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In JoVE (1)
- Derivation of Enriched Oligodendrocyte Cultures and Oligodendrocyte/Neuron Myelinating Co-cultures from Post-natal Murine Tissues
Other Publications (18)
- Nature Cell Biology
- Current Biology : CB
- Current Opinion in Neurobiology
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Trends in Cell Biology
- Trends in Neurosciences
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- PLoS Biology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- Developmental Neurobiology
- Journal of Neurochemistry
Articles by Holly Colognato in JoVE
Derivation of Enriched Oligodendrocyte Cultures and Oligodendrocyte/Neuron Myelinating Co-cultures from Post-natal Murine Tissues
Ryan W. O'Meara1,2, Scott D. Ryan1, Holly Colognato3, Rashmi Kothary1,2,4
1Regenerative Medicine Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Stony Brook University, 4Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa
This article describes methods to derive enriched populations of murine oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in primary culture, which differentiate to produce mature oligodendrocytes (OLs). In addition, this report describes techniques to produce murine myelinating co-cultures by seeding mouse OPCs onto a neurite bed of mouse dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGNs).
Other articles by Holly Colognato on PubMed
Nature Cell Biology. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12379866
Depending on the stage of development, a growth factor can mediate cell proliferation, survival or differentiation. The interaction of cell-surface integrins with extracellular matrix ligands can regulate growth factor responses and thus may influence the effect mediated by the growth factor. Here we show, by using mice lacking the alpha(6) integrin receptor for laminins, that myelin-forming oligodendrocytes activate an integrin-regulated switch in survival signalling when they contact axonal laminins. This switch alters survival signalling mediated by neuregulin from dependence on the phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) pathway to dependence on the mitogen-activated kinase pathway. The consequent enhanced survival provides a mechanism for target-dependent selection during development of the central nervous system. This integrin-regulated switch reverses the capacity of neuregulin to inhibit the differentiation of precursors, thereby explaining how neuregulin subsequently promotes differentiation and survival in myelinating oligodendrocytes. Our results provide a general mechanism by which growth factors can exert apparently contradictory effects at different stages of development in individual cell lineages.
Current Biology : CB. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12546790
Individual growth factors can regulate multiple aspects of behavior within a single cell during differentiation, with each signaling pathway controlled independently and also responsive to other receptors such as cell surface integrins. The mechanisms by which this is achieved remain poorly understood. Here we use myelin-forming oligodendrocytes and their precursors to examine the role of lipid rafts, cholesterol and sphingolipid-rich microdomains of the cell membrane implicated in cell signaling. In these cells, the growth factor PDGF has sequential and independent roles in proliferation and survival. We show that the oligodendrocyte PDGFalpha receptor becomes sequestered in a raft compartment at the developmental stage when PDGF ceases to promote proliferation, but is now required for survival. We also show that laminin-2, which is expressed on axons in the CNS and which provides a target-dependent signal for oligodendrocyte survival by amplification of PDGFalphaR signaling, induces clustering of the laminin binding integrin alpha6beta1 with the PDGFalphaR-containing lipid raft domains. This extracellular matrix-induced colocalization of integrin and growth factor receptor generates a signaling environment within the raft for survival-promoting PI3K/Akt activity. These results demonstrate novel signaling roles for lipid rafts that ensure the separation and amplification of growth factor signaling pathways during development.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15018936
Glial cells comprise most of the non-neuronal cells of the brain and peripheral nervous system, and include the myelin-forming oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells, radial glia and astrocytes. Their functions are diverse and include almost every aspect of nervous system function, from the birth and death of cells to the migrations and cell-cell interactions that connect and integrate the working elements of the nervous system. Recent studies have provided exciting insights into the mechanisms that drive the conversion into a glial cell and the developmental signals that guide the behavior of these multifunctional cells. An emerging theme is the so-called glial lineage being more diverse and more plastic than was previously thought. Here, we highlight some recent insights into glial development.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15118149
The Journal of Cell Biology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15504915
Specific integrins expressed on oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system, promote either differentiation and survival or proliferation by amplification of growth factor signaling. Here, we report that the Src family kinases (SFKs) Fyn and Lyn regulate each of these distinct integrin-driven behaviors. Fyn associates with alpha6beta1 and is required to amplify platelet-derived growth factor survival signaling, to promote myelin membrane formation, and to switch neuregulin signaling from a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (thereby changing the response from proliferation to differentiation). However, earlier in the lineage Lyn, not Fyn, is required to drive alphaVbeta3-dependent progenitor proliferation. The two SFKs respond to integrin ligation by different mechanisms: Lyn, by increased autophosphorylation of a catalytic tyrosine; and Fyn, by reduced Csk phosphorylation of the inhibitory COOH-terminal tyrosine. These findings illustrate how different SFKs can act as effectors for specific cell responses during development within a single cell lineage, and, furthermore, provide a molecular mechanism to explain similar region-specific hypomyelination in laminin- and Fyn-deficient mice.
Trends in Cell Biology. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15564044
Extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and growth factors have a crucial role in the signalling that controls cell behaviour during development. Integrins, which are cell-surface receptors for ECM molecules, and growth factor receptors cooperate with each other to regulate this signalling by several mechanisms. In particular, direct interactions between the integrin and growth factor receptors themselves, which often occur within a single macromolecular complex, amplify signalling by mechanisms that include posttranslational modifications and integrin shape changes that are related to activation. As a result, growth factor concentrations in the physiological range, which are too low to initiate signalling alone, do so in the presence of the ECM, enabling integrins to control the time and space of growth factor signalling.
Glia. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15578662
Central nervous system (CNS) development requires mechanisms for the regulation of cell number. Although growth factors are essential determinants of the proliferation and apoptosis that determine final numbers, the long-range nature of signals from diffusible growth factors makes them insufficient for the provision of the precise and localized signals required. Integration of integrin and growth factor receptor signaling in controlling cell behavior has been an important theme of research over the past several years. The focus of this review is on the mechanisms by which integrin-growth factor interactions regulate the development of oligodendrocytes and provide a mechanism for controlling, both in space and in time, oligodendrocyte numbers in the developing CNS.
Trends in Neurosciences. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16043237
Extracellular matrix molecules such as laminins have a central role in regulating cell behaviour. However, our understanding of their functions in the mammalian nervous system is incomplete. It is important to establish these functions, both for an understanding of normal development and to devise strategies to enhance repair. Here, we review how insights gained from human diseases caused by genetic mutations in laminins or their receptors have revealed significant and sometimes unexpected roles for laminins in neural stem cells, migrating neurons and myelinating glia, in both the PNS and CNS.
Beta1-integrin Signaling Mediates Premyelinating Oligodendrocyte Survival but is Not Required for CNS Myelination and Remyelination
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16855094
Previous reports, including transplantation experiments using dominant-negative inhibition of beta1-integrin signaling in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, suggested that beta1-integrin signaling is required for myelination. Here, we test this hypothesis using conditional ablation of the beta1-integrin gene in oligodendroglial cells during the development of the CNS. This approach allowed us to study oligodendroglial beta1-integrin signaling in the physiological environment of the CNS, circumventing the potential drawbacks of a dominant-negative approach. We found that beta1-integrin signaling has a much more limited role than previously expected. Although it was involved in stage-specific oligodendrocyte cell survival, beta1-integrin signaling was not required for axon ensheathment and myelination per se. We also found that, in the spinal cord, remyelination occurred normally in the absence of beta1-integrin. We conclude that, although beta1-integrin may still contribute to other aspects of oligodendrocyte biology, it is not essential for myelination and remyelination in the CNS.
Contrasting Effects of Mitogenic Growth Factors on Myelination in Neuron-oligodendrocyte Co-cultures
Glia. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17236210
Mitogenic growth factors play an important role in the initial stages of oligodendrocyte development, but their roles in the process of myelination itself remain less well defined. In order to study directly the effects of different growth factors on myelination, we used a purified in vitro co-culture system with dorsal root ganglion neurons and oligodendrocytes. Extensive myelination had occurred in these cultures 14 days after oligodendrocyte precursors (OPCs) were added, with the relationship between neurite density and the percentage of oligodendrocytes forming myelin sheaths providing a robust and straightforward means of quantifying myelination. Addition of soluble neuregulin (Nrg1), a mitogen for oligodendroglial cells that also provides an axonal signal implicated in oligodendrocyte survival, increased myelination. Conversely, the OPC mitogens FGF-2 and PDGF inhibited myelination. The inhibitory effect of these mitogens was reversible, as inhibition of PDGF allowed myelination to proceed. Taken together, these data indicate that different mitogenic growth factors can regulate myelination by oligodendrocytes in addition to their well-described effects on earlier stages of oligodendroglial development. Moreover, the results highlight important differences between the growth factors.
Identification of Dystroglycan As a Second Laminin Receptor in Oligodendrocytes, with a Role in Myelination
Development (Cambridge, England). May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17395644
Developmental abnormalities of myelination are observed in the brains of laminin-deficient humans and mice. The mechanisms by which these defects occur remain unknown. It has been proposed that, given their central role in mediating extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, integrin receptors are likely to be involved. However, it is a non-integrin ECM receptor, dystroglycan, that provides the key linkage between the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) and laminin in skeletal muscle basal lamina, such that disruption of this bridge results in muscular dystrophy. In addition, the loss of dystroglycan from Schwann cells causes myelin instability and disorganization of the nodes of Ranvier. To date, it is unknown whether dystroglycan plays a role during central nervous system (CNS) myelination. Here, we report that the myelinating glia of the CNS, oligodendrocytes, express and use dystroglycan receptors to regulate myelin formation. In the absence of normal dystroglycan expression, primary oligodendrocytes showed substantial deficits in their ability to differentiate and to produce normal levels of myelin-specific proteins. After blocking the function of dystroglycan receptors, oligodendrocytes failed both to produce complex myelin membrane sheets and to initiate myelinating segments when co-cultured with dorsal root ganglion neurons. By contrast, enhanced oligodendrocyte survival in response to the ECM, in conjunction with growth factors, was dependent on interactions with beta-1 integrins and did not require dystroglycan. Together, these results indicate that laminins are likely to regulate CNS myelination by interacting with both integrin receptors and dystroglycan receptors, and that oligodendrocyte dystroglycan receptors may have a specific role in regulating terminal stages of myelination, such as myelin membrane production, growth, or stability.
Development (Cambridge, England). Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19633169
Oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) produce myelin sheaths that insulate axons to ensure fast propagation of action potentials. beta1 integrins regulate the myelination of peripheral nerves, but their function during the myelination of axonal tracts in the CNS is unclear. Here we show that genetically modified mice lacking beta1 integrins in the CNS present a deficit in myelination but no defects in the development of the oligodendroglial lineage. Instead, in vitro data show that beta1 integrins regulate the outgrowth of myelin sheaths. Oligodendrocytes derived from mutant mice are unable to efficiently extend myelin sheets and fail to activate AKT (also known as AKT1), a kinase that is crucial for axonal ensheathment. The inhibition of PTEN, a negative regulator of AKT, or the expression of a constitutively active form of AKT restores myelin outgrowth in cultured beta1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Our data suggest that beta1 integrins play an instructive role in CNS myelination by promoting myelin wrapping in a process that depends on AKT.
PLoS Biology. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19688041
During embryogenesis, the neural stem cells (NSC) of the developing cerebral cortex are located in the ventricular zone (VZ) lining the cerebral ventricles. They exhibit apical and basal processes that contact the ventricular surface and the pial basement membrane, respectively. This unique architecture is important for VZ physical integrity and fate determination of NSC daughter cells. In addition, the shorter apical process is critical for interkinetic nuclear migration (INM), which enables VZ cell mitoses at the ventricular surface. Despite their importance, the mechanisms required for NSC adhesion to the ventricle are poorly understood. We have shown previously that one class of candidate adhesion molecules, laminins, are present in the ventricular region and that their integrin receptors are expressed by NSC. However, prior studies only demonstrate a role for their interaction in the attachment of the basal process to the overlying pial basement membrane. Here we use antibody-blocking and genetic experiments to reveal an additional and novel requirement for laminin/integrin interactions in apical process adhesion and NSC regulation. Transient abrogation of integrin binding and signalling using blocking antibodies to specifically target the ventricular region in utero results in abnormal INM and alterations in the orientation of NSC divisions. We found that these defects were also observed in laminin alpha2 deficient mice. More detailed analyses using a multidisciplinary approach to analyse stem cell behaviour by expression of fluorescent transgenes and multiphoton time-lapse imaging revealed that the transient embryonic disruption of laminin/integrin signalling at the VZ surface resulted in apical process detachment from the ventricular surface, dystrophic radial glia fibers, and substantial layering defects in the postnatal neocortex. Collectively, these data reveal novel roles for the laminin/integrin interaction in anchoring embryonic NSCs to the ventricular surface and maintaining the physical integrity of the neocortical niche, with even transient perturbations resulting in long-lasting cortical defects.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19776266
Mutations in LAMA2, the gene for the extracellular matrix protein laminin-alpha2, cause a severe muscular dystrophy termed congenital muscular dystrophy type-1A (MDC1A). MDC1A patients have accompanying CNS neural dysplasias and white matter abnormalities for which the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report that in laminin-deficient mice, oligodendrocyte development was delayed such that oligodendrocyte progenitors accumulated inappropriately in adult brains. Conversely, laminin substrates were found to promote the transition of oligodendrocyte progenitors to newly formed oligodendrocytes. Laminin-enhanced differentiation was Src family kinase-dependent and resulted in the activation of the Src family kinase Fyn. In laminin-deficient brains, however, increased Fyn repression was accompanied by elevated levels of the Src family kinase negative regulatory proteins, Csk (C-terminal Src kinase), and its transmembrane adaptor, Cbp (Csk-binding protein). These findings indicate that laminin deficiencies delay oligodendrocyte maturation by causing dysregulation of signaling pathways critical for oligodendrocyte development, and suggest that a normal role for CNS laminin is to promote the development of oligodendrocyte progenitors into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes via modulation of Fyn regulatory molecules.
Journal of Neurochemistry. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20132481
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells first proliferate to generate sufficient cell numbers and then differentiate into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. The signal transduction mediators that underlie these events, however, remain poorly understood. The tyrosine phosphatase Shp1 has been linked to oligodendrocyte differentiation as Shp1-deficient mice show hypomyelination. The Shp1 homolog, Shp2, has recently been shown to regulate astrogliogenesis, but its role in oligodendrocyte development remains unknown. Here, we report that Shp2 protein levels were developmentally regulated in oligodendrocytes, with Shp2 phosphorylation being promoted by oligodendroglial mitogens but suppressed by laminin, an extracellular matrix protein that promotes oligodendroglial differentiation. In contrast, oligodendrocyte progenitors were found to be unresponsive to mitogens following Shp2, but not Shp1, depletion. In agreement with previous studies, Shp1 depletion led to decreased levels of myelin basic protein in differentiating oligodendrocytes, as well as reduced outgrowth of myelin membrane sheets. Shp2 depletion in contrast did not prevent oligodendrocyte differentiation but promoted expanded myelin membrane outgrowth. Taken together these data suggest that Shp1 and Shp2 have distinct functions in oligodendrocyte development: Shp2 regulates oligodendrocyte progenitor proliferation and Shp1 regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation. Adhesion to laminin may additionally provide extrinsic regulation of Shp2 activity and thus promote the transition from progenitor to differentiating oligodendrocyte.
Dystroglycan Modulates the Ability of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 to Promote Oligodendrocyte Differentiation
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20857503
The adhesion receptor dystroglycan positively regulates terminal differentiation of oligodendrocytes, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains unclear. Using primary oligodendrocyte cultures, we identified and examined a connection between dystroglycan and the ability of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation. Consistent with previous reports, treatment with exogenous IGF-1 caused an increase in MBP protein that was preceded by activation of PI3K (AKT) and MAPK (ERK) signaling pathways. The extracellular matrix protein laminin was further shown to potentiate the effect of IGF-1 on oligodendrocyte differentiation. Depletion of the laminin receptor dystroglycan using siRNA, however, blocked the ability of IGF-1 to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation of cells grown on laminin, suggesting a role for dystroglycan in IGF-1-mediated differentiation. Indeed, loss of dystroglycan led to a reduction in the ability of IGF-1 to activate MAPK, but not PI3K, signaling pathways. Pharmacological inhibition of MAPK signaling also prevented IGF-1-induced increases in myelin basic protein (MBP), indicating that MAPK signaling was necessary to drive IGF-1-mediated enhancement of oligodendrocyte differentiation. Using immunoprecipitation, we found that dystroglycan, the adaptor protein Grb2, and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), were associated in a protein complex. Taken together, our results suggest that the positive regulatory effect of laminin on oligodendrocyte differentiation may be attributed, at least in part, to dystroglycan's ability to promote IGF-1-induced differentiation.
Glia Unglued: How Signals from the Extracellular Matrix Regulate the Development of Myelinating Glia
Developmental Neurobiology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21834081
The health and function of the nervous system relies on glial cells that ensheath neuronal axons with a specialized plasma membrane termed myelin. The molecular mechanisms by which glial cells target and enwrap axons with myelin are only beginning to be elucidated, yet several studies have implicated extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors as being important extrinsic regulators. This review provides an overview of the extracellular matrix proteins and their receptors that regulate multiple steps in the cellular development of Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, the myelinating glia of the PNS and CNS, respectively, as well as in the construction and maintenance of the myelin sheath itself. The first part describes the relevant cellular events that are influenced by particular extracellular matrix proteins and receptors, including laminins, collagens, integrins, and dystroglycan. The second part describes the signaling pathways and effector molecules that have been demonstrated to be downstream of Schwann cell and oligodendroglial extracellular matrix receptors, including FAK, small Rho GTPases, ILK, and the PI3K/Akt pathway, and the roles that have been ascribed to these signaling mediators. Throughout, we emphasize the concept of extracellular matrix proteins as environmental sensors that act to integrate, or match, cellular responses, in particular to those downstream of growth factors, to appropriate matrix attachment.
Journal of Neurochemistry. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22117643
J. Neurochem. (2011) 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07600.x ABSTRACT: During central nervous system (CNS) development, individual oligodendrocytes myelinate multiple axons, thus requiring the outgrowth and extensive branching of oligodendroglial processes. Laminin (Lm)-deficient mice have a lower percentage of myelinated axons, which may indicate a defect in the ability to properly extend and branch processes. It remains unclear, however, to what extent extracellular matrix (ECM) receptors contribute to oligodendroglial process remodeling itself. In the current study, we report that the ECM receptor dystroglycan is necessary for Lm enhancement of filopodial formation, process outgrowth, and process branching in differentiating oligodendroglia. During early oligodendroglial differentiation, the disruption of dystroglycan-Lm interactions, via blocking antibodies or dystroglycan small interfering RNA (siRNA), resulted in decreased filopodial number and length, decreased process length, and decreased numbers of primary and secondary processes. Later in oligodendrocyte differentiation, dystroglycan-deficient cells developed fewer branches, thus producing less complex networks of processes as determined by Sholl analysis. In newly differentiating oligodendroglia, dystroglycan was localized in filopodial tips, whereas, in more mature oligodendrocytes, dystroglycan was enriched in focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-positive focal adhesion structures. These results suggest that dystroglycan-Lm interactions influence oligodendroglial process dynamics and therefore may regulate the myelination capacity of individual oligodendroglia.