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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
- Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening : Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- ILAR Journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources
- Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991)
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Articles by Jean-Luc Boulland in JoVE
Xenotransplantatie van menselijke stamcellen in het kippenembryo
Jean-Luc Boulland1, Gabor Halasi1, Nedim Kasumacic1, Joel C. Glover1,2
1Department of Physiology, University of Oslo, 2Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research, University of Oslo
In deze paper presenteren we een methode voor het transplanteren van menselijke stamcellen in verschillende regio's van het centrale zenuwstelsel van de kip embryo. Dit zorgt voor een
Other articles by Jean-Luc Boulland on PubMed
Cell-specific Expression of the Glutamine Transporter SN1 Suggests Differences in Dependence on the Glutamine Cycle
The European Journal of Neuroscience. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12059969
Glutamine is involved in a variety of metabolic processes, including recycling of the neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The system N transporter SN1 mediates efflux as well as influx of glutamine in glial cells [Chaudhry et al. (1999), Cell, 99, 769-780]. We here report qualitative and quantitative data on SN1 protein expression in rat. The total tissue concentrations of SN1 in brain and in kidney are half and one-quarter, respectively, of that in liver, but the average concentration of SN1 could be higher in astrocytes than in hepatocytes. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry shows that glutamatergic, GABAergic and, surprisingly, purely glycinergic boutons are ensheathed by astrocytic SN1 laden processes, indicating a role of glutamine in the production of all three rapid transmitters. A dedication of SN1 to neurotransmitter recycling is further supported by the lack of SN1 immunoreactivity in oligodendrocytes (cells rich in glutamine but without perisynaptic processes). All neuronal structures appear unlabelled implying that a different protein mediates glutamine uptake into nerve endings. In several regions, SN1 immunoreactivity is higher in association with GABAergic than glutamatergic synapses, in agreement with observations that exogenous glutamine increases output of transmitter glutamate but not GABA. Nerve terminals with low transmitter reuptake or high prevailing firing frequency are associated with high SN1 immunoreactivity in adjacent glia. Bergmann glia and certain other astroglia contain very low levels of SN1 immunoreactivity compared to most astroglia, including retinal Müller cells, indicating the possible existence of SN isoforms and alternative mechanisms for transmitter recycling.
Highly Differential Expression of SN1, a Bidirectional Glutamine Transporter, in Astroglia and Endothelium in the Developing Rat Brain
Glia. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12528181
The transmitters glutamate and GABA also subserve trophic action and are required for normal development of the brain. They are formed from glutamine, which may be synthesized in glia or extracted from the blood. In the adult, the glutamine transporter SN1 is expressed in the astroglia. SN1 works in both directions, depending on the concentration gradients of its substrates and cotransported ions, and is thought to regulate extracellular glutamine and to supply the neurons with the transmitter precursor. In this article, we have quantified the expression and studied the localization of SN1 at different developmental stages. SN1 is expressed in astroglia throughout the CNS from embryonic stages through adulthood. No indication of SN1 staining in neuronal elements has been obtained at any stage. Quantitative immunoblotting of whole brain extracts demonstrates increasing expression of SN1 from P0, reaching a peak at P14, twice the adult level. A moderate and slower rise and fall of the expression levels of SN1 occurs in the cerebellum. Strong transient SN1-like staining is also found in Bergmann glia and vascular endothelium in the first postnatal weeks. Strong intracellular staining in the same time period suggests a high rate of SN1 synthesis in the early postnatal period. This coincides with the increasing levels of glutamate and GABA in the CNS and with the time course of synaptogenesis. This study suggests that the expression of SN1 is highly regulated, correlating with the demand for glutamine during the critical period of development.
Expression of the Vesicular Glutamate Transporters During Development Indicates the Widespread Corelease of Multiple Neurotransmitters
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15515175
Three closely related proteins transport glutamate into synaptic vesicles for release by exocytosis. Complementary patterns of expression in glutamatergic terminals have been reported for VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. VGLUT3 shows expression by many cells not considered to be glutamatergic. Here we describe the changes in VGLUT expression that occur during development. VGLUT1 expression increases gradually after birth and eventually predominates over the other isoforms in telencephalic regions. Expressed at high levels shortly after birth, VGLUT2 declines with age in multiple regions, in the cerebellum by 14-fold. In contrast, Coexpression of the two isoforms occurs transiently during development as well as permanently in a restricted subset of glutamatergic terminals in the adult. VGLUT3 is transiently expressed at high levels by select neuronal populations, including terminals in the cerebellar nuclei, scattered neurons in the cortex, and progenitor-like cells, implicating exocytotic glutamate release in morphogenesis and development. VGLUT3 also colocalizes extensively during development with the neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2, with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter VAChT, and with the vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter VGAT. Such coexpression occurs particularly at some specific developmental stages and is restricted to certain sets of cells. In skeletal muscle, VGLUT3 localizes to granular organelles in the axon terminal as well as in the muscle sarcoplasm. The results suggest novel mechanisms and roles for regulated transmitter release.
Induction and Targeting of the Glutamine Transporter SN1 to the Basolateral Membranes of Cortical Kidney Tubule Cells During Chronic Metabolic Acidosis Suggest a Role in PH Regulation
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15716335
During chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA), the plasma levels of glutamine are increased and so is glutamine metabolism in the kidney tubule cells. Degradation of glutamine results in the formation of ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) ions, which are excreted in the pre-urine and transported to the peritubular blood, respectively. This process contributes to counteract acidosis and to restore normal pH, but the molecular mechanism, the localization of the proteins involved and the regulation of glutamine transport into the renal tubular cells, remains unknown. SN1, a Na(+)- and H(+)-dependent glutamine transporter has previously been identified molecularly, and its mRNA has been detected in tubule cells in the medulla of the kidney. Now shown is the selective targeting of the protein to the basolateral membranes of the renal tubule cells of the S3 segment throughout development of the normal rat kidney. During CMA, SN1 expression increases five- to six-fold and appears also in cortical tubule cells in parallel with the increased expression and activity of phosphate-activated glutaminase, a mitochondrial enzyme involved in ammoniagenesis. However, SN1 remains sorted to the basolateral membranes. The unique ability of SN1 to change transport direction according to physiologic changes in transmembrane gradients of [glutamine] and pH and its sorting to the basolateral membranes and the presence of a putative pH responsive element in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the gene (supported here by the demonstration in CMA kidney of a protein that binds SN1 mRNA) are conducive to the function of this transporter in pH regulation.
Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening : Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15940312
BACKGROUND: This review presents basic knowledge on glutamate and glutamine homeostasis in the central nervous system and relates this knowledge to some aspects of cerebral ischaemia. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: The amino acid glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Following stimulation of the postsynaptic glutamate receptors, glutamate must rapidly be removed from the synaptic cleft. Whereas several other neurotransmitters are taken up directly into the presynaptic nerve terminal, glutamate is mainly transported into the surrounding glial cells. Glial glutamate can be amidated to glutamine, and since glutamine is a precursor of glutamate without being a neurotransmitter itself, it can be returned to the presynaptic neuron without eliciting new synaptic signals. In the nerve terminal, glutamine can be converted back to glutamate, thereby completing the postulated glutamate-glutamine cycle. During ischaemia, this cycle is impaired as it depends on energy-consuming membrane transport proteins and enzymes.
Absence of Synapsin I and II is Accompanied by Decreases in Vesicular Transport of Specific Neurotransmitters
Journal of Neurochemistry. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16478532
Studies of synapsin-deficient mice have shown decreases in the number of synaptic vesicles but knowledge about the consequences of this decrease, and which classes of vesicles are being affected, has been lacking. In this study, glutamatergic, GABAergic and dopaminergic transport has been analysed in animals where the genes encoding synapsin I and II were inactivated. The levels of the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) 1, VGLUT2 and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) were decreased by approximately 40% in adult forebrain from mice devoid of synapsin I and II, while vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) 2 and VGLUT3 were present in unchanged amounts compared with wild-type mice. Functional studies on synaptic vesicles showed that the vesicular uptake of glutamate and GABA was decreased by 41 and 23%, respectively, while uptake of dopamine was unaffected by the lack of synapsin I and II. Double-labelling studies showed that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 colocalized fully with synapsin I and/or II in the hippocampus and neostriatum, respectively. VGAT showed partial colocalization, while VGLUT3 and VMAT2 did not colocalize with either synapsin I or II in the brain areas studied. In conclusion, distinct vesicular transporters show a variable degree of colocalization with synapsin proteins and, hence, distinct sensitivities to inactivation of the genes encoding synapsin I and II.
Distribution of Vesicular Glutamate Transporters 1 and 2 in the Rat Spinal Cord, with a Note on the Spinocervical Tract
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16786558
To evaluate whether the organization of glutamatergic fibers systems in the lumbar cord is also evident at other spinal levels, we examined the immunocytochemical distribution of vesicle glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1, VGLUT2) at several different levels of the rat spinal cord. We also examined the expression of VGLUTs in an ascending sensory pathway, the spinocervical tract, and colocalization of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2. Mainly small VGLUT2-immunoreactive varicosities occurred at relatively high densities in most areas, with the highest density in laminae I-II. VGLUT1 immunolabeling, including small and medium-sized to large varicosities, was more differentiated, with the highest density in the deep dorsal horn and in certain nuclei such as the internal basilar nucleus, the central cervical nucleus, and the column of Clarke. Lamina I and IIo displayed a moderate density of small VGLUT1 varicosities at all spinal levels, although in the spinal enlargements a uniform density of such varicosities was evident throughout laminae I-II in the medial half of the dorsal horn. Corticospinal tract axons displayed VGLUT1, indicating that the corticospinal tract is an important source of small VGLUT1 varicosities. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 were cocontained in small numbers of varicosities in laminae III-IV and IX. Anterogradely labeled spinocervical tract terminals in the lateral cervical nucleus were VGLUT2 immunoreactive. In conclusion, the principal distribution patterns of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are essentially similar throughout the rostrocaudal extension of the spinal cord. The mediolateral differences in VGLUT1 distribution in laminae I-II suggest dual origins of VGLUT1-immunoreactive varicosities in this region.
Changes in Vesicular Transporters for Gamma-aminobutyric Acid and Glutamate Reveal Vulnerability and Reorganization of Hippocampal Neurons Following Pilocarpine-induced Seizures
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17503488
The reorganizations of the overall intrinsic glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic hippocampal networks as well as the time course of these reorganizations during development of pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epilepsy were studied with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry experiments for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT). These transporters are particularly interesting as specific markers for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons, respectively, whose expression levels could reflect the demand for synaptic transmission and their average activity. We report that 1) concomitantly with the loss of some subpopulations of VGAT-containing neurons, there was an up-regulation of VGAT synthesis in all remaining GABA neurons as early as 1 week after pilocarpine injection. This enhanced synthesis is characterized by marked increases in the relative amount of VGAT mRNAs in interneurons associated with increased intensity of axon terminal labeling for VGAT in all hippocampal layers. 2) There was a striking loss of mossy cells during the latent period, demonstrated by a long-term decrease of VGLUT1 mRNA-containing hilar neurons and associated loss of VGLUT1-containing terminals in the dentate gyrus inner molecular layer. 3) There were aberrant VGLUT1-containing terminals at the chronic stage resulting from axonal sprouting of granule and pyramidal cells. This is illustrated by a recovery of VGLUT1 immunoreactivity in the inner molecular layer and an increased VGLUT1 immunolabeling in the CA1-CA3 dendritic layers. These data indicate that an increased activity of remaining GABAergic interneurons occurs during the latent period, in parallel with the loss of vulnerable glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons preceding the reorganization of glutamatergic networks.
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18064412
Many neuropsychiatric disorders appear to involve a disturbance of chemical neurotransmission, and the mechanism of available therapeutic agents supports this impression. Postsynaptic receptors have received considerable attention as drug targets, but some of the most successful agents influence presynaptic processes, in particular neurotransmitter reuptake. The pharmacological potential of many other presynaptic elements, and in particular the machinery responsible for loading transmitter into vesicles, has received only limited attention. The similarity of vesicular transporters to bacterial drug resistance proteins and the increasing evidence for regulation of vesicle filling and recycling suggest that the pharmacological potential of vesicular transporters has been underestimated. In this review, we discuss the pharmacological effects of psychostimulants and therapeutic agents on transmitter release.
Unique Luminal Localization of VGAT-C Terminus Allows for Selective Labeling of Active Cortical GABAergic Synapses
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19052203
Neurotransmitter uptake into synaptic vesicles is mediated by vesicular neurotransmitter transporters. Although these transporters belong to different families, they all are thought to share a common overall topology with an even number of transmembrane domains. Using epitope-specific antibodies and mass spectrometry we show that the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) possesses an uneven number of transmembrane domains, with the N terminus facing the cytoplasm and the C terminus residing in the synaptic vesicle lumen. Antibodies recognizing the C terminus of VGAT (anti-VGAT-C) selectively label GABAergic nerve terminals of live cultured hippocampal and striatal neurons as confirmed by immunocytochemistry and patch-clamp electrophysiology. Injection of fluorochromated anti-VGAT-C into the hippocampus of mice results in specific labeling of GABAergic synapses in vivo. Overall, our data open the possibility of studying novel GABA release sites, characterizing inhibitory vesicle trafficking, and establishing their contribution to inhibitory neurotransmission at identified GABAergic synapses.
ILAR Journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20075498
The clinical use of stem cells for regenerative medicine is critically dependent on preclinical studies in animal models. In this review we examine some of the key issues and challenges in the use of animal models to study human stem cell biology-experimental standardization, body size, immunological barriers, cell survival factors, fusion of host and donor cells, and in vivo imaging and tracking. We focus particular attention on the various imaging modalities that can be used to track cells in living animals, comparing their strengths and weaknesses and describing technical developments that are likely to lead to new opportunities for the dynamic assessment of stem cell behavior in vivo. We then provide an overview of some of the most commonly used animal models, their advantages and disadvantages, and examples of their use for xenotypic transplantation of human stem cells, with separate reviews of models involving rodents, ungulates, nonhuman primates, and the chicken embryo. As the use of human somatic, embryonic, and induced pluripotent stem cells increases, so too will the range of applications for these animal models. It is likely that increasingly sophisticated uses of human/animal chimeric models will be developed through advances in genetic manipulation, cell delivery, and in vivo imaging.
Vesicular Glutamate and GABA Transporters Sort to Distinct Sets of Vesicles in a Population of Presynaptic Terminals
Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18502731
Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) 1 and 2 are expressed by neurons generally accepted to release glutamate as a neurotransmitter, whereas VGLUT3 appears in populations usually associated with a different classical transmitter. We now demonstrate VGLUT2 as well as the vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) in a subset of presynaptic terminals in the dentate gyrus of the rat hippocampal formation. The terminals are distributed in a characteristic band overlapping with the outer part of the granule cell layer and the inner zone of the molecular layer. Within the terminals, which make asymmetric as well as symmetric synapses onto the somatodendritic compartment of the dentate granule cells, the 2 transporters localize to distinct populations of synaptic vesicles. Moreover, the axons forming these terminals originate in the supramammillary nucleus (SuM). Our data reconcile previous apparently conflicting reports on the physiology of the dentate afferents from SuM and demonstrate that both glutamate and GABA may be released from a single nerve terminal.