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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Model Organisms I

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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (51)

Articles by Jeffrey A. Runnells in JoVE

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain

1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research


JoVE 4285

This video presentation shows a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis.

Other articles by Jeffrey A. Runnells on PubMed

Original Veterinary Faculty

A Study of an Encephalitic Strain of Hog Cholera Virus

Bone Structure Changes in Pigs Infected with Hog Cholera

The Pathology of Experimentally Produced Histomoniasis in Turkeys

Is There a Communication Void Between Dentists and the Dental Trade?

Bridging the Communication Barrier

Areas of Mutual Concern Shared by Dentists and the Dental Trade

[Areas of Common Interest Shared by Dentists and the Dental Trade]

Money-saving Tips from a Dental Dealer

What's Your Dental Dealer Done for You Lately?

Nature of Soft Tissue Calcification in Uremia

Adapting OR Techniques to Microneurosurgery

Letter: Cost of Supplies

Guidelines to Assist Hospitals in the Use of Ethylene Oxide

A survey undertaken by the American Society of Hospital Central Service Personnel and a study by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health formed the background for issuance of these guidelines. A listing of the guidelines is presented herein, including explanatory material.

Quality Assurance a Must for Central Service, Expert Says

Physician Office Sterilization: the Next Dealer Opportunity?

Wrappers--a Move for Cost Containment

The Cost Involved

Every Hospital Laundry Requires a Good Quality Assurance Program

Manager Must Train Laundry Staff in Infection Control Procedures

Ground Water Redox Reactions: an Analysis of Equilibrium State Applied to Eh Measurements and Geochemical Modeling

Computer modeling of 611 high-quality analyses of normal ground waters from diverse geographic areas reveals that aqueous oxidation-reduction reactions are generally not at equilibrium. Multiple redox couples present in individual samples yield computed Nernstian Eh (redox potential) values spanning as much as 1000 millivolts. The computed Eh values do not agree with each other, nor do they agree with the single "master" value measured in the field with a platinum electrode. Because of internal disequilibrium, the use of any measured Eh value as input to equilibrium hydrogeochemical computer models will generally yield misleading results for normal ground waters.

Infection Control in the Dental Laboratory

Heat and Heat/pressure Sterilization

Infection Control and Linen Services

Where Have All the Linens Gone?

Granulomas: a Post-operative Problem

At the Crossroad of Cross-infection: AIDS and the Dental Laboratory

The Worldwide Need for Basic Infection Control Procedures

Hydrocolloid Conditioning Units: a Potential Source of Bacterial Cross Contamination

Regulated Dental Infection Control for Dentists and Commercial Laboratories

AIDS and Dentistry: a Complex Challenge

The Worldwide Need for Basic Infection Control Procedures

"Visible' Gloves Halt Office Cross-infection

An Overview of Infection Control in Dental Practice

Although it is not possible to cover all of the ramifications of infection control in prosthodontics, currently available information may be summarized as follows: 1. All dental disciplines must be concerned with the dangers involved in the spread of certain infectious diseases. 2. Prosthodontists and their ancillary personnel may be exposed to certain diseases predominantly found in adult patients, such as hepatitis B and tuberculosis. 3. Dentists must ensure that at least six basic infection control procedures are observed when treating patients. 4. Additional control procedures should be observed in the fabrication and handling of impressions and dental prosthesis. 5. Dental offices and commercial laboratories should work closely together to coordinate control of potential cross-infection between the two disciplines. The control of infectious diseases in prosthodontics is not difficult. It requires the expenditure of a little time, a little money, and most important, a great deal of discipline. The rewards are well worth the additional effort and could even be lifesaving.

Infection Control Answers Issues Surrounding AIDS in Ethical Way

Disposal Tips Help Dump Waste Safely

Laboratory Guidelines and Infection Control

The Costs of Complying with OSHA and the EPA

The Safety Supervisor: a New Auxiliary Specialty for the '90s

The Presence and Identification of Organisms Transmitted to Dental Laboratories

The potential for infection of dental personnel in the office and dental laboratory by transmission of microorganisms between dentists' offices and commercial dental laboratories does exist. Sixty-seven percent of all materials sent from dental offices to dental laboratories sampled in four cities were contaminated with bacteria of varying degrees of opportunistic pathogenicity. Dental offices and dental laboratories need to practice adequate infection control procedures to prevent possible cross-contamination.

Managing Infection Control, Hazards Communication, and Infectious Waste Disposal

Dentistry entered a new era in the 1980s when the development of the AIDS crisis targeted dental facilities as one source of potential cross-infection with pathogenic microorganisms. As governmental agencies "discovered" dentistry, regulations forced practitioners to assume duties not previously required. Also, substantial costs of compliance became a significant consideration to employers. Managing the compliance and cost considerations of governmental regulation requires dedicating personnel, preferably one person, to the management of infection control, hazards communication, and infectious waste disposal tasks. predictably, this person--the safety supervisor--will develop into the new auxiliary specialist of the 1990s.

Role of Disinfectants in Infection Control

The ADA Council on Dental Therapeutics recognizes many commercial products as effective for use in dentistry as disinfectants or sterilants. Some of the products act only as disinfectants and do not sterilize; some have an odor that is unpleasant; others stain or bleach surfaces; and some of the formulations are corrosive to metallic surfaces. Therefore, it is essential that, before purchasing a chemical sterilant/disinfectant or a surface disinfectant for routine use, the practitioner, dental hygienist, and assistant obtain as much detailed information as possible. With sufficient information, subsequent decisions may be used on appropriate efficacy criteria, and the potential for product misuse may be reduced.

Infection Control and Hazards Management. Economics of Regulatory Compliance

Dentistry has become subject to rapid change in office safety, including infection control and hazards management. This change includes increasingly diverse governmental regulations and compliance with such regulations, influencing the very basics of dental practice. As all practitioners are moving toward compliance, costs are increasing substantially. Various sources estimate such increases at between 12.5% and 19%, and it is doubtful whether third-party reimbursement will offset these additional costs. As practitioners plan methods for offsetting the costs of office safety, consideration should be given to providing patients oral and printed information to preclude misinterpretation of the reasons for fee escalation caused by implementation of chemical hazards communication, infection control, and waste disposal programs mandated by OSHA, EPA, and state or other regulatory authorities. The decade of the 1990s may well become the period of meeting the formidable microbiological and regulatory challenges of the 1980s.

"Gray Areas" in the Final OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard

Countering the Concerns: How to Reinforce Dental Practice Safety

Dentists must become more aggressive in anticipating patient concerns and initiating programs to answer current infection control concerns. Specific suggestions to meet these concerns are offered.

The Downside of Infection-control Recommendations, Guidelines and Requirements: Legal Exposure

Remission of High Blood Pressure Reverses Arterial Potassium Channel Alterations

Rat arterial muscle cells show an elevated Ca(2+)-dependent K+ efflux during the established phase of hypertension. This association of enhanced K+ efflux with high arterial pressure implies that changes of in vivo blood pressure can alter the level of K+ channel current in arterial membranes. We directly tested this hypothesis by comparing K+ current density between patch-clamped aortic muscle membranes of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and SHR treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril (3.5 mg/kg per day PO) to normalize blood pressure. Peak macroscopic K+ current was measured during progressive depolarizing steps (10 mV) from -60 and +60 mV in cells dialyzed with pipette solution containing 10(-6) mol/L calcium to amplify Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current. With the use of this approach, maximum K+ current density in aortic muscle membranes of untreated SHR was 2.6-fold higher than in untreated WKY rats (SHR, 31 +/- 3 pA/pF; WKY, 12 +/- 1 pA/pF) and was predominantly blocked by 2 mmol/L tetraethylammonium. K+ current density in SHR aortic membranes was unchanged after 1 week of ramipril therapy, but it was reduced 42% (to 18 +/- 1 pA/pF) after 2 weeks of treatment. Parallel tension-recording studies showed that untreated SHR aortic segments but not aortic segments from WKY rats or ramipril-treated SHR constricted strongly after block of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels by tetraethylammonium. Our findings imply that Ca(2+)-dependent K+ current density in arterial muscle membranes shows a positive correlation with chronic arterial blood pressure levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Digging Deep

Estimating Ground Water Discharge by Hydrograph Separation

Iron Mountain is located in the West Shasta Mining District in California. An investigation of the generation of acid rock drainage and metals loading to Boulder Creek at Iron Mountain was conducted. As part of that investigation, a hydrograph separation technique was used to determine the contribution of ground water to total flow in Boulder Creek. During high-flow storm events in the winter months, peak flow in Boulder Creek can exceed 22.7 m3/sec, and comprises surface runoff, interflow, and ground water discharge. A hydrograph separation technique was used to estimate ground water discharge into Boulder Creek during high-flow conditions. Total ground water discharge to the creek approaches 0.31 m3/sec during the high-flow season. The hydrograph separation technique combined with an extensive field data set provided reasonable estimates of ground water discharge. These estimates are useful for other investigations, such as determining a corresponding metals load from the metal-rich ground water found at Iron Mountain and thus contributing to remedial alternatives.

CYP3A43 Pro(340)Ala Polymorphism and Prostate Cancer Risk in African Americans and Caucasians

The human cytochrome P450 3A subfamily of enzymes is involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones, carcinogens, and many drugs. A cytosine-to-guanine polymorphism in CYP3A43 results in a proline-to-alanine substitution at codon 340. Although the functional significance of this polymorphism is unknown, we postulate that the substitution of proline, an alpha-imino acid, with alanine, an amino acid, could be of biochemical significance. In a case-control study with 490 incident prostate cancer cases (124 African Americans and 358 Caucasians) and 494 controls (167 African Americans and 319 Caucasians), we examined the association between CYP3A43 Pro(340)Ala polymorphism and prostate cancer risk. When all subjects were considered, there was a 3-fold increase in risk of prostate cancer among individuals with the CYP3A43-Ala/Ala genotype (odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.2) compared with those with the CYP3A43-Pro/Pro genotype after adjusting for age, race, and smoking. The prevalence of the polymorphism was significantly higher in African Americans than Caucasians (45% versus 13%). In African Americans, there was a 2.6-fold increase in prostate cancer risk among individuals with the CYP3A43-Ala/Ala genotype (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-7.0) compared with those with the CYP3A43-Pro/Pro genotype. Among Caucasians, the small number of homozygotes precluded computing risk estimates; there were only three individuals with the CYP3A43-Ala/Ala genotype. Our results suggest that the CYP3A43-Pro(340)Ala polymorphism contributes to prostate cancer risk.

A Risk-ranking Methodology for Prioritizing Historic, Potentially Contaminated Mine Sites in British Columbia

The Crown Land Restoration Branch (CLRB) of the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture and Lands is responsible for managing thousands of historic and abandoned mine sites on provincial lands (referred to as Crown Contaminated Sites). For most of these sites, there is limited information available regarding the extent of potential contamination or potential human health and ecological risks. Given the large number of sites, the CLRB sought a system for prioritizing investigation and management efforts among them. We developed a Risk-Ranking Methodology (RRM) to meet this objective, which was implemented in 2007/2008 with an emphasis on historic mine sites because of the significant number of sites and related potential risk. The RRM uses a risk-based Preliminary Site Investigation to gather key information about the sites. The information for each site is analyzed and summarized according to several attributes aimed at characterizing potential health and ecological risks. The summary information includes, but is not limited to, generic comparisons of exposure with effects levels (screening quotients) for human and ecological exposure pathways. The summary information (more than 25 attributes) is then used in a workshop setting to evaluate relative rankings among sites, and also to identify subsequent management actions for each site. Application of the RRM in 2007/2008 was considered successful, because there was confidence in the process, the content and the outputs. A key challenge was keeping the number of attributes to a manageable level. Ranking was based on discussion and consensus, which was a feasible approach given the relatively small number of sites that need to be ranked each year, and facilitated transparency in the ranking process. We do not rule out the future possibility of developing a quantitative function to capture trade-offs among attributes.

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