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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
Articles by Jack Grinband in JoVE
Functional Imaging with Reinforcement, Eyetracking, and Physiological Monitoring
Vincent Ferrera1,2,3, Jack Grinband1,3, Tobias Teichert1, Franco Pestilli1, Stephen Dashnaw3, Joy Hirsch1,3
1Department of Neuroscience, Columbia University, 2Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, 3Department of Radiology, Columbia University
This presentation demonstrates the use of fMRI to study neural circuits that underlie decision-making. Simple perceptual tasks are combined with appetitive and aversive reinforcements to investigate how outcomes affect decision processes.
Other articles by Jack Grinband on PubMed
Neuron. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16504950
The ability to classify visual objects into discrete categories ("friend" versus "foe"; "edible" versus "poisonous") is essential for survival and is a fundamental cognitive function. The cortical substrates that mediate this function, however, have not been identified in humans. To identify brain regions involved in stimulus categorization, we developed a task in which subjects classified stimuli according to a variable categorical boundary. Psychophysical functions were used to define a decision variable, categorization uncertainty, which was systematically manipulated. Using event-related functional MRI, we discovered that activity in a fronto-striatal-thalamic network, consisting of the medial frontal gyrus, anterior insula, ventral striatum, and dorsomedial thalamus, was modulated by categorization uncertainty. We found this network to be distinct from the frontoparietal attention network, consisting of the frontal and parietal eye fields, where activity was not correlated with categorization uncertainty.
Perception, Memory, and Action in Frontal and Parietal Cortex. Focus on "Selection and Maintenance of Saccade Goals in the Human Frontal Eye Fields"
Journal of Neurophysiology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16510779
Nature Neuroscience. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17001336
Repeated Exposure to Media Violence is Associated with Diminished Response in an Inhibitory Frontolimbic Network
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18060062
Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior.
NeuroImage. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18775784
In neuroimaging research on attention, cognitive control, decision-making, and other areas where response time (RT) is a critical variable, the temporal variability associated with the decision is often assumed to be inconsequential to the hemodynamic response (HDR) in rapid event-related designs. On this basis, the majority of published studies model brain activity lasting less than 4 s with brief impulses representing the onset of neural or cognitive events, which are then convolved with the hemodynamic impulse response function (HRF). However, electrophysiological studies have shown that decision-related neuronal activity is not instantaneous, but in fact, often lasts until the motor response. It is therefore possible that small differences in neural processing durations, similar to human RTs, will produce noticeable changes in the HDR, and therefore in the results of regression analyses. In this study we compare the effectiveness of traditional models that assume no temporal variance with a model that explicitly accounts for the duration of very brief epochs of neural activity. Using both simulations and fMRI data, we show that brief differences in duration are detectable, making it possible to dissociate the effects of stimulus intensity from stimulus duration, and that optimizing the model for the type of activity being detected improves the statistical power, consistency, and interpretability of results.
Neuropsychologia. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19969009
The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in non-human primates is on the increase. It is known that the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal varies not only as a function of local neuronal energy consumption but also as a function of cardiac and respiratory activity. We mapped these cyclic cardiac and respiratory artifacts in anesthetized macaque monkeys and present an objective analysis of their impact on estimates of functional connectivity (fcMRI). Voxels with significant cardiac and respiratory artifacts were found in much the same regions as previously reported for awake humans. We show two example seeds where removing the artifacts clearly decreased the number of false positive and false negative correlations. In particular, removing the artifacts reduced correlations in the so-called resting state network. Temporal bandpass filtering or spatial smoothing may help to reduce the effects of artifacts in some cases but are not an adequate replacement for an algorithm that explicitly models and removes cyclic cardiac and respiratory artifacts.
Frontiers in Psychology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21833220
Performance on traditional selective attention tasks, like the Stroop and flanker protocols, is subject to modulation by trial history, whereby the magnitude of congruency (or conflict) effects is often found to decrease following an incongruent trial compared to a congruent one. These "congruency sequence effects" (CSEs) typically appear to reflect a mesh of memory- and attention-based processes. The current study aimed to shed new light on the nature of the attention-based contribution to CSEs, by characterizing the shape of the CSE time-course while controlling for mnemonic influences. Existing attention-based accounts of CSEs are either ambiguous in their predictions of CSE time-courses, or predict CSEs to persist or grow over the post-stimulus/response interval in anticipation of an upcoming stimulus. We gauged CSE time-courses by systematically varying inter-stimulus (Experiment 1) and response-to-stimulus (Experiment 2) intervals across a wide temporal range, in a face-word Stroop task. In spite of an exponential increase in the likelihood of stimulus appearance with increasing interval duration (i.e., an exponential hazard function), results from both experiments showed CSEs to be most pronounced at the shortest intervals, to quickly decay in magnitude with increasing interval length, and to be absent at longer intervals. These data refute the idea that attentional contributions to CSEs remain static over post-stimulus/response intervals and are incompatible with the notion that CSEs reflect expectation-guided preparatory biasing in anticipation of a forthcoming stimulus. The data are compatible, however, with the notion that attentional contributions to CSEs reflect a short-lived, phasic enhancement of attentional set in reaction to processing conflict.
The Dorsal Medial Frontal Cortex is Sensitive to Time on Task, Not Response Conflict or Error Likelihood
NeuroImage. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21168515
The dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) is highly active during choice behavior. Though many models have been proposed to explain dMFC function, the conflict monitoring model is the most influential. It posits that dMFC is primarily involved in detecting interference between competing responses thus signaling the need for control. It accurately predicts increased neural activity and response time (RT) for incompatible (high-interference) vs. compatible (low-interference) decisions. However, it has been shown that neural activity can increase with time on task, even when no decisions are made. Thus, the greater dMFC activity on incompatible trials may stem from longer RTs rather than response conflict. This study shows that (1) the conflict monitoring model fails to predict the relationship between error likelihood and RT, and (2) the dMFC activity is not sensitive to congruency, error likelihood, or response conflict, but is monotonically related to time on task.
NeuroImage. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21554960