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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Georgia Woods in JoVE
Preparation of Gene Gun Bullets and Biolistic Transfection of Neurons in Slice Culture
Georgia Woods, Karen Zito
Center for Neuroscience, University of California, Davis
We describe a method for preparing DNA coated gold bullets and demonstrate the use of such bullets to biolistically transfect neurons in cultured hippocampal slices.
Other articles by Georgia Woods on PubMed
Ephrin-As and Neural Activity Are Required for Eye-specific Patterning During Retinogeniculate Mapping
Nature Neuroscience. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16025107
In mammals, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) projections initially intermingle and then segregate into a stereotyped pattern of eye-specific layers in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN). Here we found that in mice deficient for ephrin-A2, ephrin-A3 and ephrin-A5, eye-specific inputs segregated but the shape and location of eye-specific layers were profoundly disrupted. In contrast, mice that lacked correlated retinal activity did not segregate eye-specific inputs. Inhibition of correlated neural activity in ephrin mutants led to overlapping retinal projections that were located in inappropriate regions of the dLGN. Thus, ephrin-As and neural activity act together to control patterning of eye-specific retinogeniculate layers.
Neuron. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16301175
Ephrin-As and their receptors, EphAs, are expressed in the developing cortex where they may act to organize thalamic inputs. Here, we map the visual cortex (V1) in mice deficient for ephrin-A2, -A3, and -A5 functionally, using intrinsic signal optical imaging and microelectrode recording, and structurally, by anatomical tracing of thalamocortical projections. V1 is shifted medially, rotated, and compressed and its internal organization is degraded. Expressing ephrin-A5 ectopically by in utero electroporation in the lateral cortex shifts the map of V1 medially, and expression within V1 disrupts its internal organization. These findings indicate that interactions between gradients of EphA/ephrin-A in the cortex guide map formation, but that factors other than redundant ephrin-As are responsible for the remnant map. Together with earlier work on the retinogeniculate map, the current findings show that the same molecular interactions may operate at successive stages of the visual pathway to organize maps.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21865455
Changes in neuronal structure are thought to underlie long-term behavioral modifications associated with learning and memory. In particular, considerable evidence implicates the destabilization and retraction of dendritic spines along with the loss of spine synapses as an important cellular mechanism for refining brain circuits, yet the molecular mechanisms regulating spine elimination remain ill-defined. The postsynaptic density protein, PSD-95, is highly enriched in dendritic spines and has been associated with spine stability. Because spines with low levels of PSD-95 are more dynamic, and the recruitment of PSD-95 to nascent spines has been associated with spine stabilization, we hypothesized that loss of PSD-95 enrichment would be a prerequisite for spine retraction. To test this hypothesis, we used dual-color time-lapse two-photon microscopy to monitor rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons cotransfected with PSD-95-GFP and DsRed-Express, and we analyzed the relationship between PSD-95-GFP enrichment and spine morphological changes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that the majority of spines that retracted were relatively unenriched for PSD-95-GFP. However, in the subset of PSD-95-GFP-enriched spines that retracted, spine shrinkage and loss of PSD-95-GFP were tightly coupled, suggesting that loss of PSD-95-GFP enrichment did not precede spine retraction. Moreover, we found that, in some instances, spine retraction resulted in a significant enrichment of PSD-95-GFP on the dendritic shaft. Our data support a model of spine retraction in which loss of PSD-95 enrichment is not required prior to the destabilization of spines.