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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
- Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere : the Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English)
- Journal of Clinical Microbiology
- Journal of Chemical Education
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Articles by Heather D. Bean in JoVE
נדיפים חיידקית משנית אפיון באמצעות Ionization electrospray ספקטרומטריית מסה (SESI-MS)
Heather D. Bean, Jiangjiang Zhu, Jane E. Hill
School of Engineering, University of Vermont
משני יינון electrospray ספקטרומטריית מסה (SESI-MS) מאפשרת זיהוי של תרכובות אורגניות נדיפות (VOCs) ללא צורך המקדים כל המדגם. פרוטוקול זה מספק הוראות לאפיון (בתוך דקות) המהירה של VOCs חיידקי באמצעות SESI-MS.
Other articles by Heather D. Bean on PubMed
Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere : the Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Origin of Life. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16372197
The origin of the first RNA polymers is central to most current theories for the origin of life. Difficulties associated with the prebiotic formation of RNA have lead to the general consensus that a simpler polymer preceded RNA. However, polymers proposed as possible ancestors to RNA are not much easier to synthesize than RNA itself. One particular problem with the prebiotic synthesis of RNA is the formation of phosphoester bonds in the absence of chemical activation. Here we demonstrate that glyoxylate (the ionized form of glyoxylic acid), a plausible prebiotic molecule, represents a possible ancestor of the phosphate group in modern RNA. Although in low yields ( approximately 1%), acetals are formed from glyoxylate and nucleosides under neutral conditions, provided that metal ions are present (e.g., Mg2+), and provided that water is removed by evaporation at moderate temperatures (e.g., 65 degrees C), i.e. under "drying conditions". Such acetals are termed ga-dinucleotides and possess a linkage that is analogous to the backbone in RNA in both structure and electrostatic charge. Additionally, an energy-minimized model of a gaRNA duplex predicts a helical structure similar to that of A-form RNA. We propose that glyoxylate-acetal linkages would have had certain advantages over phosphate linkages for early self-replicating polymers, but that the distinct functional properties of phosphoester and phosphodiester bonds would have eventually lead to the replacement of glyoxylate by phosphate.
Formation of a Beta-pyrimidine Nucleoside by a Free Pyrimidine Base and Ribose in a Plausible Prebiotic Reaction
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17629276
Comprehensive Investigation of the Energetics of Pyrimidine Nucleoside Formation in a Model Prebiotic Reaction
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19839590
The problem of beta-nucleoside formation under prebiotic conditions represents one of the most significant challenges to the "RNA world" hypothesis. The possibility exists that alternative bases may have come before the contemporary bases (i.e., A, G, C, and U), including bases that more readily form nucleosides. We previously reported the first successful synthesis of a pyrimidine nucleoside from a free base and a nonactivated sugar in a plausible prebiotic reaction. Here we present a detailed computational study on the reaction at the density functional theory (DFT) level. The catalytic role of a Mg(2+) ion on the reaction mechanism is also investigated. Our calculations demonstrate that a Mg(2+) ion, serving as a Lewis acid, can afford the necessary stabilization to the base and leaving water molecule during glycoside bond formation. The solvent effect is considered by the Onsager solvation model and also by an extended model with the addition of explicit water molecules within the SCRF solvation model. In addition, predictions regarding the formation of nucleosides from other pyrimidine bases are also addressed, providing valuable insights into what chemical features of the bases facilitate glycoside formation in drying-heating reactions.
DNA and RNA in Anhydrous Media: Duplex, Triplex, and G-quadruplex Secondary Structures in a Deep Eutectic Solvent
Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20623813
Fast Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds from Bacterial Cultures by Secondary Electrospray Ionization-mass Spectrometry
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20962140
We propose a novel application of secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) as a real-time clinical diagnostic tool for bacterial infection. It is known that volatile organic compounds (VOCs), produced in different combinations and quantities by bacteria as metabolites, generate characteristic odors for certain bacteria. These VOCs comprise a specific metabolic profile that can be used for species or serovar identification, but rapid and sensitive analytical methods are required for broad utility. In this study, the VOC profiles of five bacterial groups from four genera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum, were characterized by SESI-MS. Thirteen compounds were identified from these bacterial cultures, and the combination of these VOCs creates a unique pattern for each genus. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the purpose of species or serovar discrimination. The first three principal components exhibit a clear separation between the metabolic volatile profiles of these five bacterial groups that is independent of the growth medium. As a first step toward addressing the complexity of clinical application, in vitro tests for mixed cultures were conducted. The results show that individual species or serovars in a mixed culture are identifiable among a biological VOC background, and the ratios of the detected volatiles reflect the proportion of each bacterium in the mixture. Our data confirm the utility of SESI-MS in real-time identification of bacterial species or serovars in vitro, which, in the future, may play a promising clinical role in diagnosing infections.
Journal of Chemical Education. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22075932
Many high school laboratory experiments demonstrate concepts related to biological evolution, but few exist that allow students to investigate life's chemical origins. This series of laboratory experiments has been developed to allow students to explore and appreciate the deep connection that exists between prebiotic chemistry, chemical evolution, and contemporary biological systems. In the first experiment of the series, students synthesize adenine, one of the purine nucleobases of DNA and RNA, from plausibly prebiotic precursor molecules. Students compare their product to authentic standards using thin-layer chromatography. The second and third experiments of the series allow students to extract DNA from a familiar organism, the strawberry, and hydrolyze it, releasing adenine, which they can then compare to the previously chemically-synthesized adenine. A fourth, optional experiment is included where the technique of thin-layer chromatography is introduced and chromatographic skills are developed for use in the other three experiments that comprise this series. Concepts relating to organic and analytical chemistry, as well as biochemistry and DNA structure, are incorporated throughout, allowing this series of laboratory experiments to be easily inserted into existing laboratory courses and to reinforce concepts already included in any high school chemistry or biology curriculum.