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In JoVE (1)
- Preparation of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Cells Suitable for Culturing Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Other Publications (7)
Articles by James Adjaye in JoVE
Preparation of Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Cells Suitable for Culturing Human Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Justyna Jozefczuk, Katharina Drews, James Adjaye
Department of Vertebrate Genomics, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics
The quality of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) is dictated by the right strain of mouse such as CF-1. Pluripotency-supportive MEFs and conditioned media (CM) obtained from these should contain optimal concentrations of Activin A, Gremlin and Tgfβ1 needed for the Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways to co-operatively maintain self-renewal and pluripotency.
Other articles by James Adjaye on PubMed
Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Modulates Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts and Human ESCs (hESCs) to Support HESC Self-renewal
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17038665
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is known to promote self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In addition, it has been shown that transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling is crucial in that the TGFbeta/Activin/Nodal branch of the pathway needs to be activated and the bone morphogenic protein (BMP)/GDF branch repressed to prevent differentiation. This holds particularly true for Serum Replacement-based medium containing BMP-like activity. We have reinvestigated a widely used protocol for conditioning hESC medium with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). We show that FGF2 acts on MEFs to release supportive factors and reduce differentiation-inducing activity. FGF2 stimulation experiments with supportive and nonsupportive MEFs followed by genome-wide expression profiling revealed that FGF2 regulates the expression of key members of the TGFbeta pathway, with Inhba, Tgfb1, Grem1, and Bmp4 being the most likely candidates orchestrating the above activities. In addition, restimulation experiments in hESCs combined with global expression analysis revealed downstream targets of FGF2 signaling in these cells. Among these were the same factors previously identified in MEFs, thus suggesting that FGF2, at least in part, promotes self-renewal of hESCs by modulating the expression of TGFbeta ligands, which, in turn, act on hESCs in a concerted and autocrine manner.
Analysis of Oct4-dependent Transcriptional Networks Regulating Self-renewal and Pluripotency in Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17068183
The POU domain transcription factor OCT4 is a key regulator of pluripotency in the early mammalian embryo and is highly expressed in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Consistent with its essential role in maintaining pluripotency, Oct4 expression is rapidly downregulated during formation of the trophoblast lineage. To enhance our understanding of the molecular basis of this differentiation event in humans, we used a functional genomics approach involving RNA interference-mediated suppression of OCT4 function in a human ESC line and analysis of the resulting transcriptional profiles to identify OCT4-dependent genes in human cells. We detected altered expression of >1,000 genes, including targets regulated directly by OCT4 either positively (NANOG, SOX2, REX1, LEFTB, LEFTA/EBAF DPPA4, THY1, and TDGF1) or negatively (CDX2, EOMES, BMP4, TBX18, Brachyury [T], DKK1, HLX1, GATA6, ID2, and DLX5), as well as targets for the OCT4-associated stem cell regulators SOX2 and NANOG. Our data set includes regulators of ACTIVIN, BMP, fibroblast growth factor, and WNT signaling. These pathways are implicated in regulating human ESC differentiation and therefore further validate the results of our analysis. In addition, we identified a number of differentially expressed genes that are involved in epigenetics, chromatin remodeling, apoptosis, and metabolism that may point to underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate pluripotency and trophoblast differentiation in humans. Significant concordance between this data set and previous comparisons between inner cell mass and trophectoderm in human embryos indicates that the study of human ESC differentiation in vitro represents a useful model of early embryonic differentiation in humans.
Silencing of Core Transcription Factors in Human EC Cells Highlights the Importance of Autocrine FGF Signaling for Self-renewal
BMC Developmental Biology. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17506876
Despite their distinct origins, human embryonic stem (hES) and embryonic carcinoma (hEC) cells share a number of similarities such as surface antigen expression, growth characteristics, the ability to either self-renew or differentiate, and control of the undifferentiated state by the same core transcription factors. To obtain further insights into the regulation of self-renewal, we have silenced hES/hEC cell-specific genes in NCCIT hEC cells and analysed the downstream effects by means of microarrays.
Conserved Molecular Portraits of Bovine and Human Blastocysts As a Consequence of the Transition from Maternal to Embryonic Control of Gene Expression
Physiological Genomics. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17595343
The present study investigated mRNA expression profiles of bovine oocytes and blastocysts by using a cross-species hybridization approach employing an array consisting of 15,529 human cDNAs as probe, thus enabling the identification of conserved genes during human and bovine preimplantation development. Our analysis revealed 419 genes that were expressed in both oocytes and blastocysts. The expression of 1,324 genes was detected exclusively in the blastocyst, in contrast to 164 in the oocyte including a significant number of novel genes. Genes indicative for transcriptional and translational control (ELAVL4, TACC3) were overexpressed in the oocyte, whereas cellular trafficking (SLC2A14, SLC1A3), proteasome (PSMA1, PSMB3), cell cycle (BUB3, CCNE1, GSPT1), and protein modification and turnover (TNK1, UBE3A) genes were found to be overexpressed in blastocysts. Transcripts implicated in chromatin remodeling were found in both oocytes (NASP, SMARCA2) and blastocysts (H2AFY, HDAC7A). The trophectodermal markers PSG2 and KRT18 were enriched 5- and 50-fold in the blastocyst. Pathway analysis revealed differential expression of genes involved in 107 distinct signaling and metabolic pathways. For example, phosphatidylinositol signaling and gluconeogenesis were prominent pathways identified in the blastocyst. Expression patterns in bovine and human blastocysts were to a large extent identical. This analysis compared the transcriptomes of bovine oocytes and blastocysts and provides a solid foundation for future studies on the first major differentiation events in blastocysts and identification of a set of markers indicative for regular mammalian development.
Stem Cells and Development. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18393632
The mechanisms controlling self-renewal versus lineage commitment in human embryonic stem (hES) cells are not well understood. Nonetheless, current knowledge suggests a crucial role for TGFbeta signaling in controlling these early fate decisions. We have investigated the effects of TGFbeta pathway activation and inhibition on gene expression in hES cells. Our data reveal that SMAD 2/3 signaling directly supports NANOG expression, while SMAD 1/5/8 activation moderately represses SOX2. In addition, genes encoding key developmentally relevant signaling molecules and transcription factors appear to be immediately downstream of SMAD 1/5/8 signaling, or require both SMAD 1/5/8 and 2/3 activation, or inactivation of TGFbeta signaling for their induction. Defined stimulation/inhibition of the two TGFbeta branches appeared to control early fate decisions in accordance with these downstream transcriptional effects. Our results therefore help to better understand how pluripotency is mediated at the transcriptional level.
Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20459772
During the past years in vivo transplantation experiments and in vitro colony-forming assays indicated that tumors arise only from rare cells. These cells were shown to bear self-renewal capacities and the ability to recapitulate all cell types within an individual tumor. Due to their phenotypic resemblance to normal stem cells, the term "cancer stem cells" is used. However, some pieces of the puzzle are missing: (a) a stringent definition of cancer stem cells in solid tumors (b) specific markers that only target cells that meet the criteria for a cancer stem cell in a certain type of tumor. These missing parts started an ongoing debate about which is the best method to identify and characterize cancer stem cells, or even if their mere existence is just an artifact caused by the experimental procedures. Recent findings query the cancer stem cell hypothesis for solid tumors itself since it was shown in xenograft transplantation experiments that under appropriate conditions tumor-initiating cells are not rare.In this review we critically discuss the challenges and prospects of the currently used major methods to identify cancer stem cells. Further on, we reflect the present discussion about the existence of cancer stem cells in solid tumors as well as the amount and characteristics of tumor-initiating cells and finally provide new perspectives like the correlation of cancer stem cells and induced pluripotent cells.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21209851
Recent data demonstrates that stem cells can exist in two morphologically, molecularly and functionally distinct pluripotent states; a naïve LIF-dependent pluripotent state which is represented by murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) and an FGF-dependent primed pluripotent state represented by murine and rat epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). We find that derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) under EpiSC culture conditions yields FGF-dependent iPSCs from hereon called FGF-iPSCs) which, unexpectedly, display naïve ES-like/ICM properties. FGF-iPSCs display X-chromosome activation, multi-lineage differentiation, teratoma competence and chimera contribution in vivo. Our findings suggest that in 129 and Bl6 mouse strains, iPSCs can dominantly adopt a naive pluripotent state regardless of culture growth factor conditions. Characterization of the key molecular signalling pathways revealed FGF-iPSCs to depend on the Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways, while signalling through the JAK-STAT pathway is not required for FGF-iPS cell maintenance. Our findings suggest that in 129 and Bl6 mouse strains, iPSCs can dominantly adopt a naive pluripotent state regardless of culture growth factor conditions.