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In JoVE (1)
- Delivery of Therapeutic Agents Through Intracerebroventricular (ICV) and Intravenous (IV) Injection in Mice
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Jacqueline J. Glascock in JoVE
Delivery of Therapeutic Agents Through Intracerebroventricular (ICV) and Intravenous (IV) Injection in Mice
Jacqueline J. Glascock1, Erkan Y. Osman1, Tristan H. Coady2, Ferrill F. Rose1, Monir Shababi3, Christian L. Lorson3
1Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri, 2Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, 3Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Bond Life Sciences Center, University of Missouri
This article demonstrates two very different methods of injection: 1) into the brain (intracerebroventricular) and 2) systemic (intravenous) to introduce the therapeutic agents into the central nervous system of neonatal mice.
Other articles by Jacqueline J. Glascock on PubMed
Decreasing Disease Severity in Symptomatic, Smn(-/-);SMN2(+/+), Spinal Muscular Atrophy Mice Following ScAAV9-SMN Delivery
Human Gene Therapy. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22029744
Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by the homozygous loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). In humans, a nearly identical copy gene is present, SMN2. SMN2 is retained in all SMA patients and encodes the same protein as SMN1. However, SMN1 and SMN2 differ by a silent C-to-T transition at the 5' end of exon 7, causing alternative splicing of SMN2 transcripts and low levels of full-length SMN. SMA is monogenic and therefore well suited for gene-replacement strategies. Recently, self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vectors have been used to deliver the SMN cDNA to an animal model of disease, the SMNΔ7 mouse. In this study, we examine a severe model of SMA, Smn(-/-);SMN2(+/+), to determine whether gene replacement is viable in a model in which disease development begins in utero. Using two delivery paradigms, intracerebroventricular injections and intravenous injections, we delivered scAAV9-SMN and demonstrated a two to four fold increase in survival, in addition to improving many of the phenotypic parameters of the model. This represents the longest extension in survival for this severe model for any therapeutic intervention and suggests that postsymptomatic treatment of SMA may lead to significant improvement of disease severity.
Direct Central Nervous System Delivery Provides Enhanced Protection Following Vector Mediated Gene Replacement in a Severe Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22172949
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder, is the leading genetic cause of infant mortality. SMA is caused by the homozygous loss of Survival Motor Neuron-1 (SMN1). SMA, however, is not due to complete absence of SMN, rather a low level of functional full-length SMN is produced by a nearly identical copy gene called SMN2. Despite SMN's ubiquitous expression, motor neurons are preferentially affected by low SMN levels. Recently gene replacement strategies have shown tremendous promise in animal models of SMA. In this study, we used self-complementary Adeno Associated Virus (scAAV) expressing full-length SMN cDNA to compare two different routes of viral delivery in a severe SMA mouse model. This was accomplished by injecting scAAV9-SMN vector intravenously (IV) or intracerebroventricularly (ICV) into SMA mice. Both routes of delivery resulted in a significant increase in lifespan and weight compared to untreated mice with a subpopulation of mice surviving more than 200days. However, the ICV injected mice gained significantly more weight than their IV treated counterparts. Likewise, survival analysis showed that ICV treated mice displayed fewer early deaths than IV treated animals. Collectively, this report demonstrates that route of delivery is a crucial component of gene therapy treatment for SMA.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22285962
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a leading genetic cause of infantile death. Loss of a gene called Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) and, as a result, reduced levels of the Survival Motor Neuron (SMN) protein leads to SMA development. SMA is characterized by the loss of functional motor neurons in the spinal cord. However, accumulating evidence suggests the contribution of other organs to the composite SMA phenotype and disease progression. A growing number of congenital heart defects have been identified in severe SMA patients. Consistent with the clinical cases, we have recently identified developmental and functional heart defects in two SMA mouse models, occurring at embryonic stage in a severe SMA model and shortly after birth in a less severe model (SMN∆7). Our goal was to examine the late stage cardiac abnormalities in untreated SMN∆7 mice and to determine whether gene replacement therapy restores cardiac structure/function in rescued SMN∆7 model. To reveal the extent of the cardiac structural/functional repair in the rescued mice, we analyzed the heart of untreated and treated SMN∆7 model using self-complementary Adeno-associated virus (serotype 9) expressing the full-length SMN cDNA. We examined the characteristics of the heart failure such as remodeling, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and vascular integrity in both groups. Our results clearly indicate that fibrosis, oxidative stress activation, vascular remodeling, and a significant decrease in the number of capillaries exist in the SMA heart. The cardiac structural defects were improved drastically in the rescued animals, however, the level of impairment was still significant compared to the age-matched wildtype littermates. Furthermore, functional analysis by in vivo cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the heart of the treated SMA mice still exhibits functional defects. In conclusion, cardiac abnormalities are only partially rescued in post-birth treated SMA animals and these abnormalities may contribute to the premature death of vector-treated SMA animals with seemingly rescued motor function but an average life span of less than 70days as reported in several studies.