nucleotides by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Here we have developed a novel and highly efficient strategy employing 6TG as a single agent for both conditioning and in vivo chemoselection of HPRT-deficient hematopoietic stem cells. The dose-response and time course of 6TG myelotoxicity were first compared in HPRT wild-type mice and HPRT-deficient transgenic mice. Dosage and schedule parameters were optimized to employ 6TG for myelosuppressive conditioning, immediately followed by in vivo chemoselection of HPRT-deficient transgenic donor bone marrow (BM) transplanted into syngeneic HPRT wild-type recipients. At appropriate doses, 6TG induced selective myelotoxicity without any adverse effects on extrahematopoietic tissues in HPRT wild-type mice, while hematopoietic stem cells deficient in HPRT activity were highly resistant to its cytotoxic effects. Combined 6TG conditioning and post-transplantation chemoselection consistently achieved ∼95% engraftment of HPRT-deficient donor BM, with low overall toxicity. Long-term reconstitution of immunophenotypically normal BM was achieved in both primary and secondary recipients. Our results provide proof-of-concept that single-agent 6TG can be used for both myelosuppressive conditioning without requiring irradiation and for in vivo chemoselection of HPRT-deficient donor cells. Our results show that by applying the myelosuppressive effects of 6TG both before (as conditioning) and after transplantation (as chemoselection), highly efficient engraftment of HPRT-deficient hematopoietic stem cells can be achieved.
Rapid Thymic Reconstitution Following Bone Marrow Transplantation in Neonatal Mice is VEGF-Dependent
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation : Journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22281302
Age-related differences in thymic function influence the rapidity of T cell reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In adults, thymic reconstitution is delayed until after marrow engraftment is established, and is significantly improved by approaches that increase marrow chimerism, such as pretransplant irradiation. In contrast, we show that neonatal mice undergo more rapid and efficient thymic reconstitution than adults, even when bone marrow (BM) engraftment is minimal and in the absence of pretransplant radiation. We have previously shown that the neonatal thymus produces high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) that drives angiogenesis locally. In this report, we show that inhibition of VEGF before HSCT prevents rapid thymic reconstitution in neonates, but has no effect on thymic reconstitution in adults. These data suggest that the early radiation-independent thymic reconstitution unique to the neonatal host is mediated through VEGF, and reveals a novel pathway that might be targeted to improve immune reconstitution post-HSCT.