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In JoVE (2)
- High-Throughput Measurement and Classification of Organic P in Environmental Samples
- Characterizing Bacterial Volatiles using Secondary Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SESI-MS)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Jane E. Hill in JoVE
High-Throughput Measurement and Classification of Organic P in Environmental Samples
Nicholas R. Johnson, Jane E. Hill
School of Engineering, University of Vermont
This protocol describes a high-throughput method of enzymatic hydrolysis that utilizes a microplate reader to measure and classify soil phosphorus as P monoesters, P diesters and inorganic P. Up to 96 samples can be measured at one time in a standard laboratory.
Characterizing Bacterial Volatiles using Secondary Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (SESI-MS)
Heather D. Bean, Jiangjiang Zhu, Jane E. Hill
School of Engineering, University of Vermont
Secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) enables the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) without the need for any sample pretreatment. This protocol provides instructions for the rapid (within minutes) characterization of bacterial VOCs using SESI-MS.
Other articles by Jane E. Hill on PubMed
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15933006
The influence of bacterial growth stage and the evolution of surface macromolecules on cell adhesion have been examined by using a mutant of Escherichia coli K-12. To better understand the adhesion kinetics of bacteria in the mid-exponential and stationary growth phases under flow conditions, deposition experiments were conducted in a well-controlled radial stagnation point flow (RSPF) system. Complementary cell characterization techniques were conducted in combination with the RSPF experiments to evaluate the hydrophobicity, electrophoretic mobility, size, and titratable surface charge of the cells in the two growth phases considered. It was observed that cells in stationary phase were notably more adhesive than those in mid-exponential phase. This behavior is attributed to the high degree of local charge heterogeneity on the outer membranes of stationary-phase cells, which results in decreased electrostatic repulsion between the cells and a quartz surface. The mid-exponential-phase cells, on the other hand, have a more uniform charge distribution on the outer membrane, resulting in greater electrostatic repulsion and, subsequently, less adhesion. Our results suggest that the macromolecules responsible for this phenomenon are outer membrane-bound proteins and lipopolysaccharide-associated functional groups.
Environmental Microbiology. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17991037
The Delaware-Maryland-Virginia (DelMarVa) Peninsula, flanking one side of the Chesapeake Bay, is home to a substantial broiler chicken industry. As such, it produces a significant amount of manure that is typically composted and spread onto local croplands as a fertilizer. Phytate (myo inositol hexakisphosphate), the major form of organic phosphorus in the manure, can be hydrolysed by microorganisms to produce orthophosphate. Orthophosphate is a eutrophication agent which can lead to algal blooms, hypoxia and fish kills in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. This transect study reveals a subpopulation of heterotrophic, thiosulfate-utilizing bacteria that can degrade phytate within the watershed as well as its receiving water sediment. Aerobic isolates were typical soil bacteria, e.g. Pseudomonad, Bacillus and Arthrobacter species, as well as a less common Staphylococcus inhabitant. Bacillus pumilus, Staphyloccocus equorum, Arthrobacter bergei and Pseudomonas marginalis strains have not been previously described as phytate-degrading. Each site along the transect - from manure pile to receiving sediment - was host to a population of bacteria that can degrade phytate and hence, each is a possible non-point source of orthophosphate pollution. Each new isolate could provide an enzyme additive for monogastric feed, thus reducing the impact of excessive phytate load on the environment.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19061867
(1-->3)-Beta-D-Glucans are structural cell wall components of fungi, plants, and some bacteria and have been linked with human respiratory symptoms following aerosol exposure. A clear interpretation of the health impact of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans is limited by the high cost and uncertainties associated with current glucan quantitation methods. The objective of this research is to develop DNA aptamers for the measurement of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. Aptamers are synthetic DNA functional binding molecules that fold into unique conformations, allowing them to bind specifically to their target. Through the in vitro selection process SELEX, we have produced aptamers that are able to bind with sub-micromolar affinity to curdlan, a linear unbranched form of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. These aptamers display high selectivity to curdlan and do not bind to non-(1-->3)-beta-D-polysaccharides, suggesting specificity for the beta-(1-->3)-glycosidic linkage. The aptamers produced here will enable the production of more cost-effective, less ambiguous assays for the environmental measurement of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans.
Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Transect Study of Poultry Operations on the Delmarva Peninsula
Journal of Environmental Quality. Jan-Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19141802
Nonpoint source phosphorus (P) pollution into the Chesapeake Bay watershed from poultry operations contributes to the algal blooms, hypoxia, anoxia, and fish kill events that occur there most years. A major source of soluble, bioavailable P species is poultry litter, which is used as a crop fertilizer on fields adjacent to the tributaries of the Bay. A potentially significant source of orthophosphate in the litter is the heavily phosphorylated compound myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate), which is indigestible by poultry and thus becomes a major component of their excreta. Phytate evaluation in environmental samples is expensive; hence, its impact is not captured in standard farmer-friendly eutrophication potential guides, like Delaware's Phosphorus Site Index. In this transect study of two poultry operations on the Delmarva Peninsula, we measured the incidence of all P compounds using solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and extracts, relating them to relevant geochemical properties. The contribution of phytate to the overall pool of P declined from around 50% in manures to between 2 and 13% in down-gradient soils and sediments, corresponding to a rise in the relative proportion of orthophosphate (increasing from 39% to 65-88%). The results show that the large pool of phytate P spread onto croplands during standard operating practice at poultry farms on the Delmarva Peninsula does not appear to accumulate; rather, phytate decreases in down-gradient locations, most likely due to transport off-site and/or through in situ biological activity.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19545545
Allergies are caused by the binding of IgE antibodies onto specific sites on allergens. However, in the assessment of exposure to airborne allergens, current techniques such as whole spore counts fail to account for the presence of these allergenic epitopes that trigger allergic reactions. The objective of the research is to develop a DNA aptamer for the Asp f 1 allergen of the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, using an IgE-binding epitope of the allergen as the target for aptamer selection. Through in vitro SELEX, an aptamer has been produced that binds with nanomolar affinity to the Asp f 1 IgE-epitope. The aptamer is also able to recognize the native Asp f 1 allergen, and does not bind to allergenic proteins from non-target mold species such as Alternaria alternata. Production of this aptamer provides proof-of-principle that allergen measurement methods can be developed to indicate the potent fraction, or allergenicity, of allergens.
Fast Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds from Bacterial Cultures by Secondary Electrospray Ionization-mass Spectrometry
Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20962140
We propose a novel application of secondary electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (SESI-MS) as a real-time clinical diagnostic tool for bacterial infection. It is known that volatile organic compounds (VOCs), produced in different combinations and quantities by bacteria as metabolites, generate characteristic odors for certain bacteria. These VOCs comprise a specific metabolic profile that can be used for species or serovar identification, but rapid and sensitive analytical methods are required for broad utility. In this study, the VOC profiles of five bacterial groups from four genera, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum, were characterized by SESI-MS. Thirteen compounds were identified from these bacterial cultures, and the combination of these VOCs creates a unique pattern for each genus. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for the purpose of species or serovar discrimination. The first three principal components exhibit a clear separation between the metabolic volatile profiles of these five bacterial groups that is independent of the growth medium. As a first step toward addressing the complexity of clinical application, in vitro tests for mixed cultures were conducted. The results show that individual species or serovars in a mixed culture are identifiable among a biological VOC background, and the ratios of the detected volatiles reflect the proportion of each bacterium in the mixture. Our data confirm the utility of SESI-MS in real-time identification of bacterial species or serovars in vitro, which, in the future, may play a promising clinical role in diagnosing infections.