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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
Articles by Hwee Cheng Tan in JoVE
Visualizing Dengue Virus through Alexa Fluor Labeling
Summer Zhang1, Hwee Cheng Tan2, Eng Eong Ooi3
1Defence Medical and Environmental Research Institute, DSO National Laboratories, 2Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 3Program in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School
Taking advantage of the advancements in fluorophore development and imaging technology, a simple method of Alexa Fluor labeling of dengue virus was devised to visualize the early interactions between virus and cell.
Other articles by Hwee Cheng Tan on PubMed
Presence of Hemagglutination Inhibition and Neutralization Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Wild Pigs on an Offshore Island in Singapore
Acta Tropica. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11835900
A study was conducted to determine the presence of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization antibodies against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in wild pigs on an offshore island in Singapore. Blood samples were collected from 28 wild pigs on the island. All the sera tested with HI assay and plaque reduction neutralization tests were found to be positive for antibodies against JEV. Our results indicate that the wild pigs have been infected with JEV on the offshore island and there is JEV transmission.
A Novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Protein, U274, is Transported to the Cell Surface and Undergoes Endocytosis
Journal of Virology. Jul, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15194747
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) genome contains open reading frames (ORFs) that encode for several genes that are homologous to proteins found in all known coronaviruses. These are the replicase gene 1a/1b and the four structural proteins, nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), membrane (M), and envelope (E), and these proteins are expected to be essential for the replication of the virus. In addition, this genome also contains nine other potential ORFs varying in length from 39 to 274 amino acids. The largest among these is the first ORF of the second longest subgenomic RNA, and this protein (termed U274 in the present study) consists of 274 amino acids and contains three putative transmembrane domains. Using antibody specific for the C terminus of U274, we show U274 to be expressed in SARS-CoV-infected Vero E6 cells and, in addition to the full-length protein, two other processed forms were also detected. By indirect immunofluorescence, U274 was localized to the perinuclear region, as well as to the plasma membrane, in both transfected and infected cells. Using an N terminus myc-tagged U274, the topology of U274 and its expression on the cell surface were confirmed. Deletion of a cytoplasmic domain of U274, which contains Yxxphi and diacidic motifs, abolished its transport to the cell surface. In addition, U274 expressed on the cell surface can internalize antibodies from the culture medium into the cells. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments also showed that U274 could interact specifically with the M, E, and S structural proteins, as well as with U122, another protein that is unique to SARS-CoV.
Emerging Infectious Diseases. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15200845
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an infectious disease caused by a newly identified human coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Currently, no effective drug exists to treat SARS-CoV infection. In this study, we investigated whether a panel of commercially available antiviral drugs exhibit in vitro anti-SARS-CoV activity. A drug-screening assay that scores for virus-induced cytopathic effects on cultured cells was used. Tested were 19 clinically approved compounds from several major antiviral pharmacologic classes: nucleoside analogs, interferons, protease inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and neuraminidase inhibitors. Complete inhibition of cytopathic effects of SARS-CoV in culture was observed for interferon subtypes, b-1b, a-n1, a-n3, and human leukocyte interferon a. These findings support clinical testing of approved interferons for the treatment of SARS.
Seroepidemiology of Neutralizing Antibodies to Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Singapore: Continued Transmission Despite Abolishment of Pig Farming?
Acta Tropica. Nov-Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15533286
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) transmission in Singapore appeared to have ceased after pig farming in Singapore was phased out from the early 1980s. However, the recent detection of neutralizing antibodies to JEV in a population of wild boars in an offshore island, as well as the notification of two human cases of JE in Singapore in 2001, prompted us to reconsider the presence and hence the public health threat of JEV in Singapore. We report here a serological study of animals, birds and humans for neutralizing antibodies to JEV. The results indicate that JEV may still be actively transmitted in the peripheral part of the Singapore island and that regular serological surveys of farm animals and birds, such as chickens, may be useful to further elucidate the activity of JEV in Singapore.
Cost-effective Real-time Reverse Transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) to Screen for Dengue Virus Followed by Rapid Single-tube Multiplex RT-PCR for Serotyping of the Virus
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17215345
Virus detection methodology provides detection of dengue virus in the early phase of the disease. PCR, targeting cDNA derived from viral RNA, has been used as a laboratory-based molecular tool for the detection of Dengue virus. We report the development and use of three real-time one-step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays to detect dengue cases and serotype the virus involved. The first RT-PCR assay uses SYBR green I as the reporting dye for the purpose of cost-effective screening for dengue virus. The detection limit of the SYBR green I assay was 10 PFU/ml (0.01 equivalent PFU per assay) for all four dengue virus serotypes. The second RT-PCR assay is a duplex fluorogenic probe-based real-time RT-PCR for serotyping clinical samples for dengue viruses. The detection threshold of the probe-based RT-PCR format was 0.1 PFU for serotypes Dengue-1 and Dengue-2, 1 PFU for serotype Dengue-3, and 0.01 PFU for serotype Dengue-4. The third is a fourplex assay that detects any of the four serotypes in a single closed tube with comparable sensitivity. Validation of the assays with local clinical samples collected from 2004 to 2006 revealed that there was an 88% positive correlation between virus isolation and RT-PCR with regard to dengue virus detection and a 100% correlation with seroconversion in subsequent samples. The serotyping results derived from duplex and fourplex assays agree fully with each other and with that derived from immunofluorescence assays.
Journal of Virology. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19211734
Dengue is one of the most important emerging diseases of humans, with no preventative vaccines or antiviral cures available at present. Although one-third of the world's population live at risk of infection, little is known about the pattern and dynamics of dengue virus (DENV) within outbreak situations. By exploiting genomic data from an intensively studied major outbreak, we are able to describe the molecular epidemiology of DENV at a uniquely fine-scaled temporal and spatial resolution. Two DENV serotypes (DENV-1 and DENV-3), and multiple component genotypes, spread concurrently and with similar epidemiological and evolutionary profiles during the initial outbreak phase of a major dengue epidemic that took place in Singapore during 2005. Although DENV-1 and DENV-3 differed in viremia and clinical outcome, there was no evidence for adaptive evolution before, during, or after the outbreak, indicating that ecological or immunological rather than virological factors were the key determinants of epidemic dynamics.
Journal of Virological Methods. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20399231
Dengue virus causes frequent and cyclical epidemics throughout the tropics, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality rates. There is neither a specific antiviral treatment nor a vaccine to prevent epidemic transmission. The lack of a detailed understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease complicates these efforts. The development of methods to probe the interaction between the virus and host cells would thus be useful. Direct fluorescence labelling of virus would facilitate the visualization of the early events in virus-cell interaction. This report describes a simple method of labelling of dengue virus with Alexa Fluor succinimidyl ester dye dissolved directly in the sodium bicarbonate buffer that yielded highly viable virus after labelling. Alexa Fluor dyes have superior photostability and are less pH-sensitive than the common dyes, such as fluorescein and rhodamine, making them ideal for studies on cellular uptake and endosomal transport of the virus. The conjugation of Alexa Fluor dye did not affect the recognition of labelled dengue virus by virus-specific antibody and its putative receptors in host cells. This method could have useful applications in virological studies.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21746897
The interaction of antibodies, dengue virus (DENV), and monocytes can result in either immunity or enhanced virus infection. These opposing outcomes of dengue antibodies have hampered dengue vaccine development. Recent studies have shown that antibodies neutralize DENV by either preventing virus attachment to cellular receptors or inhibiting viral fusion intracellularly. However, whether the antibody blocks attachment or fusion, the resulting immune complexes are expected to be phagocytosed by Fc gamma receptor (FcγR)-bearing cells and cleared from circulation. This suggests that only antibodies that are able to block fusion intracellularly would be able to neutralize DENV upon FcγR-mediated uptake by monocytes whereas other antibodies would have resulted in enhancement of DENV replication. Using convalescent sera from dengue patients, we observed that neutralization of the homologous serotypes occurred despite FcγR-mediated uptake. However, FcγR-mediated uptake appeared to be inhibited when neutralized heterologous DENV serotypes were used instead. We demonstrate that this inhibition occurred through the formation of viral aggregates by antibodies in a concentration-dependent manner. Aggregation of viruses enabled antibodies to cross-link the inhibitory FcγRIIB, which is expressed at low levels but which inhibits FcγR-mediated phagocytosis and hence prevents antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV infection in monocytes.