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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Developmental Biology
- Developmental Biology
- Developmental Biology
- Cancer Research
- Cancer Treatment and Research
- Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
- Journal of the National Cancer Institute
- Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
- Development (Cambridge, England)
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Articles by Jennifer Selever in JoVE
Быстрое подход к высоким разрешением флуоресценции в Semi-ломтики толщиной мозга
Jennifer Selever1, Jian-Qiang Kong2, Benjamin R. Arenkiel3,4
1Department of Molecular & Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), 2Precisionary Instruments Inc., 3Departments of Molecular & Human Genetics and Neuroscience, Baylor College of Medicine (BCM), 4Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital
Здесь мы опишем быстрый и простой способ изображения флуоресцентно меченых клеток в полу-ломтики толщиной мозга. Фиксируя, нарезка, и оптически очистки ткани мозга мы опишем, как стандартные epifluorescent или конфокальной микроскопии могут быть использованы для визуализации отдельных клеток и нейронных сетей в нетронутой нервной ткани.
Other articles by Jennifer Selever on PubMed
Genetic Dissection of Pitx2 in Craniofacial Development Uncovers New Functions in Branchial Arch Morphogenesis, Late Aspects of Tooth Morphogenesis and Cell Migration
Development (Cambridge, England). Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14623826
Pitx2, a paired-related homeobox gene that encodes multiple isoforms, is the gene mutated in the haploinsufficient Rieger Syndrome type 1 that includes dental, ocular and abdominal wall anomalies as cardinal features. Previous analysis of the craniofacial phenotype of Pitx2-null mice revealed that Pitx2 was both a positive regulator of Fgf8 and a repressor of Bmp4-signaling, suggesting that Pitx2 may function as a coordinator of craniofacial signaling pathways. We show that Pitx2 isoforms have interchangeable functions in branchial arches and that Pitx2 target pathways respond to small changes in total Pitx2 dose. Analysis of Pitx2 allelic combinations that encode varying levels of Pitx2 showed that repression of Bmp signaling requires high Pitx2 while maintenance of Fgf8 signaling requires only low Pitx2. Fate-mapping studies with a Pitx2 cre recombinase knock in allele revealed that Pitx2 daughter cells are migratory and move aberrantly in the craniofacial region of Pitx2 mutant embryos. Our data reveal that Pitx2 function depends on total Pitx2 dose and rule out the possibility that the differential sensitivity of target pathways was a consequence of isoform target specificity. Moreover, our results uncover a new function of Pitx2 in regulation of cell motility in craniofacial development.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15070745
The Bmp4 signaling molecule is expressed in ventral splanchnic and branchial-arch mesoderm and outflow-tract (OFT) myocardium, suggesting a role for Bmp4 in OFT development. Inactivation of Bmp4 in the caudal branchial arch and splanchnic mesoderm and OFT myocardium by using a conditional null allele of Bmp4 and the Nkx2.5cre recombinase allele resulted in abnormal morphogenesis of branchial-arch arteries (BAAs) and defective OFT septation. Expression of aortic-sac myocardial markers was reduced and expression of the sm22LacZ transgene, a smooth-muscle marker, was attenuated in BAAs and conotruncus of Nkx2.5cre; Bmp4 conditional mutants. Moreover, we found tissue-specific functions for Bmp4 in the regulation of cellular proliferation and apoptosis. We also demonstrate a strong genetic interaction between Bmp4 and Bmp7 in OFT development. Our findings uncover a previously uncharacterized function for Bmp4 in vascular remodeling of the BAAs, and they show definitively that Bmp4, in cooperation with Bmp7, has a central role in OFT septation.
Developmental Biology. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15581864
In the developing limb, Bmp4 is expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) and underlying mesoderm. Insight into the function of Bmp4 in limb development has been hampered by the early embryonic lethality of Bmp4 null embryos. We directly investigated Bmp4 using a conditional null allele of Bmp4 and the Prx1(cre) transgene to inactivate Bmp4 in limb bud mesoderm. The limb bud mesoderm of Prx1(cre);Bmp4 mutants was defective in production of Bmp4 but still competent to respond to Bmp signaling. Prx1(cre);Bmp4 mutant embryos had defective digit patterning including hindlimb preaxial polydactyly with posterior digit transformations. The Prx1(cre);Bmp4 mutants also had postaxial polydactyly with digit five duplications. Bmp4 mutant limbs had delayed induction and maturation of the AER that resulted in expanded Shh signaling. Moreover, the AER persisted longer in the Bmp4 mutant limb buds exposing the forming digits to prolonged Fgf8 signaling. Our data show that Bmp4 in limb mesoderm regulates AER induction and maturation and implicate signaling from the AER in regulation of digit number and identity.
Developmental Biology. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15936012
Mandibular development is regulated by an interplay between a specified branchial arch ectoderm and a plastic mesenchyme. Moreover, signaling from the pharyngeal endoderm has been shown to be important for mandibular morphogenesis. To gain insight into the mechanisms regulating mandibular pattern, it is important to investigate the function of the epithelial-derived signals. Bmp4 is expressed in both distal, mandibular arch ectoderm and pharyngeal endoderm. Here, we show that deletion of Bmp4 in the mandibular ectoderm and to a lesser extent in the pharyngeal endoderm, resulted in severe defects in mandibular development. Furthermore, our data uncovered different Bmp4 thresholds for expression of the Bmp-dependent Msx1 and Msx2 genes in mandibular mesenchyme. We also found that ectodermal Fgf8 expression was both activated and repressed by Bmp4 in a dosage-dependent fashion indicating a novel Bmp4 function in threshold-specific regulation of Fgf8 transcription. Lastly, we provide evidence that Prx homeobox genes repress expression of an Msx2 transgene, previously shown to be Bmp4-responsive, revealing a mechanism for differential regulation of Msx1 and Msx2 by Bmp signaling.
Developmental Biology. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16630606
The mesenchyme of the developing vertebrate limb responds to inductive signals, giving rise to skeletal elements that define limb shape and size. Several signals emanate from the limb ectoderm and in particular from the specialized epithelium of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), including three members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family of signaling molecules, BMP2, BMP4 and BMP7. Using the Cre/loxP system in mice, we rendered limb bud mesenchyme insensitive to BMP signals through the type I receptor, BMPR-IA. Conditional mutants had shortened limbs and almost complete agenesis of the autopod because of reduced cell proliferation. Reduced expression of downstream BMP signaling targets, Msx1, Msx2 and gremlin in the distal mesenchyme (progress zone) correlated with decreased levels of cyclin D1 and Wnt5a. Ectopic anterior activation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling and Hox expression revealed alterations in anterior-posterior (AP) patterning. Abnormal localization of Lmx1b-expressing cells in the ventral mesenchyme, along with histological alterations and an abnormal melanization pattern of the limb, indicate altered dorsal-ventral (DV) boundaries. These findings suggest that signaling through BMPR-IA in limb mesenchyme is essential for distal outgrowth and also influences AP and DV patterning.
Expression of the K303R Estrogen Receptor-alpha Breast Cancer Mutation Induces Resistance to an Aromatase Inhibitor Via Addiction to the PI3K/Akt Kinase Pathway
Cancer Research. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19487288
Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are rapidly becoming the first choice for hormonal treatment of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha)-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. However, de novo and acquired resistance frequently occurs. We have previously identified a lysine to arginine transition at residue 303 (K303R) in ERalpha in premalignant breast lesions and invasive breast cancers, which confers estrogen hypersensitivity and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Thus, we questioned whether resistance to AIs could arise in breast cancer cells expressing the ERalpha mutation. As preclinical models to directly test this possibility, we generated K303R-overexpressing MCF-7 cells stably transfected with an aromatase expression vector. Cells were stimulated with the aromatase substrate, androstenedione, with or without the AI anastrozole (Ana). We found that Ana decreased androstenedione-stimulated growth of wild-type cells, whereas K303R-expressing cells were resistant to the inhibitory effect of Ana on growth. We propose that a mechanism of resistance involves an increased binding between the mutant receptor and the p85alpha regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K), leading to increased PI3K activity and activation of protein kinase B/Akt survival pathways. Inhibition of the selective "addiction" to the PI3K/Akt pathway reversed AI resistance associated with expression of the mutant receptor. Our findings suggest that the K303R ERalpha mutation might be a new predictive marker of response to AIs in mutation-positive breast tumors, and that targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway may be a useful strategy for treating patients with tumors resistant to hormone therapy.
Cancer Treatment and Research. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 21461833
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19533338
Although the androgen receptor (AR) is a known clinical target in prostate cancer, little is known about its possible role in breast cancer. We have investigated the role of AR expression in human breast cancer in response to treatment with the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Resistance to tamoxifen is a major problem in treating women with breast cancer. By gene expression profiling, we found elevated AR and reduced estrogen receptor (ER) alpha mRNA in tamoxifen-resistant tumors. Exogenous overexpression of AR rendered ERalpha-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells resistant to the growth-inhibitory effects of tamoxifen in anchorage-independent growth assays and in xenograft studies in athymic nude mice. AR-overexpressing cells remained sensitive to growth stimulation with dihydrotestosterone. Treatment with the AR antagonist Casodex (bicalutamide) reversed this resistance, demonstrating the involvement of AR signaling in tamoxifen resistance. In AR-overexpressing cells, tamoxifen induced transcriptional activation by ERalpha that could be blocked by Casodex, suggesting that AR overexpression enhances tamoxifen's agonistic properties. Our data suggest a role for AR overexpression as a novel mechanism of hormone resistance, so that AR may offer a new clinical therapeutic target in human breast cancers.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21447808
Estrogen receptor (ER) α is a successful therapeutic target in breast cancer, but patients eventually develop resistance to antiestrogens such as tamoxifen.
Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21878538
Tamoxifen (Tam) is the most prescribed hormonal agent for treatment of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive breast cancer patients. Using microarray analysis, we observed that metastatic breast tumors resistant to Tam therapy had elevated levels of Dicer.
Bmp Signaling Regulates a Dose-dependent Transcriptional Program to Control Facial Skeletal Development
Development (Cambridge, England). Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22219353
We performed an in depth analysis of Bmp4, a critical regulator of development, disease, and evolution, in cranial neural crest (CNC). Conditional Bmp4 overexpression, using a tetracycline-regulated Bmp4 gain-of-function allele, resulted in facial skeletal changes that were most dramatic after an E10.5 Bmp4 induction. Expression profiling uncovered a signature of Bmp4-induced genes (BIG) composed predominantly of transcriptional regulators that control self-renewal, osteoblast differentiation and negative Bmp autoregulation. The complimentary experiment, CNC inactivation of Bmp2, Bmp4 and Bmp7, resulted in complete or partial loss of multiple CNC-derived skeletal elements, revealing a crucial requirement for Bmp signaling in membranous bone and cartilage development. Importantly, the BIG signature was reduced in Bmp loss-of-function mutants, indicating Bmp-regulated target genes are modulated by Bmp dose. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed a subset of the BIG signature, including Satb2, Smad6, Hand1, Gadd45γ and Gata3, that was bound by Smad1/5 in the developing mandible, revealing direct Smad-mediated regulation. These data support the hypothesis that Bmp signaling regulates craniofacial skeletal development by balancing self-renewal and differentiation pathways in CNC progenitors.