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In JoVE (1)
- Analyzing Responses of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons Using the Air-phase Electroolfactogram Recording
Other Publications (9)
Articles by Haiqing Zhao in JoVE
Analyzing Responses of Mouse Olfactory Sensory Neurons Using the Air-phase Electroolfactogram Recording
Katherine D. Cygnar, Aaron B. Stephan, Haiqing Zhao
Biology, Johns Hopkins University
The electroolfactogram (EOG) recording is an informative, easy-to-conduct, and reliable way of assessing olfactory function at the level of the olfactory epithelium. This protocol describes a recording setup, mouse tissue preparation, data collection, and basic data analysis.
Other articles by Haiqing Zhao on PubMed
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15456885
Previously, we identified PHR1 as an abundantly expressed gene in photoreceptors and showed that it encodes four isoforms, each with N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) and C-terminal transmembrane domains. To better understand PHR1 function and expression, we made a Phr1 null mouse by inserting a beta-galactosidase/neor cassette into exon 3. In addition to photoreceptors, we found abundant expression of specific Phr1 splice forms in olfactory receptor neurons and vestibular and cochlear hair cells. We also found Phr1 expression in cells with a possible sensory function, including peripheral retinal ganglion cells, cochlear interdental cells, and neurons of the circumventricular organ. Despite this discrete expression in known and putative sensory neurons, mice lacking PHR1 do not have overt sensory deficits.
American Journal of Rhinology. May-Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16011125
Olfactory loss is a significant health problem that remains incompletely understood. The development of suitable animal models is essential to the progress of human olfactory loss research. Recent advancements in transgenic technology allow the creation of model systems to address causes of olfactory neuron dysfunction.
A Unique Cell Population in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb Displays Nuclear Beta-catenin Signaling During Development and Olfactory Sensory Neuron Regeneration
Developmental Neurobiology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18327767
Olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the nose form precise connections with neurons in the brain. However, mechanisms that account for the formation of such precise neuronal connections are incompletely understood. Recent studies implicate the function of Wnt growth factors in the formation of neuronal connections. To assess the role of Wnt signaling in the olfactory system, we examined the expression of beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) in the TOPGAL mouse, a transgenic strain in which beta-gal expression reports the activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the olfactory epithelium, no beta-gal expression was observed at any developmental stages. In the olfactory bulb (OB), beta-gal expression was observed in a population of cells located at the interface of the olfactory nerve layer and the glomerular layer. The beta-gal expression was developmentally regulated with the peak expression occurring at late embryonic and early postnatal stages and a greatly reduced expression in adulthood. Further, forced OSN regeneration and subsequent reinnervation of the OB led to a reactivation of beta-gal expression in mature animals. The temporal coincidence between the peak of beta-gal expression and formation of OSN connections, together with the spatial localization of these cells, suggests a potential role of these cells and canonical Wnt signaling in the formation of OSN connections in the OB during development and regeneration.
Nature. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18432195
Rod and cone photoreceptors detect light and relay this information through a multisynaptic pathway to the brain by means of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). These retinal outputs support not only pattern vision but also non-image-forming (NIF) functions, which include circadian photoentrainment and pupillary light reflex (PLR). In mammals, NIF functions are mediated by rods, cones and the melanopsin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Rod-cone photoreceptors and ipRGCs are complementary in signalling light intensity for NIF functions. The ipRGCs, in addition to being directly photosensitive, also receive synaptic input from rod-cone networks. To determine how the ipRGCs relay rod-cone light information for both image-forming and non-image-forming functions, we genetically ablated ipRGCs in mice. Here we show that animals lacking ipRGCs retain pattern vision but have deficits in both PLR and circadian photoentrainment that are more extensive than those observed in melanopsin knockouts. The defects in PLR and photoentrainment resemble those observed in animals that lack phototransduction in all three photoreceptor classes. These results indicate that light signals for irradiance detection are dissociated from pattern vision at the retinal ganglion cell level, and animals that cannot detect light for NIF functions are still capable of image formation.
Olfactory CNG Channel Desensitization by Ca2+/CaM Via the B1b Subunit Affects Response Termination but Not Sensitivity to Recurring Stimulation
Neuron. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18466748
Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated negative feedback is a prototypical regulatory mechanism for Ca2+-permeable ion channels. In olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), such regulation on the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel is considered a major mechanism of OSN adaptation. To determine the role of Ca2+/calmodulin desensitization of the olfactory CNG channel, we introduced a mutation in the channel subunit CNGB1b in mice that rendered the channel resistant to fast desensitization by Ca2+/calmodulin. Contrary to expectations, mutant OSNs showed normal receptor current adaptation to repeated stimulation. Rather, they displayed slower response termination and, consequently, reduced ability to transmit olfactory information to the olfactory bulb. They also displayed reduced response decline during sustained odorant exposure. These results suggest that Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated CNG channel fast desensitization is less important in regulating the sensitivity to recurring stimulation than previously thought and instead functions primarily to terminate OSN responses.
Nature Neuroscience. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19305400
In the nose, odorants are detected on the cilia of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), where a cAMP-mediated signaling pathway transforms odor stimulation into electrical responses. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in OSN cilia has long been thought to account for rapid response termination by degrading odor-induced cAMP. Two PDEs with distinct cellular localization have been found in OSNs: PDE1C in the cilia and PDE4A throughout the cell but absent from the cilia. We disrupted both of these genes in mice and carried out electro-olfactogram analysis. Unexpectedly, eliminating PDE1C did not prolong response termination. Prolonged termination occurred only in mice that lacked both PDEs, suggesting that cAMP degradation by PDE1C in cilia is not a rate-limiting factor for response termination in wild-type mice. Pde1c(-/-) OSNs instead showed reduced sensitivity and attenuated adaptation to repeated stimulation, suggesting that PDE1C may be involved in regulating sensitivity and adaptation. Our observations provide new perspectives on the regulation of olfactory transduction.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19561302
For vertebrate olfactory signal transduction, a calcium-activated chloride conductance serves as a major amplification step. However, the molecular identity of the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) is unknown. Here we report a proteomic screen for cilial membrane proteins of mouse olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) that identified all the known olfactory transduction components as well as Anoctamin 2 (ANO2). Ano2 transcripts were expressed specifically in OSNs in the olfactory epithelium, and ANO2::EGFP fusion protein localized to the OSN cilia when expressed in vivo using an adenoviral vector. Patch-clamp analysis revealed that ANO2, when expressed in HEK-293 cells, forms a CaCC and exhibits channel properties closely resembling the native olfactory CaCC. Considering these findings together, we propose that ANO2 constitutes the olfactory calcium-activated chloride channel.
Perspectives On: Information and Coding in Mammalian Sensory Physiology: Response Kinetics of Olfactory Receptor Neurons and the Implications in Olfactory Coding
The Journal of General Physiology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21875979
The Na(+)/Ca(2+) Exchanger NCKX4 Governs Termination and Adaptation of the Mammalian Olfactory Response
Nature Neuroscience. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22057188
Sensory perception requires accurate encoding of stimulus information by sensory receptor cells. We identified NCKX4, a potassium-dependent Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, as being necessary for rapid response termination and proper adaptation of vertebrate olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). Nckx4(-/-) (also known as Slc24a4) mouse OSNs displayed substantially prolonged responses and stronger adaptation. Single-cell electrophysiological analyses revealed that the majority of Na(+)-dependent Ca(2+) exchange in OSNs relevant to sensory transduction is a result of NCKX4 and that Nckx4(-/-) mouse OSNs are deficient in encoding action potentials on repeated stimulation. Olfactory-specific Nckx4(-/-) mice had lower body weights and a reduced ability to locate an odorous source. These results establish the role of NCKX4 in shaping olfactory responses and suggest that rapid response termination and proper adaptation of peripheral sensory receptor cells tune the sensory system for optimal perception.