Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
This translation into Hindi was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Jocelyn LeBlanc in JoVE
वयस्क Zebrafish में पूरे गुर्दे मज्जा का प्रत्यारोपण
Jocelyn LeBlanc, Teresa Venezia Bowman, Leonard Zon
Children's Hospital, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard Medical School
Other articles by Jocelyn LeBlanc on PubMed
Duplicate VegfA Genes and Orthologues of the KDR Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Family Mediate Vascular Development in the Zebrafish
Blood. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17698971
Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and the type III receptor tyrosine kinase receptors (RTKs) are both required for the differentiation of endothelial cells (vasculogenesis) and for the sprouting of new capillaries (angiogenesis). We have isolated a duplicated zebrafish VegfA locus, termed VegfAb, and a duplicate RTK locus with homology to KDR/FLK1 (named Kdrb). Morpholino-disrupted VegfAb embryos develop a normal circulatory system until approximately 2 to 3 days after fertilization (dpf), when defects in angiogenesis permit blood to extravasate into many tissues. Unlike the VegfAa(121) and VegfAa(165) isoforms, the VegfAb isoforms VegfAb(171) and VegfAb(210) are not normally secreted when expressed in mammalian tissue culture cells. The Kdrb locus encodes a 1361-amino acid transmembrane receptor with strong homology to mammalian KDR. Combined knockdown of both RTKs leads to defects in vascular development, suggesting that they cooperate in mediating the vascular effects of VegfA in zebrafish development. Both VegfAa and VegfAb can individually bind and promote phosphorylation of both Flk1 (Kdra) and Kdrb proteins in vitro. Taken together, our data support a model in the zebrafish, in which duplicated VegfA and multiple type III RTKs mediate vascular development.
Cell Stem Cell. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18371439
The zebrafish is a useful model for understanding normal and cancer stem cells, but analysis has been limited to embryogenesis due to the opacity of the adult fish. To address this, we have created a transparent adult zebrafish in which we transplanted either hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells or tumor cells. In a hematopoiesis radiation recovery assay, transplantation of GFP-labeled marrow cells allowed for striking in vivo visual assessment of engraftment from 2 hr-5 weeks posttransplant. Using FACS analysis, both transparent and wild-type fish had equal engraftment, but this could only be visualized in the transparent recipient. In a tumor engraftment model, transplantation of RAS-melanoma cells allowed for visualization of tumor engraftment, proliferation, and distant metastases in as little as 5 days, which is not seen in wild-type recipients until 3 to 4 weeks. This transparent adult zebrafish serves as the ideal combination of both sensitivity and resolution for in vivo stem cell analyses.
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20664807
One unifying explanation for the complexity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may lie in the disruption of excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) circuit balance during critical periods of development. We examined whether Parvalbumin (PV)-positive inhibitory neurons, which normally drive experience-dependent circuit refinement (Hensch Nat Rev Neurosci 6:877-888, 1), are disrupted across heterogeneous ASD mouse models. We performed a meta-analysis of PV expression in previously published ASD mouse models and analyzed two additional models, reflecting an embryonic chemical insult (prenatal valproate, VPA) or single-gene mutation identified in human patients (Neuroligin-3, NL-3 R451C). PV-cells were reduced in the neocortex across multiple ASD mouse models. In striking contrast to controls, both VPA and NL-3 mouse models exhibited an asymmetric PV-cell reduction across hemispheres in parietal and occipital cortices (but not the underlying area CA1). ASD mouse models may share a PV-circuit disruption, providing new insight into circuit development and potential prevention by treatment of autism. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11689-009-9023-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Cell. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20603019
Recent genome-wide studies have demonstrated that pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occurred on many vertebrate genes. By genetic studies in the zebrafish tif1gamma mutant moonshine we found that loss of function of Pol II-associated factors PAF or DSIF rescued erythroid gene transcription in tif1gamma-deficient animals. Biochemical analysis established physical interactions among TIF1gamma, the blood-specific SCL transcription complex, and the positive elongation factors p-TEFb and FACT. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in human CD34(+) cells supported a TIF1gamma-dependent recruitment of positive elongation factors to erythroid genes to promote transcription elongation by counteracting Pol II pausing. Our study establishes a mechanism for regulating tissue cell fate and differentiation through transcription elongation.
Neural Plasticity. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21826280
Cortical circuits in the brain are refined by experience during critical periods early in postnatal life. Critical periods are regulated by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory (E/I) neurotransmission in the brain during development. There is now increasing evidence of E/I imbalance in autism, a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed by abnormal socialization, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors or restricted interests. The underlying cause is still largely unknown and there is no fully effective treatment or cure. We propose that alteration of the expression and/or timing of critical period circuit refinement in primary sensory brain areas may significantly contribute to autistic phenotypes, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. Dissection of the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing well-established critical periods represents a powerful tool to identify new potential therapeutic targets to restore normal plasticity and function in affected neuronal circuits.
Lineage Regulators Direct BMP and Wnt Pathways to Cell-specific Programs During Differentiation and Regeneration
Cell. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22036566
BMP and Wnt signaling pathways control essential cellular responses through activation of the transcription factors SMAD (BMP) and TCF (Wnt). Here, we show that regeneration of hematopoietic lineages following acute injury depends on the activation of each of these signaling pathways to induce expression of key blood genes. Both SMAD1 and TCF7L2 co-occupy sites with master regulators adjacent to hematopoietic genes. In addition, both SMAD1 and TCF7L2 follow the binding of the predominant lineage regulator during differentiation from multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells to erythroid cells. Furthermore, induction of the myeloid lineage regulator C/EBPα in erythroid cells shifts binding of SMAD1 to sites newly occupied by C/EBPα, whereas expression of the erythroid regulator GATA1 directs SMAD1 loss on nonerythroid targets. We conclude that the regenerative response mediated by BMP and Wnt signaling pathways is coupled with the lineage master regulators to control the gene programs defining cellular identity.