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In JoVE (1)
- Quantitative Analysis of Synaptic Vesicle Pool Replenishment in Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons using FM Dyes
Other Publications (14)
- Journal of Travel Medicine
- Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
- Archives of Internal Medicine
- British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
- PloS One
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- The Journal of Physiology
- Nature Neuroscience
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
- PloS One
Articles by Giselle Cheung in JoVE
Quantitative Analysis of Synaptic Vesicle Pool Replenishment in Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons using FM Dyes
Giselle Cheung, Michael A. Cousin
Membrane Biology Group, Centre for integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh
A live fluorescence imaging technique to quantify the replenishment and mobilisation of specific synaptic vesicle (SV) pools in central nerve terminals is described. Two rounds of SV recycling are monitored in the same nerve terminals providing an internal control.
Other articles by Giselle Cheung on PubMed
Journal of Travel Medicine. Sep-Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15544710
Following the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, remote-sensing infrared thermography (IRT) has been advocated as a possible means of screening for fever in travelers at airports and border crossings, but its applicability has not been established. We therefore set out to evaluate (1) the feasibility of IRT imaging to identify subjects with fever, and (2) the optimal instrumental configuration and validity for such testing.
Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15678241
The possible additive antiplatelet effects of aspirin and clopidogrel have been explored in the Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events (CURE) and Management of Atherothrombosis with Clopidogrel in High Risk Patients (MATCH) studies. To assess the overall absolute beneficial and/or harmful impact of aspirin and clopidogrel combination therapy compared with monotherapy with either drug, we analyzed the results from both trials in terms of number needed to treat per year. Treating between 35 and 204 at-risk patients for 1 year with combination therapy appeared to prevent 1 patient from experiencing an adverse primary cardiovascular outcome; whereas, about 1 in 63 such patients appeared liable to major bleeding during that period. We determined that the evidence to date indicates no overall advantage for combination therapy with anti-platelet drugs in preference to monotherapy.
Successful Treatment of Relapsed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia in a Patient Receiving Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis with Oral Arsenic Trioxide
Archives of Internal Medicine. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15883249
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16187966
Whenever feasible, rhythm control of atrial fibrillation (AF) was generally preferred over rate control, in the belief that it offered better symptomatic relief and quality of life, and eliminated the need for anticoagulation. However, recent trials appear to challenge these assumptions.
Enriched Monolayer Precursor Cell Cultures from Micro-dissected Adult Mouse Dentate Gyrus Yield Functional Granule Cell-like Neurons
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17460755
Stem cell cultures are key tools of basic and applied research in Regenerative Medicine. In the adult mammalian brain, lifelong neurogenesis originating from local precursor cells occurs in the neurogenic regions of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Despite widespread interest in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and the use of mouse models to study it, no protocol existed for adult murine long-term precursor cell cultures with hippocampus-specific differentiation potential.
Bradykinin-induced Microglial Migration Mediated by B1-bradykinin Receptors Depends on Ca2+ Influx Via Reverse-mode Activity of the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18045900
Bradykinin (BK) is produced and acts at the site of injury and inflammation. In the CNS, migration of microglia toward the lesion site plays an important role pathologically. In the present study, we investigated the effect of BK on microglial migration. Increased motility of cultured microglia was mimicked by B1 receptor agonists and markedly inhibited by a B1 antagonist but not by a B2 receptor antagonist. BK induced chemotaxis in microglia isolated from wild-type and B2-knock-out mice but not from B1-knock-out mice. BK-induced motility was not blocked by pertussis toxin but was blocked by chelating intracellular Ca2+ or by low extracellular Ca2+, implying that Ca2+ influx is prerequisite. Blocking the reverse mode of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) completely inhibited BK-induced migration. The involvement of NCX was further confirmed by using NCX+/- mice; B1-agonist-induced motility and chemotaxis was decreased compared with that in NCX+/+ mice. Activation of NCX seemed to be dependent on protein kinase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and resultant activation of intermediate-conductance (IK-type) Ca2+-dependent K+ currents (I(K(Ca))) was activated. Despite these effects, BK did not activate microglia, as judged from OX6 staining. Using in vivo lesion models and pharmacological injection to the brain, it was shown that microglial accumulation around the lesion was also dependent on B1 receptors and I(K(Ca)). These observations support the view that BK functions as a chemoattractant by using the distinct signal pathways in the brain and, thus, attracts microglia to the lesion site in vivo.
Homocysteine Stimulates Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Expression in Mesangial Cells Via NF-kappaB Activation
Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18418435
Hyperhomocysteinemia is regarded as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Although renal dysfunction or failure is one of the important factors causing hyperhomocysteinemia, the role of homocysteine (Hcy) in the development of glomerulosclerosis is largely unknown. One of the key events in the pathogenesis of glomerulosclerosis is the infiltration of circulating monocytes into affected glomeruli. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of Hcy on the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in kidney mesangial cells and the mechanisms involved. Levels of MCP-1 and mRNA were significantly elevated in Hcy-treated rat mesangial cells. This increase was associated with activation of NF-kappaB as a result of increased phosphorylation of the inhibitor protein IkappaBalpha. Monocyte chemotactic activity in these cells was also enhanced. In addition, there was a significant elevation of superoxide anion produced by Hcy-treated cells, which preceded the increased phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha. Addition of superoxide dismutase or NF-kappaB inhibitors to the culture medium abolished Hcy-induced NF-kappaB activation and MCP-1 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that Hcy induced MCP-1 expression in mesangial cells. Such a process was mediated by oxidative stress and NF-kappaB activation. This may further aggravate renal function in patients with hyperhomocysteinemia.
Glia. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18442086
We studied the properties of GFAP-expressing cells in adult mouse striatum using acute brain slices from transgenic animals expressing EGFP under GFAP promoter. Under physiological conditions, two distinct populations of GFAP-EGFP cells could be identified: (1) brightly fluorescent cells had bushy processes, passive membrane properties, glutamate transporter activity, and high gap junction coupling rate typical for classical astrocytes; (2) weakly fluorescent cells were characterized by thin, clearly distinguishable processes, voltage-gated currents, complex responses to kainate, and low coupling rate reminiscent of an astrocyte subtype recently described in the hippocampus. Mild focal cerebral ischemia confers delayed neuronal cell death and astrogliosis in the striatum. Following middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion, brightly fluorescent cells were the dominant GFAP-EGFP population observed within the ischemic lesion. Interestingly, the majority of these cells expressed voltage-gated channels, showed complex responses to kainate, and a high coupling rate exceeding that of brightly fluorescent control cells. A minority of cells had passive membrane properties and was coupled less compared with passive control cells. We conclude that, in the adult striatum, astrocytes undergo distinct pathophysiological changes after ischemic insults. The dominant population in the ischemic lesion constitutes a novel physiological phenotype unlike any normal astrocyte and generates a large syncytium which might be a neuroprotective response of reactive astrocytes.
C1q, the Recognition Subcomponent of the Classical Pathway of Complement, Drives Microglial Activation
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18831010
Microglia, central nervous system (CNS) resident phagocytic cells, persistently police the integrity of CNS tissue and respond to any kind of damage or pathophysiological changes. These cells sense and rapidly respond to danger and inflammatory signals by changing their cell morphology; by release of cytokines, chemokines, or nitric oxide; and by changing their MHC expression profile. We have shown previously that microglial biosynthesis of the complement subcomponent C1q may serve as a reliable marker of microglial activation ranging from undetectable levels of C1q biosynthesis in resting microglia to abundant C1q expression in activated, nonramified microglia. In this study, we demonstrate that cultured microglial cells respond to extrinsic C1q with a marked intracellular Ca(2+) increase. A shift toward proinflammatory microglial activation is indicated by the release of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and nitric oxide and the oxidative burst in rat primary microglial cells, an activation and differentiation process similar to the proinflammatory response of microglia to exposure to lipopolysaccharide. Our findings indicate 1) that extrinsic plasma C1q is involved in the initiation of microglial activation in the course of CNS diseases with blood-brain barrier impairment and 2) that C1q synthesized and released by activated microglia is likely to contribute in an autocrine/paracrine way to maintain and balance microglial activation in the diseased CNS tissue.
GABAergic Activities Enhance Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-1alpha Release from Microglia (brain Macrophages) in Postnatal Mouse Brain
The Journal of Physiology. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19047202
Microglial cells (brain macrophages) invade the brain during embryonic and early postnatal development, migrate preferentially along fibre tracts to their final position and transform from an amoeboid to a ramified morphology. Signals by which the invading microglia communicate with other brain cells are largely unknown. Here, we studied amoeboid microglia in postnatal corpus callosum obtained from 6- to 8-day-old mice. These cells accumulated on the surface of acute brain slices. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that the specific GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol triggered a transient increase in conductance typical for inward rectifying potassium channels in microglia. This current increase was not mediated by microglial GABA(A) receptors since microglial cells removed from the slice surface no longer reacted and cultured microglia only responded when a brain slice was placed in their close vicinity. Muscimol triggered a transient increase in extracellular potassium concentration ([K(+)](o)) in brain slices and an experimental elevation of [K(+)](o) mimicked the muscimol response in microglial cells. Moreover, in adult brain slices, muscimol led only to a minute increase in [K(+)](o) and microglial cells failed to respond to muscimol. In turn, an increase in [K(+)](o) stimulated the release of chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP1-alpha) from brain slices and from cultures of microglia but not astrocytes. Our observations indicate that invading microglia in early postnatal development sense GABAergic activities indirectly via sensing changes in [K(+)](o) which results in an increase in MIP1-alpha release.
Nature Neuroscience. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20526333
Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a critical enzyme in neuronal physiology; however, it is not yet known whether it has any specific role in presynaptic function. We found that GSK3 phosphorylates a residue on the large GTPase dynamin I (Ser-774) both in vitro and in primary rat neuronal cultures. This was dependent on prior phosphorylation of Ser-778 by cyclin-dependent kinase 5. Using both acute inhibition with pharmacological antagonists and silencing of expression with short hairpin RNA, we found that GSK3 was specifically required for activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) but not clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Moreover we found that the specific phosphorylation of Ser-774 on dynamin I by GSK3 was both necessary and sufficient for ADBE. These results demonstrate a presynaptic role for GSK3 and they indicate that a protein kinase signaling cascade prepares synaptic vesicles for retrieval during elevated neuronal activity.
Activity-dependent Bulk Endocytosis and Clathrin-dependent Endocytosis Replenish Specific Synaptic Vesicle Pools in Central Nerve Terminals
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20554865
Multiple synaptic vesicle (SV) retrieval modes exist in central nerve terminals to maintain a continual supply of SVs for neurotransmission. Two such modes are clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), which is dominant during mild neuronal activity, and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE), which is dominant during intense neuronal activity. However, little is known about how activation of these SV retrieval modes impact the replenishment of the total SV recycling pool and the pools that reside within it, the readily releasable pool (RRP) and reserve pool. To address this question, we examined the replenishment of all three SV pools by triggering these SV retrieval modes during both high- and low-intensity stimulation of primary rat neuronal cultures. SVs generated by CME and ADBE were differentially labeled using the dyes FM1-43 and FM2-10, and their replenishment of specific SV pools was quantified using stimulation protocols that selectively depleted each pool. Our studies indicate that while the RRP was replenished by CME-generated SVs, ADBE provided additional SVs to increase the capacity of the reserve pool. Morphological analysis of the uptake of the fluid phase marker horseradish peroxidase corroborated these findings. The differential replenishment of specific SV pools by independent SV retrieval modes illustrates how previously experienced neuronal activity impacts the capability of central nerve terminals to respond to future stimuli.
Modulation of Fate Determinants Olig2 and Pax6 in Resident Glia Evokes Spiking Neuroblasts in a Model of Mild Brain Ischemia
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21051674
Although in vitro studies suggest that non-neurogenic regions of the adult central nervous system potentially contain multipotent parenchymal progenitors, neurons are clearly not replaced in most brain regions after injury. Here, in a well-established model of mild transient brain ischemia, we explored Olig2 antagonism and Pax6 overexpression as potential avenues to redirect endogenous progenitors proliferating in situ toward a neuronal fate.
Properties of Doublecortin-(DCX)-expressing Cells in the Piriform Cortex Compared to the Neurogenic Dentate Gyrus of Adult Mice
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22022443
The piriform cortex receives input from the olfactory bulb and (via the entorhinal cortex) sends efferents to the hippocampus, thereby connecting the two canonical neurogenic regions of the adult rodent brain. Doublecortin (DCX) is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that is expressed transiently in the course of adult neurogenesis. Interestingly, the adult piriform cortex, which is usually considered non-neurogenic (even though some reports exist that state otherwise), also contains an abundant population of DCX-positive cells. We asked how similar these cells would be to DCX-positive cells in the course of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Using BAC-generated transgenic mice that express GFP under the DCX promoter, we studied DCX-expression and electrophysiological properties of DCX-positive cells in the mouse piriform cortex in comparison with the dentate gyrus. While one class of cells in the piriform cortex indeed showed features similar to newly generated immature granule neurons, the majority of DCX cells in the piriform cortex was mature and revealed large Na+ currents and multiple action potentials. Furthermore, when proliferative activity was assessed, we found that all DCX-expressing cells in the piriform cortex were strictly postmitotic, suggesting that no DCX-positive "neuroblasts" exist here as they do in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that DCX in the piriform cortex marks a unique population of postmitotic neurons with a subpopulation that retains immature characteristics associated with synaptic plasticity. DCX is thus, per se, no marker of neurogenesis but might be associated more broadly with plasticity.