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In JoVE (2)
- Dissection of Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus from Adult Mouse
- T-maze Forced Alternation and Left-right Discrimination Tasks for Assessing Working and Reference Memory in Mice
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Hideo Hagihara in JoVE
Dissection of Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus from Adult Mouse
Hideo Hagihara1,2, Keiko Toyama1,2, Nobuyuki Yamasaki1,3, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa1,2,4,5
1Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 2Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 4Genetic Engineering and Functional Genomics Group, Horizontal Medical Research Organization, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 5Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences
A dissection technique for removal of the dentate gyrus from adult mouse under a stereomicroscope was demonstrated in this video-recorded protocol.
T-maze Forced Alternation and Left-right Discrimination Tasks for Assessing Working and Reference Memory in Mice
Hirotaka Shoji1,2, Hideo Hagihara1, Keizo Takao3, Satoko Hattori1,2,3, Tsuyoshi Miyakawa1,2,3
1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences
This article presents the protocol of T-maze tests using a modified automated apparatus for assessing the learning and memory functions in mice.
Other articles by Hideo Hagihara on PubMed
Tonic-clonic Seizures Induce Division of Neuronal Progenitor Cells with Concomitant Changes in Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Pilocarpine-treated Mice
Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16023256
Epileptic seizures cause severe and long-lasting events on the architecture of the brain, including neuronal cell death, accompanied neurogenesis, reactive gliosis, and mossy fiber sprouting. However, it remains uncertain whether these functional and anatomical alterations are associated with the development of hyperexcitability, or as inhibitory processes. Neurotrophic factors are probable mediators of these pathophysiological events. The present study was designed to clarify the role of various neurotrophic factors on the pilocarpine model of seizures. At 4 h following pilocarpine-induced seizures, expression of NGF, BDNF, HB-EGF, and FGF-2 increased only in the mice manifesting tonic-clonic convulsions and not in mice without seizures. NT-3 expression decreased in pilocarpine-treated mice experiencing seizures, tonic-clonic or not, compared to mice with no seizures. Neuronal cell damage, which was evident by Fluoro-Jade B staining, was observed within 24 h in the mice exhibiting tonic-clonic seizures, followed by an increase in the number of BrdU-positive cells and glial cells, which were evident after 2 days. None of these pathophysiological changes occurred in the mice which showed no seizures, although they were injected with pilocarpine, nor in the activated epilepsy-prone EL mice, which experienced repeated severe seizures. Together, these results suggest that neuronal damage occurring in the brain of the mice manifesting tonic-clonic seizures is accompanied by neurogenesis. This sequence of events may be regulated through changes in expression of neurotrophic factors such as NGF, BDNF, HB-FGF, and NT-3.
Molecular Brain. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20815922
New granule cells are continuously generated in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus. During granule cell maturation, the mechanisms that differentiate new cells not only describe the degree of cell differentiation, but also crucially regulate the progression of cell differentiation. Here, we describe a gene, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), whose expression distinguishes stem cells from more differentiated cells among the granule cells of the adult mouse dentate gyrus. The use of markers for proliferation, neural progenitors, and immature and mature granule cells indicated that TDO was expressed in mature cells and in some immature cells. In mice heterozygous for the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, in which dentate gyrus granule cells fail to mature normally, TDO immunoreactivity was substantially downregulated in the dentate gyrus granule cells. Moreover, a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling experiment revealed that new neurons began to express TDO between 2 and 4 wk after the neurons were generated, when the axons and dendrites of the granule cells developed and synaptogenesis occurred. These findings indicate that TDO might be required at a late-stage of granule cell development, such as during axonal and dendritic growth, synaptogenesis and its maturation.
Expression of the AMPA Receptor Subunits GluR1 and GluR2 is Associated with Granule Cell Maturation in the Dentate Gyrus
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21927594
The dentate gyrus produces new granule neurons throughout adulthood in mammals from rodents to humans. During granule cell maturation, defined markers are expressed in a highly regulated sequential process, which is necessary for directed neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we show that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methy-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluR1 and GluR2 are expressed in differentiated granule cells, but not in stem cells, in neonatal, and adult dentate gyrus. Using markers for neural progenitors, immature and mature granule cells, we found that GluR1 and GluR2 were expressed mainly in mature cells and in some immature cells. A time-course analysis of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining revealed that granule cells express GluR1 around 3 weeks after being generated. In mice heterozygous for the alpha-isoform of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, a putative animal model of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in which dentate gyrus granule cells fail to mature normally, GluR1 and GluR2 immunoreactivities were substantially downregulated in the dentate gyrus granule cells. In the granule cells of mutant mice, the expression of both presynaptic and postsynaptic markers was decreased, suggesting that GluR1 and GluR2 are also associated with synaptic maturation. Moreover, GluR1 and GluR2 were also expressed in mature granule cells of the neonatal dentate gyrus. Taken together, these findings indicate that GluR1 and GluR2 expression closely correlates with the neuronal maturation state, and that GluR1 and GluR2 are useful markers for mature granule cells in the dentate gyrus.