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In JoVE (1)
- Visualizing Cell-to-cell Transfer of HIV using Fluorescent Clones of HIV and Live Confocal Microscopy
Other Publications (8)
Articles by Gregory P. McNerney in JoVE
Visualizing Cell-to-cell Transfer of HIV using Fluorescent Clones of HIV and Live Confocal Microscopy
Benjamin Dale1, Gregory P. McNerney2, Deanna L. Thompson2, Wolfgang Hübner3, Thomas Huser2, Benjamin K. Chen1
1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Immunology Institute, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 2NSF Center for Biophotonics, University of California, Davis, 3Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory
This visualized experiment is a guide for utilizing a fluorescent molecular clone of HIV for live confocal imaging experiments.
Other articles by Gregory P. McNerney on PubMed
Simultaneous Forward and Epi-CARS Microscopy with a Single Detector by Time-correlated Single Photon Counting
Optics Express. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18542297
We present a novel scheme to simultaneously detect coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy signals in the forward (F) and backward (epi - E) direction with a single avalanche photodiode (APD) detector using time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC). By installing a mirror at a well-defined distance above the sample the forward-scattered F-CARS signal is reflected back into the microscope objective leading to spatial overlap of the F and E-CARS signals. Due to traveling an additional distance the F-CARS signal is time delayed relative to the E-CARS signal. TCSPC then allows for the two signals to be resolved in the time domain. This results in an efficient, simple, and compact method of CARS signal detection. We demonstrate this technique by analyzing forward and backward CARS signals obtained by imaging living adipocyte cells derived from human mesenchymal stem cells.
Arginine Deiminase As a Novel Therapy for Prostate Cancer Induces Autophagy and Caspase-independent Apoptosis
Cancer Research. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19147587
Arginine deprivation as an anticancer therapy has historically been met with limited success. The development of pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20) has renewed interest in arginine deprivation for the treatment of some cancers. The efficacy of ADI-PEG20 is directly correlated with argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS) deficiency. CWR22Rv1 prostate cancer cells do not express ASS, the rate-limiting enzyme in arginine synthesis, and are susceptible to ADI-PEG20 in vitro. Interestingly, apoptosis by 0.3 microg/mL ADI-PEG20 occurs 96 hours posttreatment and is caspase independent. The effect of ADI-PEG20 in vivo reveals reduced tumor activity by micropositron emission tomography as well as reduced tumor growth as a monotherapy and in combination with docetaxel against CWR22Rv1 mouse xenografts. In addition, we show autophagy is induced by single amino acid depletion by ADI-PEG20. Here, autophagy is an early event that is detected within 1 to 4 hours of 0.3 microg/mL ADI-PEG20 treatment and is an initial protective response to ADI-PEG20 in CWR22Rv1 cells. Significantly, the inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine and Beclin1 siRNA knockdown enhances and accelerates ADI-PEG20-induced cell death. PC3 cells, which express reduced ASS, also undergo autophagy and are responsive to autophagy inhibition and ADI-PEG20 treatment. In contrast, LNCaP cells highly express ASS and are therefore resistant to both ADI-PEG20 and autophagic inhibition. These data point to an interrelationship among ASS deficiency, autophagy, and cell death by ADI-PEG20. Finally, a tissue microarray of 88 prostate tumor samples lacked expression of ASS, indicating ADI-PEG20 is a potential novel therapy for the treatment of prostate cancer
Absence of Transverse Tubules Contributes to Non-uniform Ca(2+) Wavefronts in Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes
Stem Cells and Development. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19290776
Mouse (m) and human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) are known to exhibit immature Ca(2+) dynamics such as small whole-cell peak amplitude and slower kinetics relative to those of adult. In this study, we examined the maturity and efficiency of Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release in m and hESC-CMs, the presence of transverse (t) tubules and its effects on the regional Ca(2+) dynamics. In m and hESC-CMs, fluorescent staining and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to detect the presence of t-tubules, caveolin-3, amphiphysin-2 and colocalization of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). To avoid ambiguities, regional electrically-stimulated Ca(2+) dynamics of single ESC-CMs, rather than spontaneously beating clusters, were measured using confocal microscopy. m and hESC-CMs showed absence of dyads, with neither t-tubules nor colocalization of DHPRs and RyRs. Caveolin-3 and amphiphysin-2, crucial for the biogenesis of t-tubules with robust expression in adult CMs, were also absent. Single m and hESC-CMs displayed non-uniform Ca(2+) dynamics across the cell that is typical of CMs deficient of t-tubules. Local Ca(2+) transients exhibited greater peak amplitude at the peripheral than at the central region for m (3.50 +/- 0.42 vs. 3.05 +/- 0.38) and hESC-CMs (2.96 +/- 0.25 vs. 2.72 +/- 0.25). Kinetically, both the rates of rise to peak amplitude and transient decay were faster for the peripheral relative to the central region. Immature m and hESC-CMs display unsynchronized Ca(2+) transients due to the absence of t-tubules and gene products crucial for their biogenesis. Our results provide insights for driving the maturation of ESC-CMs.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19325119
The spread of HIV between immune cells is greatly enhanced by cell-cell adhesions called virological synapses, although the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. With use of an infectious, fluorescent clone of HIV, we tracked the movement of Gag in live CD4 T cells and captured the direct translocation of HIV across the virological synapse. Quantitative, high-speed three-dimensional (3D) video microscopy revealed the rapid formation of micrometer-sized "buttons" containing oligomerized viral Gag protein. Electron microscopy showed that these buttons were packed with budding viral crescents. Viral transfer events were observed to form virus-laden internal compartments within target cells. Continuous time-lapse monitoring showed preferential infection through synapses. Thus, HIV dissemination may be enhanced by virological synapse-mediated cell adhesion coupled to viral endocytosis.
Journal of Biophotonics. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20301121
Cell-cell interactions through direct contact are very important for cellular communication and coordination - especially for immune cells. The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) induces immune cell interactions between CD4(+) cells to shuttle between T cells via a virological synapse. A goal to understand the process of cell-cell transmission through virological synapses is to determine the cellular states that allow a chance encounter between cells to become a stable cell-cell adhesion. We demonstrate the use of optical tweezers to manipulate uninfected primary CD4(+) T cells near HIV Gag-iGFP transfected Jurkat T cells to probe the determinants that induce stable adhesion. When combined with fast 4D confocal fluorescence microscopy, optical tweezers can be utilized not only to facilitate cell-cell contact, but also to simultaneously track the formation of a virological synapse, and ultimately to probe the events that precede virus transfer.
Three-dimensional Structured Illumination Microscopy of Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell Fenestrations
Journal of Structural Biology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20570732
Fenestrations are pores in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells that filter substrates and debris between the blood and hepatocytes. Fenestrations have significant roles in aging and the regulation of lipoproteins. However their small size (<200 nm) has prohibited any functional analysis by light microscopy. We employed structured illumination light microscopy to observe fenestrations in isolated rat liver sinusoidal endothelial cells with great clarity and spatial resolution. With this method, the three-dimensional structure of fenestrations (diameter 123+/-24 nm) and sieve plates was elucidated and it was shown that fenestrations occur in areas of abrupt cytoplasmic thinning (165+/-54 nm vs. 292+/-103 nm in non-fenestrated regions, P<0.0001). Sieve plates were not preferentially co-localized with fluorescently labeled F-actin stress fibers and endothelial nitric oxide synthase but appeared to occur in primarily attenuated non-raft regions of the cell membrane. Labyrinthine structures were not seen and all fenestrations were short cylindrical pores. In conclusion, three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy has enabled the unlimited power of fluorescent immunostaining and co-localization to reveal new structural and functional information about fenestrations and sieve plates.
Methods (San Diego, Calif.). Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20627127
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a powerful genetic marking tool that has enabled virologists to monitor and track viral proteins during HIV infection. Expression-optimized Gag-GFP constructs have been used to study virus-like particle (VLP) assembly and localization in cell types that are easily transfected. The development of HIV-1 variants carrying GFP within the context of the viral genome has facilitated the study of infection and has been particularly useful in monitoring the transfer of virus between cells following virological synapse formation. HIV Gag-iGFP, a viral clone that contains GFP inserted between the matrix (MA) and capsid (CA) domains of Gag, is the first replication competent molecular clone that generates fluorescent infectious particles. Here, we discuss some methods that exploit HIV Gag-iGFP to quantify cell-to-cell transmission of virus by flow cytometry and to track the proteins during assembly and transmission using live-cell imaging.
Cell-to-cell Transfer of HIV-1 Via Virological Synapses Leads to Endosomal Virion Maturation That Activates Viral Membrane Fusion
Cell Host & Microbe. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22177560
HIV-1 can infect T cells by cell-free virus or by direct virion transfer between cells through cell contact-induced structures called virological synapses (VS). During VS-mediated infection, virions accumulate within target cell endosomes. We show that after crossing the VS, the transferred virus undergoes both maturation and viral membrane fusion. Following VS transfer, viral membrane fusion occurs with delayed kinetics and transferred virions display reduced sensitivity to patient antisera compared to mature, cell-free virus. Furthermore, particle fusion requires that the transferred virions undergo proteolytic maturation within acceptor cell endosomes, which occurs over several hours. Rapid, live cell confocal microscopy demonstrated that viral fusion can occur in compartments that have moved away from the VS. Thus, HIV particle maturation activates viral fusion in target CD4+ T cell endosomes following transfer across the VS and may represent a pathway by which HIV evades antibody neutralization.