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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Jody Rosenblatt in JoVE
Live Imaging of Cell Extrusion from the Epidermis of Developing Zebrafish
George T. Eisenhoffer, Jody Rosenblatt
Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah
Dying cells are extruded from epithelial tissues by concerted contraction of neighboring cells without disrupting barrier function. The optical clarity of developing zebrafish provides an excellent system to visualize extrusion in living epithelia. Here we describe methods to induce and image extrusion in the larval zebrafish epidermis at cellular resolution.
Other articles by Jody Rosenblatt on PubMed
Myosin II-dependent Cortical Movement is Required for Centrosome Separation and Positioning During Mitotic Spindle Assembly
Cell. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15109496
The role of myosin II in mitosis is generally thought to be restricted to cytokinesis. We present surprising new evidence that cortical myosin II is also required for spindle assembly in cells. Drug- or RNAi-mediated disruption of myosin II in cells interferes with normal spindle assembly and positioning. Time-lapse movies reveal that these treatments block the separation and positioning of duplicated centrosomes after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD), thereby preventing the migration of the microtubule asters to opposite sides of chromosomes. Immobilization of cortical movement with tetravalent lectins produces similar spindle defects to myosin II disruption and suggests that myosin II activity is required within the cortex. Latex beads bound to the cell surface move in a myosin II-dependent manner in the direction of the separating asters. We propose that after NEBD, completion of centrosome separation and positioning around chromosomes depends on astral microtubule connections to a moving cell cortex.
Nature Cell Biology. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15738974
Cells have developed diverse ways to separate two microtubule asters to form a mitotic spindle. Here, I focus on two mechanisms used to position asters around chromosomes during mitosis: first, aster migration around the nuclear envelope and, second, aster attachment to a contractile cortex at the plasma membrane after the nuclear envelope has broken down. Although certain cell types use one mechanism predominantly, most rely on both to ensure proper spindle assembly.
Current Biology : CB. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18397735
Ezrin/radixin/moesin proteins link the actin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. Two new reports have found that moesin phosphorylation is essential for mitotic cell rounding and identify a new role for cell rounding in spindle assembly.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19720875
To preserve epithelial barrier function, dying cells are squeezed out of an epithelium by "apoptotic cell extrusion." Specifically, a cell destined for apoptosis signals its live neighboring epithelial cells to form and contract a ring of actin and myosin II that squeezes the dying cell out of the epithelial sheet. Although most apoptotic cells extrude apically, we find that some exit basally. Localization of actin and myosin IIA contraction dictates the extrusion direction: basal extrusion requires circumferential contraction of neighboring cells at their apices, whereas apical extrusion also requires downward contraction along the basolateral surfaces. To activate actin/myosin basolaterally, microtubules in neighboring cells reorient and target p115 RhoGEF to this site. Preventing microtubule reorientation restricts contraction to the apex, driving extrusion basally. Extrusion polarity has important implications for tumors where apoptosis is blocked but extrusion is not, as basal extrusion could enable these cells to initiate metastasis.
Apoptosis : an International Journal on Programmed Cell Death. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21399977
Cellular extrusion is a mechanism that removes dying cells from epithelial tissues to prevent compromising their barrier function. Extrusion occurs in all observed epithelia in vivo and can be modeled in vitro by inducing apoptosis in cultured epithelial monolayers. We established that actin and myosin form a ring that contracts in the surrounding cells that drives cellular extrusion. It is not clear, however, if all apoptotic pathways lead to extrusion and how apoptosis and extrusion are molecularly linked. Here, we find that both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways activate cellular extrusion. The contraction force that drives cellular extrusion requires caspase activity. Further, necrosis does not trigger the cellular extrusion response, but instead necrotic cells are removed from epithelia by a passive, stochastic movement of epithelial cells.
The Journal of Cell Biology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21555463
To maintain an intact barrier, epithelia eliminate dying cells by extrusion. During extrusion, a cell destined for apoptosis signals its neighboring cells to form and contract a ring of actin and myosin, which squeezes the dying cell out of the epithelium. Here, we demonstrate that the signal produced by dying cells to initiate this process is sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Decreasing S1P synthesis by inhibiting sphingosine kinase activity or by blocking extracellular S1P access to its receptor prevented apoptotic cell extrusion. Extracellular S1P activates extrusion by binding the S1P(2) receptor in the cells neighboring a dying cell, as S1P(2) knockdown in these cells or its loss in a zebrafish mutant disrupted cell extrusion. Because live cells can also be extruded, we predict that this S1P pathway may also be important for driving delamination of stem cells during differentiation or invasion of cancer cells.
The Tumor Suppressor Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Controls the Direction in Which a Cell Extrudes from an Epithelium
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21900494
Despite high rates of cell death, epithelia maintain intact barriers by squeezing dying cells out using a process termed cell extrusion. Cells can extrude apically into the lumen or basally into the tissue the epithelium encases, depending on whether actin and myosin contract at the cell base or apex, respectively. We previously found that microtubules in cells surrounding a dying cell target p115 RhoGEF to the actin cortex to control where contraction occurs. However, what controls microtubule targeting to the cortex and whether the dying cell also controls the extrusion direction were unclear. Here we find that the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) controls microtubule targeting to the cell base to drive apical extrusion. Whereas wild-type cells preferentially extrude apically, cells lacking APC or expressing an oncogenic APC mutation extrude predominantly basally in cultured monolayers and zebrafish epidermis. Thus APC is essential for driving extrusion apically. Surprisingly, although APC controls microtubule reorientation and attachment to the actin cortex in cells surrounding the dying cell, it does so by controlling actin and microtubules within the dying cell. APC disruptions that are common in colon and breast cancer may promote basal extrusion of tumor cells, which could enable their exit and subsequent migration.