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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (14)

Articles by Jennifer Patterson in JoVE

 JoVE Chemistry

Rapid Colorimetric Assays to Qualitatively Distinguish RNA and DNA in Biomolecular Samples

1Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia


JoVE 50225

A suite of colorimetric assays is described for rapidly distinguishing protein, RNA, DNA, and reducing sugars in potentially heterogeneous biomolecular samples.

Other articles by Jennifer Patterson on PubMed

Capital Drag: Kinging in Washington, DC

Through individual interviews with three DC drag kings and detailed, first-person accounts of their performances, I examine the role the kings play within the lesbian community at Club Chaos in Dupont Circle. My interviews address how and why the kings started performing, how their drag characters relate to their everyday personalities and experiences as lesbian women, why performing in drag is important to them, why drag performances are important to the women who attend their shows, and how gay men and drag queens have responded to their performances. My descriptions of the kings' performances, the audience response, and the atmosphere they create at the club reflect my viewpoint as a lesbian audience participant who has much appreciation for drag queens and much curiosity about the burgeoning drag king scene. I conclude that drag kings provide a valuable service to lesbian communities by creating a safe, supportive environment in which lesbian performers and audience members can celebrate and explore their relationships to female masculinities and queer sexualities.

Twisted [(R(3)P)PdX] Groups Above Dicarbaborane Ligands: 4-dimethylsulfido-3-iodo-3-triphenylphosphine-closo-3-pallada-1,2-dicarbadodecaborane and 3-dimethylphenylphosphine-3-chloro-4-dimethylsulfido-closo-3-pallada-1,2-dicarbadodecaborane

The structural analyses of [3-(PPh3)-3-I-4-(SMe2)-closo-3,1,2-PdC2B9H10] or [Pd(C4H16B9S)I(C18H15P)], (I), and [3-(PPhMe2)-3-Cl-4-(SMe2)-closo-3,1,2-PdC2B9H10] or [Pd(C4H16B9S)Cl(C8H11P)], (II), show that in comparison with [3-(PR3)2-closo-3,1,2-PdC2B9H11] the presence of the 4-SMe2 group causes the [PdX(PR3)] unit (X = halogen) to twist about an axis passing through the Pd atom and the directly opposite B atom of the carbaborane ligand. The halogen atoms are located almost directly above a C atom in the C2B3 face, and the conformations of the [PdX(PR3)] units above the C2B3 faces are not those predicted from molecular orbital calculations of the closo-3,1,2-PdC2B9 system. The fact that the variation from the predicted conformation is greater in the case of (I) than in (II) may be ascribed to the greater steric interactions induced by the I atom in (I) compared with the Cl atom in (II).

Social Support During Adolescent Pregnancy: Piecing Together a Quilt

To investigate pregnant adolescents' experiences of receiving support, including variations by age.

Nectin-2-mediated Entry of a Syncytial Strain of Herpes Simplex Virus Via PH-independent Fusion with the Plasma Membrane of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) can utilize multiple pathways to enter host cells. The factors that determine which route is taken are not clear. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that express glycoprotein D (gD)-binding receptors are model cells that support a pH-dependent, endocytic entry pathway for all HSV strains tested to date. Fusion-from-without (FFWO) is the induction of target cell fusion by addition of intact virions to cell monolayers in the absence of viral protein expression. The receptor requirements for HSV-induced FFWO are not known. We used the syncytial HSV-1 strain ANG path as a tool to evaluate the complex interplay between receptor usage, membrane fusion, and selection of entry pathway.

Effect of Biofilm Phenotype on Resistance of Gardnerella Vaginalis to Hydrogen Peroxide and Lactic Acid

Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal disorder worldwide. Certain lactobacilli produce H2O2 and lactic acid, which normally suppress growth of anaerobes; however, in bacterial vaginosis, Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobes proliferate, and the number of lactobacilli decreases. G. vaginalis colonizes the vaginal epithelium as a biofilm, which likely plays a role in colonization and relapsing infection.

Thumb Size and Appearance Following Reconstruction of Radial Polydactyly

To evaluate thumb size, shape, and appearance after surgical correction of radial polydactyly.

In Situ Characterization of the Degradation of PLGA Microspheres in Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels by Optical Coherence Tomography

The polymeric implant material poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) degrades by a process of bulk degradation, which allows it to be used for the controlled release of therapeutic molecules from implants and microspheres. The temporal characterization of PLGA microsphere degradation has been limited by the need to destructively monitor the samples at each time point. In this study, a noninvasive imaging technology, optical coherence tomography (OCT), was utilized to characterize the in situ degradation of PLGA microspheres suspended within photo-crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels. Microspheres with differing degradation rates were loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a marker protein, and temporal release of protein was correlated with morphological changes observed during 3-D OCT imaging. As proof-of-principle, a microsphere-loaded hydrogel scaffold was implanted in a modified rat calvarial critical size defect model and imaged using OCT. This animal model presents the opportunity to monitor microsphere degradation over time in living animals.

Analysis of Adherence, Biofilm Formation and Cytotoxicity Suggests a Greater Virulence Potential of Gardnerella Vaginalis Relative to Other Bacterial-vaginosis-associated Anaerobes

Worldwide, bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder in women of childbearing age. BV is characterized by a dramatic shift in the vaginal microflora, involving a relative decrease in lactobacilli, and a proliferation of anaerobes. In most cases of BV, the predominant bacterial species found is Gardnerella vaginalis. However, pure cultures of G. vaginalis do not always result in BV, and asymptomatic women are sometimes colonized with low numbers of G. vaginalis. Thus, there is controversy about whether G. vaginalis is an opportunistic pathogen and the causative agent of many cases of BV, or whether BV is a polymicrobial condition caused by the collective effects of an altered microbial flora. Recent studies of the biofilm-forming potential and cytotoxic activity of G. vaginalis have renewed interest in the virulence potential of this organism. In an effort to tease apart the aetiology of this disorder, we utilized in vitro assays to compare three virulence properties of G. vaginalis relative to other BV-associated anaerobes. We designed a viable assay to analyse bacterial adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, we compared biofilm-producing capacities, and we assessed cytotoxic activity. Of the BV-associated anaerobes tested, only G. vaginalis demonstrated all three virulence properties combined. This study suggests that G. vaginalis is more virulent than other BV-associated anaerobes, and that many of the bacterial species frequently isolated from BV may be relatively avirulent opportunists that colonize the vagina after G. vaginalis has initiated an infection.

Drawing the Line Between Commensal and Pathogenic Gardnerella Vaginalis Through Genome Analysis and Virulence Studies

Worldwide, bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal disorder. It is associated with risk for preterm birth and HIV infection. The etiology of the condition has been debated for nearly half a century and the lack of knowledge about its cause and progression has stymied efforts to improve therapy and prevention. Gardnerella vaginalis was originally identified as the causative agent, but subsequent findings that it is commonly isolated from seemingly healthy women cast doubt on this claim. Recent studies shedding light on the virulence properties of G. vaginalis, however, have drawn the species back into the spotlight.

Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels with Controlled Degradation Properties for Oriented Bone Regeneration

Non-healing fractures can result from trauma, disease, or age-related bone loss. While many treatments focus on restoring bone volume, few try to recapitulate bone organization. However, the native architecture of bone is optimized to provide its necessary mechanical properties. Hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogel scaffold systems with tunable degradation properties were developed for the controlled delivery of osteoinductive and angiogenic growth factors, thus affecting the quantity and quality of regenerated tissue. HA hydrogels were designed to degrade at fast, intermediate, and slow rates due to hydrolysis and further provided controlled release of cationic proteins due to electrostatic interactions. Scaffolds delivering bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) were evaluated in a rat calvarial bone critical size defect model. BMP-2 delivery from the HA hydrogels had a clear osteoinductive effect in vivo and, for all hydrogel types, BMP-2 delivery resulted in significant mineralization compared to control hydrogels. The temporal progression of this effect could be modulated by altering the degradation rate of the scaffold. All three degradation rates tested resulted in similar amounts of mineral formation at the latest (six week) time point examined. Interestingly, however, the fastest and slowest degrading scaffolds seemed to result in more organized bone than the intermediate degrading scaffold, which was designed to degrade in 6-8 weeks to match the healing time. Additionally, healing could be enhanced by co-delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor along with BMP-2.

Dissimilarity in the Occurrence of Bifidobacteriaceae in Vaginal and Perianal Microbiota in Women with Bacterial Vaginosis

Recent data point at the similarity between the perianal and vaginal microflora in terms of Lactobacillus species involved. Bacterial vaginosis, the most common perturbation of the vaginal microflora involving primarily overgrowth of Gardnerella vaginalis, has also been suggested to involve a recto-vaginal pathway. We addressed this issue with regard to bacteria of the Bifidobacteriaceae family. In particular, we investigated the putative concordance of the presence of G. vaginalis and a series of Bifidobacteria between the perianal and vaginal microflora in 10 patients with bacterial vaginosis through multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of desquamated epithelial cells. G. vaginalis was found in a biofilm mode of growth at the perianal and vaginal sites. In most women at least one of the following species was detected perianally: Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breves, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. At the vaginal site, none of these Bifidobacteria was found. We conclude that bacterial vaginosis does not occur as a result of simple growth per continuum of perianal bacteria. Only some species originating from the intestinal tract do display pronounced vaginotropism, like G. vaginalis, whereas many other species do not.

The Effects of Nurse to Patient Ratios

This article examines the literature on nurse to patient ratios to establish the impact on both patients and staff of understaffing on hospital wards. It discusses theories on ideal staff to patient ratios and the resource implications of these, and recommends a number of dynamic and innovative ways to allocate staff.

CT Evaluation of Extra-articular Glenoid Neck Fractures: Does the Glenoid Medialize or Does the Scapula Lateralize?

Medial translation of the glenoid is frequently described as the main mode of displacement after glenoid neck fracture. Indeed, plain radiographs typically show the glenoid medialized relative to the scapular body. However, whether this truly represents medialization of the glenoid relative to the axial skeleton or lateralization of the scapular body remains unclear. The goal of this investigation was to assess the relationship between the glenoid, the scapular body, and the axial skeleton in patients with glenoid neck fractures using computed tomographic data analysis with the contralateral shoulder serving as an internal control.

The Rickettsial OmpB β-peptide of Rickettsia Conorii is Sufficient to Facilitate Factor H-mediated Serum Resistance

Pathogenic species of the spotted fever group Rickettsia are subjected to repeated exposures to the host complement system through cyclic infections of mammalian and tick hosts. The serum complement machinery is a formidable obstacle for bacteria to overcome if they endeavor to endure this endozoonotic cycle. We have previously demonstrated that that the etiologic agent of Mediterranean spotted fever, Rickettsia conorii, is susceptible to complement-mediated killing only in the presence of specific monoclonal antibodies. We have also shown that in the absence of particular neutralizing antibody, R. conorii is resistant to the effects of serum complement. We therefore hypothesized that the interactions between fluid-phase complement regulators and conserved rickettsial outer membrane-associated proteins are critical to mediate serum resistance. We demonstrate here that R. conorii specifically interacts with the soluble host complement inhibitor, factor H. Depletion of factor H from normal human serum renders R. conorii more susceptible to C3 and membrane attack complex deposition and to complement-mediated killing. We identified the autotransporter protein rickettsial OmpB (rOmpB) as a factor H ligand and further demonstrate that the rOmpB β-peptide is sufficient to mediate resistance to the bactericidal properties of human serum. Taken together, these data reveal an additional function for the highly conserved rickettsial surface cell antigen, rOmpB, and suggest that the ability to evade complement-mediated clearance from the hematogenous circulation is a novel virulence attribute for this class of pathogens.

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