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In JoVE (1)
- Multi-parameter Measurement of the Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Isolated Mouse Heart Mitochondria
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Georgios Karamanlidis in JoVE
Multi-parameter Measurement of the Permeability Transition Pore Opening in Isolated Mouse Heart Mitochondria
Raluca Marcu, Chris K. Neeley, Georgios Karamanlidis, Brian J. Hawkins
Department of Anesthesiology & Pain Medicine, Mitochondria and Metabolism Center, University of Washington, Seattle
A spectrofluorometric protocol for the measurement of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in isolated mouse heart mitochondria is presented here. The assay involves the simultaneous measurement of mitochondria Ca2+ handling, mitochondrial membrane potential and mitochondrial volume. The procedure for obtaining high-quality and functional heart mitochondria is also described.
Other articles by Georgios Karamanlidis on PubMed
Endocrinology. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17023522
In ruminants and other large animals, expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is confined to the perinatal period when it plays a key role in nonshivering thermogenesis. This study determined whether loss of expression of the BAT phenotype was due to reduced response to a beta-agonist, isoprenaline, and expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family [PPARalpha, PPARgamma, PPAR coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha)], which regulates UCP1 gene expression. Perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) was sampled from ovine fetuses, newborn lambs, and lambs on d 1, 5, 7, and 21 of life. UCP1 mRNA and protein in PAT increased from d 123 of fetal life to reach a maximum at birth followed by a rapid decrease over the first 5 d of life. Expression of the coactivator, PGC-1alpha and PPAR alpha, peaked between fetal day 123 and birth, and then declined to undetectable levels in the first days of life. In vivo administration of isoprenaline was able to induce expression of UCP1, PGC-1alpha, and PPARalpha in BAT up to 5 d of age but thereafter was ineffective. In vitro addition of beta-receptor, PPARalpha, and PPARgamma agonists were unable to overcome the suppression of UCP1, PPARalpha, and PPARgamma expression observed in differentiated adipocytes prepared from 30-d-old compared with 1-d-old lambs. These data are consistent with a model in which postnatal loss of UCP1 expression and beta-adrenergic induction of the brown adipocyte phenotype is due to loss of expression of PGC-1alpha and PPARalpha.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17584738
cAMP-dependent protein kinase induction of PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression is an essential step in the commitment of preadipocytes to the brown adipose tissue (BAT) lineage. We studied the molecular mechanisms responsible for differential expression of PGC-1alpha in HIB1B (BAT) and 3T3-L1 white adipose tissue (WAT) precursor cell lines. In HIB1B cells PGC-1alpha and UCP1 expression is cAMP-inducible, but in 3T3-L1 cells, expression is reduced and is cAMP-insensitive. A proximal 264-bp PGC-1alpha reporter construct was cAMP-inducible only in HIB1B cells and was suppressed by site-directed mutagenesis of the proximal cAMP response element (CRE). In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, the transcription factors CREB and C/EBPbeta, but not C/EBPalpha and C/EBPdelta, bound to the CRE on the PGC-1alpha promoter region in HIB1B and 3T3-L1 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that C/EBPbeta and CREB bound to the CRE region in HIB1B and 3T3-L1 cell lysates. C/EBPbeta expression was induced by cAMP only in HIB1B cells, and overexpression of C/EBPbeta rescued cAMP-inducible PGC-1alpha and UCP1 expression in 3T3-L1 cells. These data demonstrate that differentiation of preadipocytes toward the BAT rather than the WAT phenotype is controlled in part by the action of C/EBPbeta on the CRE in PGC-1alpha proximal promoter.
Circulation Research. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20339121
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a pivotal role in the development of heart failure. Animal studies suggest that impaired mitochondrial biogenesis attributable to downregulation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1 transcriptional pathway is integral of mitochondrial dysfunction in heart failure.
Impaired Mitochondrial Biogenesis Precedes Heart Failure in Right Ventricular Hypertrophy in Congenital Heart Disease
Circulation. Heart Failure. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21840936
The outcome of the surgical repair in congenital heart disease correlates with the degree of myocardial damage. In this study, we determined whether mitochondrial DNA depletion is a sensitive marker of right ventricular (RV) damage and whether impaired mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication contributes to the transition from compensated hypertrophy to failure.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22314372
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic switch that plays an important role in energy homeostasis at the cellular and whole body level, hence a promising drug target. AMPK is a heterotrimeric complex composed of catalytic α-subunit and regulatory β- and γ-subunits with multiple isoforms for each subunit. It has been shown that AMPK activity is increased in cardiac hypertrophy and failure but it is unknown whether changes in subunit composition of AMPK contribute to the altered AMPK activity. In this study, we determined the protein expression pattern of AMPK subunit isoforms during cardiac development as well as during cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mouse heart. We also compared the findings in failing mouse heart to that of the human failing hearts in order to determine whether the mouse heart is a good model of AMPK in human diseases. In mouse developmental hearts, AMPK was highly expressed in the fetal stages and fell back to the adult level after birth. In the failing mouse heart, there was a significant increase in α2, β2, and γ2 subunits both at the mRNA and protein levels. In contrary, we found significant increases in the protein level of α1, β1 and γ2c subunits in human failing hearts with no change in the mRNA level. We also compared isoform-specific AMPK activity in the mouse and human failing hearts. Consistent with the literature, in the failing mouse heart, the α2 complexes accounted for ~2/3 of total AMPK activity while the α1 complexes accounted for the remaining 30-35%. In the human hearts, however, the contribution of α1-AMPK activity was significantly higher (>40%) in the non-failing hearts, and it further increased to 50% in the failing hearts. Thus, the human hearts have a greater amount of α1-AMPK activity compared to the rodent hearts. In summary, the protein level and the isoform distribution of AMPK in the heart change significantly during normal development as well as in heart failure. These observations provide a basis for future development of therapeutic strategies for targeting AMPK.
Pigs Fed Saturated Fat/cholesterol Have a Blunted Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Function, Are Insulin Resistant and Have Decreased Expression of IRS-1, PGC1α and PPARα
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. Jul, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22819557
The increasing incidence of insulin resistance has been linked to both increased intake of saturated fatty acids and disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We tested the hypothesis that adding saturated fat/cholesterol to the diet of growing pigs would both disrupt HPA function and cause insulin resistance. Three-month-old pigs were fed either a control (13% energy from fat) or a high saturated fatty acid cholesterol (HSFC) diet (44% energy from fat; 2% cholesterol). After 10 weeks on the diets, intravenous ACTH, insulin and glucose challenges were performed, and after 12 weeks, tissue samples were taken for measurement of mRNA and for lipid-rich aortic lesions. Plasma total, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly increased in pigs fed the HSFC diet. Cortisol release during the ACTH challenge was suppressed in HSFC-fed pigs which were also more insulin resistant and glucose intolerant than controls. The HSFC diet decreased the expression of insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate-1 in muscle and adipose tissue as well as adiponectin and adiponectin receptor 2 expression in fat. The HSFC diet decreased PGC-1α and PPARα expression in muscle but increased PPARα expression in liver. There was a trend for an increase in lipid-stained lesion frequency around the abdominal branches of the aorta in HSFC-fed pigs. We conclude that feeding increased saturated fat to pigs causes disruption in the HPA axis, insulin resistance and decreased muscle and adipose expression of genes controlling insulin signalling and mitochondrial oxidative capacity.