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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Gustavo A. Barisone in JoVE
DNA Microarrays: Sample Quality Control, Array Hybridization and Scanning
Elva Diaz, Gustavo A. Barisone
Department of Pharmacology, University of California, Davis
We demonstrate the use of DNA microarrays for expression profiling of the nervous system. We describe RNA quality control, sample labeling, and array hybridization and scanning.
Other articles by Gustavo A. Barisone on PubMed
Biology of Reproduction. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11906942
Vitelline envelopes (VEs) of Bufo arenarum were isolated in order to study their composition and their role in fertilization. VEs are composed of four glycoproteins, with molecular masses of 120, 75, 41, and 38 kDa. To characterize its biological properties, we quantitatively determined sperm-VE binding and the induction of the acrosome reaction. Heterologous binding of B. arenarum sperm to Xenopus laevis VE components was observed with about one-third the efficiency of homologous binding. Equivalent binding of X. laevis sperm to the B. arenarum VE was observed. When B. arenarum sperm were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled VE, the labeled glycoproteins bound to the anterior end of the sperm head, showing a lateral distribution. Induction of the acrosome reaction was evaluated by incubating sperm in hypotonic saline media with VE glycoproteins. VEs induced the acrosome reaction in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The acrosome reaction was maximal after 10 min. The half-maximal effect was obtained at a glycoprotein concentration of 1 microg/ml. Specificity was determined using fertilization envelope glycoproteins, which failed to induce the acrosome reaction. The B. arenarum VE is biochemically similar to other egg envelopes. It also seems that its biological properties are similar to other species in regard to sperm binding and induction of the acrosome reaction. However, as far as we are aware, this is the first observation of the VE inducing the sperm acrosome reaction in amphibians. The relatively small differences observed in heterologous sperm-VE binding in X. laevis and B. arenarum are inconsistent with the current paradigm that species specificity in fertilization is regulated at the sperm-VE binding step.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12694627
A characterization of the Amphibian Bufo arenarum oocyte envelope is presented. It was made in different functional conditions of the oocyte: 1) when it has been released into the coelomic cavity during ovulation (surrounded by the coelomic envelope, (CE), 2) after it has passed through the oviduct and is deposed (surrounded by the viteline envelope, (VE), and 3) after oocyte activation (surrounded by the fertilization envelope, (FE). The characterization was made by SDS-PAGE followed by staining for protein and glycoproteins. Labeled lectins were used to identify glycosidic residues both in separated components on nitrocellulose membranes or in intact oocytes and embryos. Proteolytic properties of the content of the cortical granules were also analyzed. After SDS-PAGE of CE and VE, a different protein pattern was observed. This is probably due to the activity of a protease present in the pars recta of the oviduct. Comparison of the SDS-PAGE pattern of VE and FE showed a different mobility for one of the glycoproteins, gp75. VE and FE proved to have different sugar residues in their oligosaccharide chains. Mannose residues are only present in gp120 of the three envelopes. N-acetyl-galactosamine residues are present in all of the components, except for gp69 in the FE. Galactose residues are present mainly in gp120 of FE. Lectin-binding assays indicate the presence of glucosamine, galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine residues and the absence (or non-availability) of N-acetyl-glucosamine or fucose residues on the envelopes surface. The cortical granule product (CGP) shows proteolytic activity on gp75 of the VE.
Glycoproteins of the Vitelline Envelope of Amphibian Oocyte: Biological and Molecular Characterization of ZPC Component (gp41) in Bufo Arenarum
Molecular Reproduction and Development. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17034049
The vitelline envelope (VE) participates in sperm-egg interactions during the first steps of fertilization. In Bufo arenarum, this envelope is composed of at least four glycoproteins, with molecular masses of 120, 75, 41, and 38 kDa and molar ratio of 1:1.3:7.4:4.8, respectively. These components were isolated and covalently coupled to silanized glass slides in order to study their sperm-binding capacity. When considering the molar ratio of the glycoproteins in the egg-envelope and assuming that each protein is monovalent for sperm, the assay showed that gp41 and gp38 possess 55 and 25% of total sperm-binding activity. We obtained a full-length cDNA of gp41 (ZPC), comprising a sequence for 486 amino acids, with 43.3% homology with Xenopus laevis ZPC. As in the case of mammalian ZP3 and Xenopus ZPC, Bufo ZPC presented a furin-like (convertase) and a C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) reflecting common biosynthetic and secretory pathways. As it was reported for some fishes, we obtained evidence that suggests the presence of more than one zpc gene in Bufo genome, based on different partial cDNA sequences of zpc, Southern blots and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of deglycosylated egg-envelope components. As far as we are aware, this is the first observation of the presence of different zpc genes in an Amphibian species.
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18235219
During development, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) regulates the proliferation of cerebellar granule neuron precursors (GNPs) in part via expression of Nmyc. Mutations in the Shh signaling pathway lead to brain tumors in mice and humans. We have recently identified a novel role for the Mad family member Mad3 in GNP proliferation and Nmyc expression. Interestingly, Mad3 expression is upregulated in mouse models of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children. These results are surprising because current models suggest that Mad proteins should antagonize Myc proteins by competition for direct DNA binding via Max heterodimerization to inhibit cellular proliferation and potentially tumor progression. Here, we discuss our recent work in the context of candidate Mad3-interacting proteins and Mad3 expression in human brain tumors that together suggest interesting insights into the role of Mad3 in cellular proliferation and tumorigenesis.
SynDIG1: an Activity-regulated, AMPA- Receptor-interacting Transmembrane Protein That Regulates Excitatory Synapse Development
Neuron. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20152115
During development of the central nervous system, precise synaptic connections between presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons are formed. While significant progress has been made in our understanding of AMPA receptor trafficking during synaptic plasticity, less is known about the molecules that recruit AMPA receptors to nascent synapses during synaptogenesis. Here we identify a type II transmembrane protein (SynDIG1) that regulates AMPA receptor content at developing synapses in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons. SynDIG1 colocalizes with AMPA receptors at synapses and at extrasynaptic sites and associates with AMPA receptors in heterologous cells and brain. Altered levels of SynDIG1 in cultured neurons result in striking changes in excitatory synapse number and function. SynDIG1-mediated synapse development is dependent on association with AMPA receptors via its extracellular C terminus. Intriguingly, SynDIG1 content in dendritic spines is regulated by neuronal activity. Altogether, we define SynDIG1 as an activity-regulated transmembrane protein that regulates excitatory synapse development.
BMC Developmental Biology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21599922
Consistent asymmetry of the left-right (LR) axis is a crucial aspect of vertebrate embryogenesis. Asymmetric gene expression of the TGFβ superfamily member Nodal related 1 (Nr1) in the left lateral mesoderm plate is a highly conserved step regulating the situs of the heart and viscera. In Xenopus, movement of maternal serotonin (5HT) through gap-junctional paths at cleavage stages dictates asymmetry upstream of Nr1. However, the mechanisms linking earlier biophysical asymmetries with this transcriptional control point are not known.