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In JoVE (1)
- Низкая молекулярная масса белка Обогащение на мезопористых тонких пленок кремния для биомаркеров Discovery
Other Publications (6)
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Articles by James W. Gallagher in JoVE
Низкая молекулярная масса белка Обогащение на мезопористых тонких пленок кремния для биомаркеров Discovery
Jia Fan1,2, James W. Gallagher1, Hung-Jen Wu1, Matthew G. Landry1, Jason Sakamoto1, Mauro Ferrari1, Ye Hu1
1Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 2CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology
Мы разработали технологию, основанную на мезопористого кремния тонкую пленку для селективного восстановления низкомолекулярных белков и пептидов из сыворотки крови человека. Физико-химические свойства нашего мезопористых чипы были точно настроены оказывать существенную контроля пептид обогащение и, следовательно, профиль сыворотки протеома для диагностических целей.
Other articles by James W. Gallagher on PubMed
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12810715
Apolipoprotein A-V (apoA-V), the newest member of the plasma apolipoprotein family, was recently discovered by comparison of the mouse and human genomes. Studies in rodents and population surveys of human apoA-V polymorphisms have noted a strong effect of apoA-V on plasma triglyceride levels. Toward the elucidation of the biologic function of apoA-V, we used spectroscopic and surface chemistry techniques to probe its structure and interfacial activity. Computer-assisted sequence analysis of apoA-V predicts that it is very hydrophobic, contains a significant amount of alpha-helical secondary structure, and probably is composed of discrete structural regions with varying degrees of lipid affinity. Fluorescence spectroscopy of recombinant human apoA-V provided evidence of tertiary folding, and light scattering studies indicated that apoA-V transforms dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles into discoidal complexes with an efficiency similar to that of apoA-I. Surface chemistry techniques revealed that apoA-V displays high affinity, low elasticity, and slow binding kinetics at hydrophobic interfaces, properties we propose may retard triglyceride-rich particle assembly. Metabolic labeling and immunofluorescence studies of COS-1 cells transfected with human apoA-V demonstrated that apoA-V is poorly secreted, remains associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, and does not traffic to the Golgi. Given that overexpression of the apoA-V gene lowers plasma triglycerides in mice, these data together suggest that apoA-V may function intracellularly to modulate hepatic VLDL synthesis and/or secretion.
ApoA-IV Tagged with the ER Retention Signal KDEL Perturbs the Intracellular Trafficking and Secretion of ApoB
Journal of Lipid Research. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15258202
To examine the role of apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in the intracellular trafficking and secretion of apoB, COS cells were cotransfected with microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), apoB-41 (amino terminal 41% of apoB), and either native apoA-IV or apoA-IV modified with the carboxy-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, KDEL (apoA-IV-KDEL). As expected, apoA-IV-KDEL was inefficiently secreted relative to native apoA-IV. Coexpression of apoB-41 with apoA-IV-KDEL reduced the secretion of apoB-41 by approximately 80%. The apoA-IV-KDEL effect was specific, as neither KDEL-modified forms of human serum albumin or apoA-I affected apoB-41 secretion. Similar results were observed in McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells, which express endogenous MTP. The full inhibitory effect of apoA-IV-KDEL on apoB secretion was observed only for forms of apoB containing a minimum of the amino-terminal 25% of the protein (apoB-25). However, apoA-IV-KDEL inhibited the secretion of both lipid-associated and lipid-poor forms of apoB-25. Dual-label immunofluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with native apoA-IV and apoB-25 revealed that both apolipoproteins were localized to the ER and Golgi, as expected. However, when apoA-IV-KDEL was cotransfected with apoB-25, both proteins localized primarily to the ER. These data suggest that apoA-IV may physically interact with apoB in the secretory pathway, perhaps reflecting a role in modulating the process of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein assembly and secretion.
Overexpression of Apolipoprotein A-IV Enhances Lipid Secretion in IPEC-1 Cells by Increasing Chylomicron Size
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16338933
Intestinal apolipoprotein A-IV expression is highly regulated by dietary lipid in newborn swine, suggesting a role in lipid absorption. Constitutive overexpression of apoA-IV in newborn swine enterocytes enhances basolateral secretion of triacylglycerol (TG) in TG-rich lipoproteins 4.9-fold (Lu, S., Yao, Y., Meng, S., Cheng, X., and Black, D. D. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 31929-31937). To investigate the mechanism of this enhancement, IPEC-1 cells were transfected with a tetracycline-regulatable expression system (Tet-On). In cells incubated with oleic acid, a dose response relationship was observed between medium doxycycline concentration and basolateral apoA-IV and TG secretion. Similarly regulated expression of apoA-I did not enhance lipid secretion. The mean diameter of TG-rich lipoproteins secreted from doxycycline-treated cells was larger than from untreated cells (87.0 nm versus 53.4 nm). Basolateral apoB secretion decreased. Using the same expression system, full-length human apoA-IV (376 amino acids); a "pig-like" human apoA-IV, lacking the C-terminal EQQQ repeats (361 amino acids); and a "chicken-like" apoA-IV, further truncated to 343 amino acids, were expressed in IPEC-1 cells. With increasing protein secretion, cells expressing the full-length human apoA-IV displayed a 2-fold increase in TG secretion; in sharp contrast, cells expressing the pig-like human apoA-IV displayed a 25-fold increase in TG secretion and a 27-fold increase in lipoprotein diameter. When human apoA-IV was further truncated to yield a chicken-like protein, TG secretion was inhibited. We conclude that overexpression of swine apoA-IV enhances basolateral TG secretion in a dose-dependent manner by increasing the size of secreted lipoproteins. These data suggest that the region in the human apoA-IV protein from residues 344 to 354 is critical to its ability to enhance lipid secretion, perhaps by enabling the packaging of additional core TG into chylomicron particles. The EQQQ-rich region may play an inhibitory or modulatory role in chylomicron packaging in humans.
Activation of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 is Both Necessary and Sufficient to Stimulate Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2Bvarepsilon MRNA Translation and Protein Synthesis
The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18556237
In a previous study we demonstrated a requirement for activation of mTORC1 in the stimulation of eIF2Bepsilon mRNA translation in skeletal muscle in response to resistance exercise. Although that study established the necessity of mTORC1 activation, the experimental model used did not lend itself readily to address the question of whether or not mTORC1 activation was sufficient to produce the response. Therefore, the present study was designed to address the sufficiency of mTORC1 activation, using cultures of Rat2 fibroblasts in which mTORC1 signaling was repressed by serum/leucine-depletion and stimulated by repletion of leucine and/or IGF-1. Repletion with leucine and IGF-1 caused a shift of eIF2Bepsilon mRNA into actively translating polysomes and a stimulation of new eIF2Bepsilon protein synthesis, but had no effect on mRNAs encoding the other four eIF2B subunits. Stimulation of eIF2Bepsilon translation was reversed by pre-treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin. Exogenous overexpression of FLAG-Rheb, a proximal activator of mTORC1, also caused a re-distribution of eIF2Bepsilon mRNA into polysomes and a stimulation of eIF2Bepsilon protein synthesis. The stimulation of eIF2Bepsilon mRNA translation occurred in the absence of any effect on eIF2Bepsilon mRNA abundance. RNAi-mediated knockdown of eIF2Bepsilon resulted in reduced cellular proliferation, a result that phenocopied the known cytostatic effect of mTORC1 repression. Overall the results demonstrate that activation of mTORC1 is both necessary and sufficient to stimulate eIF2Bepsilon mRNA translation and that this response may represent a novel mechanism through which mTORC1 can affect mRNA translation initiation, rates of protein synthesis, and cellular growth/proliferation.
Reduced Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2Bepsilon-subunit Expression Suppresses the Transformed Phenotype of Cells Overexpressing the Protein
Cancer Research. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18974117
Eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B), a five-subunit guanine nucleotide exchange factor, plays a key role in the regulation of mRNA translation. Expression of its epsilon-subunit is specifically up-regulated in certain conditions associated with increased cell growth. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of repressing eIF2Bepsilon expression on growth rate, protein synthesis, and other characteristics of two tumorigenic cell lines that display up-regulated expression of the epsilon-subunit. Experiments were designed to compare spontaneously transformed fibroblasts to transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts infected with a lentivirus containing a short hairpin RNA directed against eIF2Bepsilon. Cells expressing the short hairpin RNA displayed a reduction in eIF2Bepsilon abundance to 30% of the value observed in uninfected transformed mouse embryonic fibroblasts, with no change in the expression of any of the other four subunits. The repression of eIF2Bepsilon expression was accompanied by reductions in guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity and global rates of protein synthesis. Moreover, repressed eIF2Bepsilon expression led to marked reductions in cell growth rate in culture, colony formation in soft agar, and tumor progression in nude mice. Similar results were obtained in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in which eIF2Bepsilon expression was repressed through transient transfection with a small interfering RNA directed against the epsilon-subunit. Overall, the results support a role for eIF2Bepsilon in the regulation of cell growth and suggest that it might represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of human cancer.
Journal of Lipid Research. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22257482
Although the evidence linking apoA-IV expression and triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoprotein assembly and secretion is compelling, the intracellular mechanisms by which apoA-IV could modulate these processes remain poorly understood. We therefore examined the functional impact of apoA-IV expression on endogenous apoB, TG, and VLDL secretion in stably transfected McA-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells. Expression of apoA-IV modified with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal KDEL (apoA-IV-KDEL) dramatically decreased both the rate and efficiency of endogenous apoB secretion, suggesting a presecretory interaction between apoA-IV-KDEL and apoB or apoB-containing lipoproteins. Expression of native apoA-IV using either a constitutive or tetracycline-inducible promoter delayed the initial rate of apoB secretion and reduced the final secretion efficiency by ∼40%. However, whereas apoA-IV-KDEL reduced TG secretion by 75%, expression of native apoA-IV caused a 20-35% increase in TG secretion, accompanied by a ∼55% increase in VLDL-associated apoB, an increase in the TG:phospholipid ratio of secreted d < 1.006 lipoproteins, and a 10.1 nm increase in peak VLDL(1) particle diameter. Native apoA-IV expression had a negligible impact on expression of the MTP gene. These data suggest that by interacting with apoB in the secretory pathway, apoA-IV alters the trafficking kinetics of apoB-containing TG-rich lipoproteins through cellular lipidation compartments, which in turn, enhances particle expansion and increases TG secretion.