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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (25)
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Gynecologic Oncology
- Oncology Reports
- The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi Jiehe Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine / Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Hui, Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yan Jiu Yuan Zhu Ban
- Cancer Science
- Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
- PLoS Biology
- Cancer Letters
- Human Molecular Genetics
- Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)
- Environmental Science & Technology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine : a Publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
- The International Journal of Artificial Organs
- Chinese Journal of Cancer
- Journal of Biomedical Optics
- Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
Articles by Hong Bao in JoVE
Mapping and Application of Enhancer-trap Flippase Expression in Larval and Adult Drosophila CNS
Taylor R. Fore1, Audrey A. Ojwang1, Margaret L. Warner1, Xinyun Peng1, Rudolf A. Bohm1,2, William P. Welch1, Lindsey K. Goodnight1, Hong Bao1, Bing Zhang1
1Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma - Norman, 2Department of Biology, Brandeis University
We describe a Flippase-induced intersectional Gal80/Gal4 repression (FINGR) method, allowing tissue-specific FLP to determine Gal80 expression patterns. Wherever Gal4 and FLP overlap, Gal4 expression is turned on (Gal80 flipped out) or off (Gal80 flipped in). The FINGR method is versatile for clonal analysis and neural circuit mapping.
Other articles by Hong Bao on PubMed
The Drosophila BMP Type II Receptor Wishful Thinking Regulates Neuromuscular Synapse Morphology and Function
Neuron. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11856528
Proper synaptic development is critical for establishing all aspects of neural function including learning, memory, and locomotion. Here, we describe the phenotypic consequences of mutations in the wishful thinking (wit) gene, the Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate BMP type II receptor. Mutations in wit result in pharate lethality that can be rescued by expression of a wit transgene in motor neurons but not in muscles. Mutant larvae exhibit small synapses, severe defects in evoked junctional potentials, a lower frequency of spontaneous vesicle release, and an alteration in the ultrastructure of synaptic active zones. These results reveal a novel role for BMP signaling in regulating Drosophila neuromuscular junction synapse assembly and activity and may indicate that similar pathways could govern vertebrate synapse development.
Voltage-gated Calcium Channel Currents in Type I and Type II Hair Cells Isolated from the Rat Crista
Journal of Neurophysiology. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12843307
When studied in vitro, type I hair cells in amniote vestibular organs have a large, negatively activating K+ conductance. In type II hair cells, as in nonvestibular hair cells, outwardly rectifying K+ conductances are smaller and more positively activating. As a result, type I cells have more negative resting potentials and smaller input resistances than do type II cells; large inward currents fail to depolarize type I cells above -60 mV. In nonvestibular hair cells, afferent transmission is mediated by voltage-gated Ca2+ channels that activate positive to -60 mV. We investigated whether Ca2+ channels in type I cells activate more negatively so that quantal transmission can occur near the reported resting potentials. We used the perforated patch method to record Ca2+ channel currents from type I and type II hair cells isolated from the rat anterior crista (postnatal days 4-20). The activation range of the Ca2+ currents of type I hair cells differed only slightly from that of type II cells or nonvestibular hair cells. In 5 mM external Ca2+, currents in type I and type II cells were half-maximal at -41.1 +/- 0.5 (SE) mV (n = 10) and -37.2 +/- 0.2 mV (n = 10), respectively. In physiological external Ca2+ (1.3 mM), currents in type I cells were half-maximal at -46 +/- 1 mV (n = 8) and just 1% of maximal at -72 mV. These results lend credence to suggestions that type I cells have more positive resting potentials in vivo, possibly through K+ accumulation in the synaptic cleft or inhibition of the large K+ conductance. Ca2+ channel kinetics were also unremarkable; in both type I and type II cells, the currents activated and deactivated rapidly and inactivated only slowly and modestly even at large depolarizations. The Ca2+ current included an L-type component with relatively low sensitivity to dihydropyridine antagonists, consistent with the alpha subunit being CaV1.3 (alpha1D). Rat vestibular epithelia and ganglia were probed for L-type alpha-subunit expression with the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The epithelia expressed CaV1.3 and the ganglia expressed CaV1.2 (alpha1C).
Drastic Decrease of Progesterone Receptor Form B but Not A MRNA Reflects Poor Patient Prognosis in Endometrial Cancers
Gynecologic Oncology. May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15099952
Progesterone receptor (PR) has been recognized as an important factor that correlates with success of endocrine treatment and patients' prognoses in endometrial cancers (EC). This study was designed to determine the clinical implications of expression of PR form A (PR-A) and B (PR-B) in EC.
Oncology Reports. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15254717
Mitochondrial (mt) DNA mutations have been described recently in different tumors, whereas similar studies focusing on bladder cancer are scarce. In an effort to understand the significance of mtDNA mutations in bladder cancer, we investigated the mtDNA alterations in both clinical human bladder cancer and in a carcinogen-induced rat bladder cancer model. Human bladder cancer tissues were obtained by radical cystectomy and transurethral resection of bladder tumors. Rat bladder tumors were induced in SD rats by treatment with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine in drinking water for 24-28 weeks. Genomic DNA was extracted from tumor specimens and microdissected normal bladder mucosae. Mitochondrial genes and D-loop region were amplified by PCR. The amplified PCR fragments were either cloned into plasmid vector or used for direct DNA sequencing. The results of DNA sequence revealed numerous point mutations in the non-coding D-loop region and different mtDNA genes in both human and rat bladder cancers. In addition, we also detected deletions of variable lengths in mononucleotide repeats in the D-loop region, ND2, ATPase 8 and COIII genes in human bladder cancer samples. Our results show that mtDNA exhibits a high rate of mutations in both human and rat bladder cancers. We also demonstrate that the repetitive sequences of mononucleotides within the mt genome are unstable and subjected to deletions. The high incidence of mtDNA mutations in bladder cancer suggests that mtDNA and mitochondria could play an important role in the process of carcinogenesis and also mtDNA could be valuable as a marker for early bladder cancer diagnosis.
The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15862953
The mRNAs of estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), and its splice variant, ERbeta2, are abundant in granulosa cells in the ovary. With the use of antibodies, ERbeta protein has also been shown to be abundantly expressed, but to date no ERbeta2 protein has been demonstrated in the ovary. ERbeta2 has a peptide, 18 amino acids in length, inserted into its ligand-binding domain, resulting in a reported 35-fold reduction in its affinity for estrogen (E2). ERalpha, ERbeta1 and ERbeta2 were quantified by Western blotting and by RT-PCR and their cellular localization in the ovary was examined by immunohistochemistry. In 3- and 5-week-old virgin, pregnant, lactating and post-lactating rats, the level of ERalpha protein ranged between 1.6 and 3.8 fmol/microg total protein. That of ERbeta was 8.8-11.2 and of ERbeta2, in the same samples, 4.1-5.9 fmol/microg total protein. ERbeta2 and ERbeta1 proteins were, therefore, present in approximately equal amounts in the ovary throughout the various reproductive stages. The major ERbeta proteins in rat ovary, detected by their molecular weights on Western blots, were ERbeta1-530 and ERbeta2-548 (530+18 amino acids (aa)). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that ERbeta and ERbeta2 were expressed predominantly in granulosa cells of growing follicles, while ERalpha was found only in theca cells. In some theca cells, both ERalpha, ERbeta2 were expressed. The data suggests that in theca cells, where it is co expressed with ERalpha, ERbeta2 could function as a repressor of ERalpha. However, in granulosa cells where no ERalpha is detectable, and where E2 levels are high, ERbeta2, with its low affinity for E2, could be an important sensor through which E2 exerts regulatory control.
AP180 Maintains the Distribution of Synaptic and Vesicle Proteins in the Nerve Terminal and Indirectly Regulates the Efficacy of Ca2+-triggered Exocytosis
Journal of Neurophysiology. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15888532
AP180 plays an important role in clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and has also been implicated in retrieving SV proteins. In Drosophila, deletion of its homologue, Like-AP180 (LAP), has been shown to increase the size of SVs but decrease the number of SVs and transmitter release. However, it remains elusive whether a reduction in the total vesicle pool directly affects transmitter release. Further, it is unknown whether the lap mutation also affects vesicle protein retrieval and synaptic protein localization and, if so, how it might affect exocytosis. Using a combination of electrophysiology, optical imaging, electron microscopy, and immunocytochemistry, we have further characterized the lap mutant and hereby show that LAP plays additional roles in maintaining both normal synaptic transmission and protein distribution at synapses. While increasing the rate of spontaneous vesicle fusion, the lap mutation dramatically reduces impulse-evoked transmitter release at steps downstream of calcium entry and vesicle docking. Notably, lap mutations disrupt calcium coupling to exocytosis and reduce calcium cooperativity. These results suggest a primary defect in calcium sensors on the vesicles or on the release machinery. Consistent with this hypothesis, three vesicle proteins critical for calcium-mediated exocytosis, synaptotagmin I, cysteine-string protein, and neuronal synaptobrevin, are all mislocalized to the extrasynaptic axonal regions along with Dap160, an active zone marker (nc82), and glutamate receptors in the mutant. These results suggest that AP180 is required for either recycling vesicle proteins and/or maintaining the distribution of both vesicle and synaptic proteins in the nerve terminal.
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi Jiehe Zazhi = Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine / Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Hui, Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yan Jiu Yuan Zhu Ban. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16025964
To study the therapeutic effect and feasibility of rectoclysis with Tuihuang decoction (RTD) in treating hyperbilirubinemia of newborns.
Oncology. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17341889
Angiogenesis is essential for the development, growth and advancement of solid tumors. Angiogenesis is induced by hypoxia with the angiogenic transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). This prompted us to study the clinical implications of HIF relative to angiogenesis in uterine endometrial cancers.
Cancer Science. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16805819
Angiogenesis is essential for the development, growth and advancement of solid tumors. Angiogenesis is induced by hypoxia with angiogenic transcription factor hypoxia inducible factors (HIF). This prompted us to study the clinical implications of HIF relative to angiogenesis in uterine cervical cancers. Although there was no significant difference in HIF-1alpha histoscores and mRNA levels according to histopathological type or lymph node metastasis, HIF-1alpha histoscores and mRNA levels increased significantly with advancing cancer stages. The prognosis of 30 patients with high HIF-1alpha in uterine cervical cancers was poor (73% survival), whereas the 24-month survival rate of the other 30 patients with low HIF-1alpha was 93%. HIF-1alpha histoscores and mRNA levels were correlated with the levels of the angiogenic factors thymidine phosphorylase and interleukin-8, and HIF-1alpha might be linked with these factors in cervical cancer tissue. HIF-1alpha is a candidate for prognostic indicator as an angiogenic mediator in uterine cervical cancer.
The Atypical Cadherin Flamingo Regulates Synaptogenesis and Helps Prevent Axonal and Synaptic Degeneration in Drosophila
Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17321750
The formation of synaptic connections with target cells and maintenance of axons are highly regulated and crucial for neuronal function. The atypical cadherin and G-protein-coupled receptor Flamingo and its orthologs in amphibians and mammals have been shown to regulate cell polarity, dendritic and axonal growth, and neural tube closure. However, the role of Flamingo in synapse formation and function and in axonal health remains poorly understood. Here we show that fmi mutations cause a significant increase in the number of ectopic synapses on muscles and result in the formation of novel en passant synapses along axons, and unique presynaptic varicosities, including active zones, within axons. The fmi mutations also cause defective synaptic responses in a small subset of muscles, an age-dependent loss of muscle innervation and a drastic degeneration of axons in 3rd instar larvae without an apparent loss of neurons. Neuronal expression of Flamingo rescues all of these synaptic and axonal defects and larval lethality. Based on these observations, we propose that Flamingo is required in neurons for synaptic target selection, synaptogenesis, the survival of axons and synapses, and adult viability. These findings shed new light on a possible role for Flamingo in progressive neurodegenerative diseases.
Modification of a Hydrophobic Layer by a Point Mutation in Syntaxin 1A Regulates the Rate of Synaptic Vesicle Fusion
PLoS Biology. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17341138
Both constitutive secretion and Ca(2+)-regulated exocytosis require the assembly of the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes. At present, little is known about how the SNARE complexes mediating these two distinct pathways differ in structure. Using the Drosophila neuromuscular synapse as a model, we show that a mutation modifying a hydrophobic layer in syntaxin 1A regulates the rate of vesicle fusion. Syntaxin 1A molecules share a highly conserved threonine in the C-terminal +7 layer near the transmembrane domain. Mutation of this threonine to isoleucine results in a structural change that more closely resembles those found in syntaxins ascribed to the constitutive secretory pathway. Flies carrying the I254 mutant protein have increased levels of SNARE complexes and dramatically enhanced rate of both constitutive and evoked vesicle fusion. In contrast, overexpression of the T254 wild-type protein in neurons reduces vesicle fusion only in the I254 mutant background. These results are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations of the SNARE core complex, suggesting that T254 serves as an internal brake to dampen SNARE zippering and impede vesicle fusion, whereas I254 favors fusion by enhancing intermolecular interaction within the SNARE core complex.
Cancer Letters. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16675104
Osteopontin (OPN) is a glycophosphoprotein that has variety of physiological functions. OPN is expressed in various human cancers and associated with tumor progression, invasion and metastasis in many manners. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of OPN expression in metastatic lymph node of uterine cervical cancers, since the prognosis of the patients with lymph node metastasis is extremely poor. Immunohistochemical staining revealed OPN was distributed in the cytoplasm and nuclear compartments of the cancer and stromal cells within and around the tumor. In 25 of the 40 cases, stronger staining for OPN was found in the cancer cells or stromal cells of the metastatic lymph node lesion than in those of the primary tumor. The OPN level was significantly (P<0.05) increased in 25 of 40 metastatic lymph node lesions of uterine cervical cancers. The OPN increased cases identified by immunohistochemical staining were consistent with those identified by the sandwich immunoassay. The prognosis of the 25 patients with significant increase of OPN in uterine cervical cancers was extremely poor, whereas the 24-month survival rate of the 15 patients with no increase of OPN was 67%. This indicates that OPN may contribute to lymph node metastasis and its advancement, and that the OPN level in metastatic lesion may be a prognostic indicator in uterine cervical cancers.
HVAPB, the Causative Gene of a Heterogeneous Group of Motor Neuron Diseases in Humans, is Functionally Interchangeable with Its Drosophila Homologue DVAP-33A at the Neuromuscular Junction
Human Molecular Genetics. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17947296
Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are progressive neurodegenerative disorders characterized by selective death of motor neurons leading to spasticity, muscle wasting and paralysis. Human VAMP-associated protein B (hVAPB) is the causative gene of a clinically diverse group of MNDs including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), atypical ALS and late-onset spinal muscular atrophy. The pathogenic mutation is inherited in a dominant manner. Drosophila VAMP-associated protein of 33 kDa A (DVAP-33A) is the structural homologue of hVAPB and regulates synaptic remodeling by affecting the size and number of boutons at neuromuscular junctions. Associated with these structural alterations are compensatory changes in the physiology and ultrastructure of synapses, which maintain evoked responses within normal boundaries. DVAP-33A and hVAPB are functionally interchangeable and transgenic expression of mutant DVAP-33A in neurons recapitulates major hallmarks of the human diseases including locomotion defects, neuronal death and aggregate formation. Aggregate accumulation is accompanied by a depletion of the endogenous protein from its normal localization. These findings pinpoint to a possible role of hVAPB in synaptic homeostasis and emphasize the relevance of our fly model in elucidating the patho-physiology underlying motor neuron degeneration in humans.
Innovative PCDD/F-containing Gas Stream Generating System Applied in Catalytic Decomposition of Gaseous Dioxins over V2O5-WO3/TiO2-based Catalysts
Chemosphere. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18752829
Development of effective PCDD/F (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran) control technologies is essential for environmental engineers and researchers. In this study, a PCDD/F-containing gas stream generating system was developed to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of innovative PCDD/F control technologies. The system designed and constructed can stably generate the gas stream with the PCDD/F concentration ranging from 1.0 to 100ng TEQ Nm(-3) while reproducibility test indicates that the PCDD/F recovery efficiencies are between 93% and 112%. This new PCDD/F-containing gas stream generating device is first applied in the investigation of the catalytic PCDD/F control technology. The catalytic decomposition of PCDD/Fs was evaluated with two types of commercial V(2)O(5)-WO(3)/TiO(2)-based catalysts (catalyst A and catalyst B) at controlled temperature, water vapor content, and space velocity. 84% and 91% PCDD/F destruction efficiencies are achieved with catalysts A and B, respectively, at 280 degrees C with the space velocity of 5000h(-1). The results also indicate that the presence of water vapor inhibits PCDD/F decomposition due to its competition with PCDD/F molecules for adsorption on the active vanadia sites for both catalysts. In addition, this study combined integral reaction and Mars-Van Krevelen model to calculate the activation energies of OCDD and OCDF decomposition. The activation energies of OCDD and OCDF decomposition via catalysis are calculated as 24.8kJmol(-1) and 25.2kJmol(-1), respectively.
The Drosophila Epsin 1 is Required for Ubiquitin-dependent Synaptic Growth and Function but Not for Synaptic Vesicle Recycling
Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark). Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18796008
The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role in synaptic development and function. However, many components of this system, and how they act to affect synapses, are still not well understood. In this study, we use the Drosophila neuromuscular junction to study the in vivo function of Liquid facets (Lqf), a homolog of mammalian epsin 1. Our data show that Lqf plays a novel role in synapse development and function. Contrary to prior models, Lqf is not required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Lqf is required to maintain bouton size and shape and to sustain synapse growth by acting as a specific substrate of the deubiquitinating enzyme Fat facets. However, Lqf is not a substrate of the Highwire (Hiw) E3 ubiquitin ligase; neither is it required for synapse overgrowth in hiw mutants. Interestingly, Lqf converges on the Hiw pathway by negatively regulating transmitter release in the hiw mutant. These observations demonstrate that Lqf plays distinct roles in two ubiquitin pathways to regulate structural and functional plasticity of the synapse.
Environmental Science & Technology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19848171
A PCDD/F(polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran)-containing gas stream generating system was developed to investigate the efficiency and effectiveness of V2O5-WO3 catalyst for PCDD/F destruction. Catalytic decomposition of PCDD/Fs (simulated gas streams) was evaluated with lab-scale pelletized and plate-type catalyst based on V2O5-WO3/TiO2 at controlled temperature, space velocity, and inlet PCDD/F concentration. Due to the lower porosity of the pelletized catalyst PCDD/F destruction efficiencies reach 72.9-83.2% for different levels of inlet PCDD/F concentrations (1.08-3.04 ng-TEQ/Nm3) of the gas stream (space velocity: 5000 h(-1)). As the surface area is increased from 287 m2/m3 (plate-type A) to 550 m2/m3 (plate-type B), the PCDD/F destruction achieved with plate-type catalyst increases from 76.0% to 85.3% at 320 degrees C (space velocity: 5000 h(-1)). In addition, the results of pilot-scale experiment (real flue gases of a sinter plant) indicate that relatively lower PCDD/F destruction efficiencies (62.1-65.7%) were achieved with the plate-type B catalyst as the solid-phase PCDD/F and fly ash passed through the reactor (space velocity: 5000 h(-1)). Overall, the lab-scale and pilot-scale experiments indicate that PCDD/F destructions achieved with pelletized and plate-type catalysts strongly depend on the operating temperature of the catalyst. The results also indicate that the presence of fly ash the lowers PCDD/F destruction due to significant PCDD/F formation via de novo synthesis at 320 degrees C.
The Impacts of Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration on Plasma Cytokines and Monocyte Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR Expression in Septic Patients
Cytokine. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20202859
The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) on plasma cytokines and monocyte human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression and to evaluate the relationship between them during CVVH treatment in septic patients. Forty septic patients were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into control group (who received conventional treatment, n=20) and CVVH group (who received conventional treatment and CVVH treatment, n=20). The blood samples were taken to measure the changes of plasma cytokines (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13) and HLA-DR expression on monocytes. After CVVH treatment, the plasma levels of IFN-gamma, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 in septic patients were markedly decreased (P<0.05), while the levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 were only lowered to some extent without significant difference (P>0.05). HLA-DR expression on monocytes improved in CVVH treated patients (P<0.05). No matter pre-treatment or post-treatment of CVVH, there was a negative correlation between plasma IL-10 and monocyte HLA-DR expression (P<0.05). In contrast, no obvious change was shown in control patients. Our findings suggest that CVVH is effective in removal of many plasma cytokines and in improvement of monocyte HLA-DR expression in septic patients.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20810922
Transgenic manipulation of subsets of brain cells is increasingly used for studying behaviors and their underlying neural circuits. In Drosophila, the GAL4-upstream activating sequence (UAS) binary system is powerful for gene manipulation, but GAL4 expression is often too broad for fine mapping of neural circuits. Here, we describe the development of unique molecular genetic tools to restrict GAL4 expression patterns. Building on the GAL4-UAS system, our method adds two components: a collection of enhancer-trap recombinase, Flippase (ET-FLP), transgenic lines that provide inheritable, reproducible, and tissue-specific FLP and an FRT-dependent GAL80 "flip-in" construct that converts FLP expression into tissue-specific repression of GAL4 by GAL80. By including a UAS-encoded fluorescent protein, circuit morphology can be simultaneously marked while the circuit function is assessed using another UAS transgene. In a proof-of-principle analysis, we applied this ET-FLP-induced intersectional GAL80/GAL4 repression (FINGR) method to map the neural circuitry underlying fly wing inflation. The FINGR system is versatile and powerful in combination with the vast collection of GAL4 lines for neural circuit mapping as well as for clonal analysis based on the infusion of the yeast-derived FRT/FLP system of mitotic recombination into Drosophila. The strategies and tactics underlying our FINGR system are also applicable to other genetically amenable organisms in which transgenes including the GAL4, UAS, GAL80, and FLP factors can be applied.
IEEE Transactions on Information Technology in Biomedicine : a Publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20813649
Ensemble empirical-mode decomposition (EEMD) is a novel adaptive time-frequency analysis method, which is particularly suitable for extracting useful information from noisy nonlinear or nonstationary data. Unfortunately, since the EEMD is highly compute-intensive, the method does not apply in real-time applications on top of commercial-off-the-shelf computers. Aiming at this problem, a parallelized EEMD method has been developed using general-purpose computing on the graphics processing unit (GPGPU), namely, G-EEMD. A spectral entropy facilitated by G-EEMD was, therefore, proposed to analyze the EEG data for estimating the depth of anesthesia (DoA) in a real-time manner. In terms of EEG data analysis, G-EEMD has dramatically improved the run-time performance by more than 140 times compared to the original serial EEMD implementation. G-EEMD also performs far better than another parallelized implementation of EEMD bases on conventional CPU-based distributed computing technology despite the latter utilizes 16 high-end computing nodes for the same computing task. Furthermore, the results obtained from a pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model analysis indicate that the EEMD method is slightly more effective than its precedent alternative method (EMD) in estimating DoA, the coefficient of determination R(2) by EEMD is significantly higher than that by EMD (p < 0.05, paired t-test) and the prediction probability P(k) by EEMD is also slighter higher than that by EMD (p < 0.2, paired t-test).
Evaluation of the Effects of Pulse High-volume Hemofiltration in Patients with Severe Sepsis: a Preliminary Study
The International Journal of Artificial Organs. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20872345
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pulse high-volume hemofiltration (PHVHF) in patients with severe sepsis.
Relationship Between Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Differentiation and Imaging Characterization to the Radiosensitivity of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Chinese Journal of Cancer. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20979693
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a well established and time-honored practice in China, employing syndrome differentiation as a basis for the treatment of disease. According to different TCM syndrome typing findings, combining modern medical methods with TCM approaches can improve the quality of life and comprehensive effect on patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). This study investigated the relationship between TCM syndrome typing and imaging characterization to radiosensitivity as to provide objective evidence for the integration of Chinese and modern medical approaches in the treatment of NPC.
Journal of Biomedical Optics. Sep-Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21054074
Near-infrared laser-based microsurgery is promising for noninvasive cancer treatment. To make it a safe technique, a therapeutic process should be controllable and energy efficient, which requires the cancer cells to be identifiable and observable. In this work, for the first time we use a miniaturized nonlinear optical endomicroscope to achieve microtreatment of cancer cells labeled with gold nanorods. Due to the high two-photon-excited photoluminescence of gold nanorods, HeLa cells inside a tissue phantom up to 250 μm deep can be imaged by the nonlinear optical endomicroscope. This facilitates microsurgery of selected cancer cells by inducing instant damage through the necrosis process, or by stopping cell proliferation through the apoptosis process. The results indicate that a combination of nonlinear endomicroscopy with gold nanoparticles is potentially viable for minimally invasive cancer treatment.
Comparison of 2-microm Continuous Wave Laser Vaporesection of the Prostate and Transurethral Resection of the Prostate: a Prospective Nonrandomized Trial with 1-year Follow-up
Urology. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19819535
To compare the safety and efficacy of the 2-microm continuous wave (cw) laser vaporesection of the prostate with transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
Loss of Drosophila Melanogaster P21-activated Kinase 3 Suppresses Defects in Synapse Structure and Function Caused by Spastin Mutations
Genetics. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21705760
Microtubules are dynamic structures that must elongate, disassemble, and be cleaved into smaller pieces for proper neuronal development and function. The AAA ATPase Spastin severs microtubules along their lengths and is thought to regulate the balance between long, stable filaments and shorter fragments that seed extension or are transported. In both Drosophila and humans, loss of Spastin function results in reduction of synaptic connections and disabling motor defects. To gain insight into how spastin is regulated, we screened the Drosophila melanogaster genome for deletions that modify a spastin overexpression phenotype, eye size reduction. One suppressor region deleted p21-activated kinase 3 (pak3), which encodes a member of the Pak family of actin-regulatory enzymes, but whose in vivo function is unknown. We show that pak3 mutants have only mild synaptic defects at the larval neuromuscular junction, but exhibit a potent genetic interaction with spastin mutations. Aberrant bouton morphology, microtubule distribution, and synaptic transmission caused by spastin loss of function are all restored to wild type when pak3 is simultaneously reduced. Neuronal overexpression of pak3 induces actin-rich thin projections, suggesting that it functions in vivo to promote filopodia during presynaptic terminal arborization. pak3 therefore regulates synapse development in vivo, and when mutated, suppresses the synaptic defects that result from spastin loss.
Molecular Properties of Water-unextractable Proteoglycans from Hypsizygus Marmoreus and Their in Vitro Immunomodulatory Activities
Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22202808
Four proteoglycans were sequentially extracted from Hypsizygus marmoreus using 0.1 M NaOH (alkali-soluble proteoglycans [F1] and alkali-insoluble proteoglycans [F3]) and 0.1 M HCl (acid-soluble proteoglycans [F2] and acid-insoluble proteoglycans [F4]), and their structures and immunomodulatory activities were investigated. The proteoglycans were found to contain carbohydrates (19.8-82.4%) with various amounts of proteins (7.7-67.3%), and glucose was the major monosaccharide unit present, along with trace amounts of galactose. The molecular weights (Mw) and the radius of gyration (Rg) of these proteoglycans showed ranges of 16 × 10(4)-19,545 × 10(4) g/mol and 35-148 nm, respectively, showing significant variations in their molecular conformations. The backbones of F1 and F2 were mainly connected through a-(1→3), (1→4) and b-(1→6)-glycosidic linkages with some branches. The F1 and F2 proteoglycans significantly stimulated Raw264.7 cells to release nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) and various cytokines, such as IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 by inducing their mRNA expressions.