Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (14)
- Molecules and Cells
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Molecules and Cells
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
- Nature Protocols
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- Developmental Neurobiology
- PloS One
- Molecules and Cells
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Nature Medicine
Articles by Jin Kwon Jeong in JoVE
Double Fluorescence in situ Hybridization in Fresh Brain Sections
Jin Kwon Jeong1, Zhuoxun Chen1, Liisa A. Tremere1, Raphael Pinaud1,2
1Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, 2Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester
This protocol involves a non-radioactive in-situ hybridization procedure that enables the simultaneous identification of two transcript species, at a single cell resolution, in thin sections of the vertebrate brain.
Other articles by Jin Kwon Jeong on PubMed
Molecules and Cells. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16951547
Munc18, a mammalian homolog of C. elegans Unc, is essential for neurotransmitter release. The aim of this study was to identify estrogen-dependent expression of Munc18-1 and its role in the regulation of glutamate release for puberty onset. Hypothalamic munc18-1 mRNA levels were significantly increased by estrogen treatment in ovariectomized, immature female rats. During pubertal development, the munc18-1 mRNA levels dramatically increased between the juvenile period and the anestrous phase of puberty. Intracerebroventricular administration of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against munc18-1 mRNA significantly decreased glutamate release and delayed the day of puberty onset. These results suggest that Munc18-1, expressed in an estrogen-dependent manner, plays an important role in the onset of female puberty via the regulation of glutamate release.
TTF-1, a Homeodomain-containing Transcription Factor, Regulates Feeding Behavior in the Rat Hypothalamus
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16970909
TTF-1 is a member of the NKx family of homeodomain genes, and is required for morphogenesis and fetal diencephalon development. Our previous studies have shown that TTF-1 expression is maintained in some regions of the postnatal rat brain and transactivates the gene expression of several neuropeptides. In this study, a potential role for TTF-1 in the regulation of feeding behavior was identified. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that TTF-1 is present in several hypothalamic nuclei of the adult rat brain involved in the control of feeding behavior. Food deprivation for two days markedly increased the hypothalamic levels of TTF-1 mRNA and protein. Intracerebroventricular administration of an antisense TTF-1 oligodeoxynucleotide significantly decreased TTF-1 protein abundance in the hypothalamus. This TTF-1 decrease was followed by a significant decrease in neuropeptide Y mRNA content and an increase in proopiomelanocortin mRNA content, and in turn resulted in a decrease of the animal's food intake and body weight. These results suggest a novel role for TTF-1 in the regulation of feeding behavior in the rat hypothalamus.
Journal of Neurochemistry. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18513367
Formation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the pre-optic area (SDN-POA) in the rat hypothalamus shows a sexually differential development of neurons. Volume of the SDN-POA in males is much bigger than that in females which is because of a neuroprotective effect of estradiol converted from circulating testosterone during a critical period of brain development. We found that neural epidermal growth factor-like like-2 (NELL2), a neural tissue-enriched protein, is a potential downstream target of estrogen. In this study, we examined a possible role of NELL2 in the development of the SDN-POA and in the normalcy of sexual behavior in the male rats. NELL2 was expressed and co-localized with estrogen receptor alpha in the SDN-POA. A blockade of NELL2 synthesis in the brain during postnatal day 0 (d0) to d4 by an intracerebroventricular injection of an antisense NELL2 oligodeoxynucleotide, resulted in a decrease in volume of the SDN-POA in males. Interestingly, it reduced some components of the male sexual behavior such as mounting and intromission, but not the sexual partner preference in adulthood. In vitro study using the hippocampal neuroprecursor HiB5 cells showed that NELL2 has a protective effect from a cell death condition. These data suggest that a relevant expression of NELL2 in the neonatal brain is important for the estrogen-induced normal development of the SDN-POA and the normalcy of sexual behavior in male rats.
Molecules and Cells. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18677093
NELL2, a neural tissue-enriched protein, is produced in the embryo, and postembryonically in the mammalian brain, with a broad distribution. Although its synthesis is required for neuronal differentiation in chicks, not much is known about its function in the adult mammalian brain. We investigated the distribution of NELL2 in various regions of the adult rat brain to study its potential functions in brain physiology. Consistent with previous reports, NELL2-immunoreactivity (ir) was found in the cytoplasm of neurons, but not in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive glial cells. The highest levels of NELL2 were detected in the hippocampus and the cerebellum. Interestingly, in the cerebellar cortex NELL2 was observed only in the GABAergic Purkinje cells not in the excitatory granular cells. In contrast, it was found mainly in the hippocampal dentate gyrus and pyramidal cell layer that contains mainly glutamatergic neurons. In the dentate gyrus, NELL2 was not detected in the GFAP-positive neural precursor cells, but was generally present in mature neurons of the subgranular zone, suggesting a role in this region restricted to mature neurons.
Estradiol Shapes Auditory Processing in the Adult Brain by Regulating Inhibitory Transmission and Plasticity-associated Gene Expression
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19420261
Estradiol impacts a wide variety of brain processes, including sex differentiation, mood, and learning. Here we show that estradiol regulates auditory processing of acoustic signals in the vertebrate brain, more specifically in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), the songbird analog of the mammalian auditory association cortex. Multielectrode recordings coupled with local pharmacological manipulations in awake animals reveal that both exogenous and locally generated estradiol increase auditory-evoked activity in NCM. This enhancement in neuronal responses is mediated by suppression of local inhibitory transmission. Surprisingly, we also found that estradiol is both necessary and sufficient for the induction of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent genes thought to be required for synaptic plasticity and memorization of birdsong. Specifically, we show that local blockade of estrogen receptors or aromatase activity in awake birds decrease song-induced MAPK-dependent gene expression. Infusions of estradiol in acoustically isolated birds induce transcriptional activation of these genes to levels comparable with song-stimulated animals. Our results reveal acute and rapid nongenomic functions for estradiol in central auditory physiology and suggest that such roles may be ubiquitously expressed across sensory systems.
Journal of Experimental Neuroscience. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20090868
Recent studies on the anatomical and functional organization of GABAergic networks in central auditory circuits of the zebra finch have highlighted the strong impact of inhibitory mechanisms on both the central encoding and processing of acoustic information in a vocal learning species. Most of this work has focused on the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), a forebrain area postulated to be the songbird analogue of the mammalian auditory association cortex. NCM houses neurons with selective responses to conspecific songs and is a site thought to house auditory memories required for vocal learning and, likely, individual identification. Here we review our recent work on the anatomical distribution of GABAergic cells in NCM, their engagement in response to song and the roles for inhibitory transmission in the physiology of NCM at rest and during the processing of natural communication signals. GABAergic cells are highly abundant in the songbird auditory forebrain and account for nearly half of the overall neuronal population in NCM with a large fraction of these neurons activated by song in freely-behaving animals. GABAergic synapses provide considerable local, tonic inhibition to NCM neurons at rest and, during sound processing, may contain the spread of excitation away from un-activated or quiescent parts of the network. Finally, we review our work showing that GABA(A)-mediated inhibition directly regulates the temporal organization of song-driven responses in awake songbirds, and appears to enhance the reliability of auditory encoding in NCM.
Bilateral Multielectrode Neurophysiological Recordings Coupled to Local Pharmacology in Awake Songbirds
Nature Protocols. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20134418
Here we describe a protocol for bilateral multielectrode neurophysiological recordings during intracerebral pharmacological manipulations in awake songbirds. This protocol encompasses fitting adult animals with head-posts and recording chambers, and acclimating them to periods of restraint. The adaptation period is followed by bilateral penetrations of multiple electrodes to obtain acute, sensory-driven neurophysiological responses before versus during the application of pharmacological agents of interest. These local manipulations are achieved by simultaneous and restricted drug infusions carried out independently for each hemisphere. We have used this protocol to elucidate how neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine systems shape the auditory and perceptual processing of natural, learned communication signals. However, this protocol can be used to explore the neurochemical basis of sensory processing in other small vertebrates. Representative results and troubleshooting of key steps of this protocol are presented. Following the animal's recovery from head-post and recording chamber implantation surgery, the length of the procedure is 2 d.
Organization and Development of Zebra Finch HVC and ParaHVC Based on Expression of ZRalDH, an Enzyme Associated with Retinoic Acid Production
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21120932
The zRalDH gene encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase associated with the conversion of retinaldehyde (the main vitamin A metabolite) into retinoic acid and its expression is highly enriched in the song control system of adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Within song control nucleus HVC, zRalDH is specifically expressed in the neurons that project to area X of the striatum. It is also expressed in paraHVC, commonly considered a medial extension of HVC that is closely associated with auditory areas in the caudomedial telencephalon. Here we used in situ hybridization to generate a detailed analysis of HVC and paraHVC based on expression of zRalDH for adult zebra finches of both sexes and for males during the song-learning period. We demonstrate that the distribution of zRalDH-positive cells can be used for accurate assessments of HVC and paraHVC in adult and juvenile males. We describe marked developmental changes in the numbers of zRalDH-expressing cells in HVC and paraHVC, reaching a peak at day 50 posthatch, an effect potentially due to dynamic changes in the population of X-projecting cells in HVC. We also show that zRalDH-expressing cells in adult females, although much less numerous than in males, have a surprisingly broad distribution along the medial-to-lateral extent of HVC, but are lacking where paraHVC is found in adult males. Our study thus contributes to our understanding of the nuclear organization of the song system and the dynamics of its developmental changes during the song-learning period.
Expression and Rapid Experience-dependent Regulation of Type-A GABAergic Receptors in the Songbird Auditory Forebrain
Developmental Neurobiology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21542134
GABAergic transmission influences sensory processing and experience-dependent plasticity in the adult brain. Little is known about the functional organization of inhibitory circuits in the auditory forebrain of songbirds, a robust model extensively used in the study of central auditory processing of behaviorally relevant communication signals. In particular, no information is currently available on the expression and organization of GABAA receptor-expressing neurons. Here, we studied the distribution and regulation of GABAA receptors in the songbird auditory forebrain, with a specific focus on α5, a subunit implicated in tonic inhibition and sensory learning. We obtained a zebra finch cDNA that encodes the α5-subunit (GABRA5) and carried out a detailed analysis of its expression via in situ hybridization. GABRA5 was highly expressed in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), caudomedial mesopallium, and field L2. Using double fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrate that a large fraction of GABRA5-expressing neurons is engaged by auditory experience, as revealed by the song-induced expression of the activity-dependent gene zenk. Remarkably, we also found that α5 expression is rapidly regulated by sensory stimulation: 30 min of conspecific song playbacks significantly increase the number of GABRA5-expressing neurons in NCM, but not in other auditory areas. This effect is selective for α5, but not γ2 transcripts. Our results suggest that α5-containing GABAA receptors likely play a key role in central auditory processing and may contribute to the experience-dependent plasticity underlying auditory learning.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21647225
The classic female estrogen, 17β-estradiol (E2), has been repeatedly shown to affect the perceptual processing of visual cues. Although gonadal E2 has often been thought to influence these processes, the possibility that central visual processing may be modulated by brain-generated hormone has not been explored. Here we show that estrogen-associated circuits are highly prevalent in the mouse primary visual cortex (V1). Specifically, we cloned aromatase, a marker for estrogen-producing neurons, and the classic estrogen receptors (ERs) ERα and ERβ, as markers for estrogen-responsive neurons, and conducted a detailed expression analysis via in-situ hybridization. We found that both monocular and binocular V1 are highly enriched in aromatase- and ER-positive neurons, indicating that V1 is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens. Using double-fluorescence in-situ hybridization, we reveal the neurochemical identity of estrogen-producing and -sensitive cells in V1, and demonstrate that they constitute a heterogeneous neuronal population. We further show that visual experience engages a large population of aromatase-positive neurons and, to a lesser extent, ER-expressing neurons, suggesting that E2 levels may be locally regulated by visual input in V1. Interestingly, acute episodes of visual experience do not affect the density or distribution of estrogen-associated circuits. Finally, we show that adult mice dark-reared from birth also exhibit normal distribution of aromatase and ERs throughout V1, suggesting that the implementation and maintenance of estrogen-associated circuits is independent of visual experience. Our findings demonstrate that the adult V1 is a site of production and sensitivity to estrogens, and suggest that locally-produced E2 may shape visual cortical processing.
Regulation of the Female Rat Estrous Cycle by a Neural Cell-specific Epidermal Growth Factor-like Repeat Domain Containing Protein, NELL2
Molecules and Cells. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21643849
NELL2, a protein containing epidermal growth factor-like repeat domains, is predominantly expressed in the nervous system. In the mammalian brain, NELL2 expression is mostly neuronal. Previously we found that NELL2 is involved in the onset of female puberty by regulating the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and in normal male sexual behavior by controlling the development of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (POA). In this study we investigated the effect of NELL2 on the female rat estrous cycle. NELL2 expression in the POA was highest during the proestrous phase. NELL2 mRNA levels in the POA were increased by estrogen treatment in ovariectomized female rats. Blocking NELL2 synthesis in the female rat hypothalamus decreased the expression of kisspeptin 1, an important regulator of the GnRH neuronal apparatus, and resulted in disruption of the estrous cycle at the diestrous phase. These results indicate that NELL2 is involved in the maintenance of the normal female reproductive cycle in mammals.
Neurochemical Organization and Experience-dependent Activation of Estrogen-associated Circuits in the Songbird Auditory Forebrain
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21707790
The classic steroid hormone estradiol is rapidly produced by central auditory neurons in the songbird brain and instantaneously modulates auditory coding to enhance the neural and behavioral discrimination of acoustic signals. Although recent advances highlight novel roles for estradiol in the regulation of central auditory processing, current knowledge on the functional and neurochemical organization of estrogen-associated circuits, as well as the impact of sensory experience in these auditory forebrain networks, remains very limited. Here we show that both estrogen-producing and -sensitive neurons are highly expressed in the caudomedial nidopallium (NCM), the zebra finch analog of the mammalian auditory association cortex, but not other auditory forebrain areas. We further demonstrate that auditory experience primarily engages estrogen-producing, and to a lesser extent, estrogen-responsive neurons in NCM, that these neuronal populations moderately overlap and that acute episodes of sensory experience do not quantitatively affect these circuits. Finally, we show that whereas estrogen-producing cells are neurochemically heterogeneous, estrogen-sensitive neurons are primarily glutamatergic. These findings reveal the neurochemical and functional organization of estrogen-associated circuits in the auditory forebrain, demonstrate their activation and stability in response to sensory experience in behaving animals, and highlight estrogenic circuits as fundamental components of central networks supporting sensory processing.
Peroxisome Proliferation-associated Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Sets Melanocortin Tone and Feeding in Diet-induced Obesity
Nature Medicine. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21873987
Previous studies have proposed roles for hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the modulation of circuit activity of the melanocortin system. Here we show that suppression of ROS diminishes pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) cell activation and promotes the activity of neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-co-producing (NPY/AgRP) neurons and feeding, whereas ROS-activates POMC neurons and reduces feeding. The levels of ROS in POMC neurons were positively correlated with those of leptin in lean and ob/ob mice, a relationship that was diminished in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. High-fat feeding resulted in proliferation of peroxisomes and elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) mRNA levels within the hypothalamus. The proliferation of peroxisomes in POMC neurons induced by the PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone decreased ROS levels and increased food intake in lean mice on high-fat diet. Conversely, the suppression of peroxisome proliferation by the PPAR antagonist GW9662 increased ROS concentrations and c-fos expression in POMC neurons. Also, it reversed high-fat feeding-triggered elevated NPY/AgRP and low POMC neuronal firing, and resulted in decreased feeding of DIO mice. Finally, central administration of ROS alone increased c-fos and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pStat3) expression in POMC neurons and reduced feeding of DIO mice. These observations unmask a previously unknown hypothalamic cellular process associated with peroxisomes and ROS in the central regulation of energy metabolism in states of leptin resistance.
Endocrinology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22202165
Hypothalamic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) plays a central role in regulating energy uptake and expenditure. Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP), a protease expressed in the hypothalamus, is responsible for the degradation of α-MSH. PRCP null animals (PRCP(gt/gt) mice) display elevated α-MSH in the hypothalamus, lower body weight, and are protected from diet induced obesity. Here, we report that PRCP(gt/gt) mice have a significant decrease in fat mass, although an increase in lean mass was also observed. In agreement with low fat accumulation, reduced leptin levels were found. Consistent with the effect of α-MSH on energy metabolism, PRCP(gt/gt) mice had increased energy expenditure with elevated circulating thyroid hormone levels and brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein 1 mRNA levels compared with control mice when exposed to regular diet. TRH mRNA levels in the PVN were significantly higher in fed PRCP(gt/gt) animals compared with fed wild-type controls. Fasting significantly decreased TRH mRNA levels in both PRCP(gt/gt) and wild-type (WT) mice. However, TRH mRNA levels in fasted PRCP(gt/gt) animals were significantly higher than those of fasted WT mice. Refeeding analysis after fasting showed a reduced food intake in PRCP(gt/gt) compared with WT mice. Finally, TRH mRNA levels in T(3)-treated hypothyroid PRCP(gt/gt) mice showed a non significant reduction compared with those of hypothyroid PRCP(gt/gt) mice, supporting the impairment of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis in PRCP(gt/gt) mice. All together, these data confirm that PRCP plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism.