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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (45)
- The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry
- International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Circulation Research
- Revista Da Sociedade Brasileira De Medicina Tropical
- Cancer Research
- PloS One
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- European Heart Journal
- The Journal of Urology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Optics Letters
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
- Journal of Biomedical Optics
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Circulation. Heart Failure
- Optics Express
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
- World Journal of Surgery
- Journal of the American College of Cardiology
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- European Heart Journal
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- Journal of Surgical Oncology
- Circulation Research
- Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
- Nature Medicine
- World Journal of Surgery
- Nature Neuroscience
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Cancer Cell
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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Articles by Jose-Luiz Figueiredo in JoVE
נורמליזציה נולד עבור טומוגרפיה Fluorescence הקרנה אופטית עבור הדמיה בלב שלם
Claudio Vinegoni1,2, Daniel Razansky3, Jose-Luiz Figueiredo1,2, Lyuba Fexon1,2, Misha Pivovarov1,2, Matthias Nahrendorf1,2, Vasilis Ntziachristos3, Ralph Weissleder1,2
1Center for Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, 2Center for Systems Biology, MGH - Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging, Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Center Munich
אנו מציעים גישה מנורמל נולד עבור טומוגרפיה הקרנה אופטי (BnOPT) אשר מהווה את מאפייני הקליטה של דגימות צילמו להשיג מדויק כמותי שחזורים הקרינה טומוגרפית. אנו משתמשים באלגוריתם המוצע לשחזר את התפלגות הקרינה בדיקה מולקולרית בתוך איברי חיה קטנה.
Other articles by Jose-Luiz Figueiredo on PubMed
The Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15719919
The aim of study was to evaluate the color stability of tooth-colored restorative materials usually used in pediatric dentistry after the application of two plaque disclosing agents. Twenty specimens of each material: a resin-modified glass ionomer, a composite resin and an ion-releasing composite resin, were prepared. Baseline color evaluation was performed, samples were exposed to the plaque disclosing agents: a basic fuchsin solution and a fluorescent dye, and new color evaluations were made. The resin-modified glass ionomer stained with basic fuchsin presented the greatest color change in the present study, and the fluorescent dye did not show statistically significant changes among the restorative materials. In conclusion, basic fuchsin dyes should be carefully used in children with a great number of tooth-colored restorations.
Near Infrared Thoracoscopy of Tumoral Protease Activity for Improved Detection of Peripheral Lung Cancer
International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16380983
Improvement in tumor detection using "smart" probes in combination with microcatheter fluorescence thoracoscopy was evaluated in a mouse model. These imaging probes increase in fluorescence intensity after protease activation; cathepsin B is a major activator of the probes used in this study. Lewis lung carcinoma cells were orthotopically implanted in the subpleural lung parenchyma. Two activatable near infrared (NIR) probes with different excitation and emission wavelength were administered intravenously to determine whether wavelength would modulate target to background ratio (TBR). Mice were selectively intubated and thoracoscopy performed. A 0.8 mm outer diameter imaging catheter was used to record simultaneous white-light (anatomic) and NIR (protease expression) images. At both wavelength pairs evaluated (680/700 and 750/780 nm excitation/emission), the intrinsic luminosity differences between tumors and normal lung in uninjected animals was low (p > 0.3 and p = 0.4, respectively and TBR near 1). In mice receiving protease probes IV, tumors were significantly more fluorescent than adjacent lung (p < 0.0005 for 680/700 and p < 0.006 for 750/780) and TBR increased to approximately 9-fold. Confirmatory fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry were similar and revealed that normal lung had very low levels when compared to tumors of cathepsin B and probe fluorescence. In conclusion, protease sensitive imaging probes selective for cathepsin B, imaged with NIR microcatheters, significantly increase the TBR, making small peripheral lung tumors more readily apparent. Such an approach may be a useful adjunct in staging or restaging patients with lung cancer to find minimal disease in the pleural and subpleural space.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16756722
Accurate delineation of tumor margins is vital to the successful surgical resection of brain tumors. We have previously developed a multimodal nanoparticle CLIO-Cy5.5, which is detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence, to assist in intraoperatively visualizing tumor boundaries. Here we examined the accuracy of tumor margin determination of orthotopic tumors implanted in hosts with differing immune responses to the tumor. Using a nonuser-based signal intensity method applied to fluorescent micrographs of 9L gliosarcoma green fluorescent protein (GFP) tumors, mean overestimations of 2 and 24 microm were obtained using Cy5.5 fluorescence, compared to the true tumor margin determined by GFP fluorescence, in nude mice and rats, respectively. To resolve which cells internalized the nanoparticle and to quantitate degree of uptake, tumors were disaggregated and cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Nanoparticle uptake was seen in both CD11b+ cells (representing activated microglia and macrophages) and tumor cells in both animal models by both methods. CD11b+ cells were predominantly found at the tumor margin in both hosts, but were more pronounced at the margin in the rat model. Additional metastatic (CT26 colon) and primary (Gli36 glioma) brain tumor models likewise demonstrated that the nanoparticle was internalized both by tumor cells and by host cells. Together, these observations suggest that fluorescent nanoparticles provide an accurate method of tumor margin estimation based on a combination of tumor cell and host cell uptake for primary and metastatic tumors in animal model systems and offer potential for clinical translation.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17322414
The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of delayed-enhancement micro-computed tomography (microCT) imaging to quantify myocardial infarct size in experimental mouse models. A total of 20 mice were imaged 5 or 35 days after surgical ligation of the left coronary artery or sham surgery (n=6 or 7 per group). We utilized a prototype microCT that covers a three-dimensional (3D) volume with an isotropic spatial resolution of 100 microm. A series of image acquisitions were started after a 200 microl bolus of a high-molecular-weight blood pool CT agent to outline the ventricles. CT imaging was continuously performed over 60 min, while an intravenous constant infusion with iopamidol 370 was started at a dosage of 1 ml/h. Thirty minutes after the initiation of this infusion, signal intensity in Hounsfield units was significantly higher in the infarct than in the remote, uninjured myocardium. Cardiac morphology and motion were visualized with excellent contrast and in fine detail. In vivo CT determination of infarct size at the midventricular level was in good agreement with ex vivo staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride [5 days post-myocardial infarction (MI): r(2)=0.86, P<0.01; 35 days post-MI: r(2)=0.92, P<0.01]. In addition, we detected significant left ventricular remodeling consisting of left ventricular dilation and decreased ejection fraction. 3D cine microCT reliably and rapidly quantifies infarct size and assesses murine anatomy and physiology after coronary ligation, despite the small size and fast movement of the mouse heart. This efficient imaging tool is a valuable addition to the current phenotyping armamentarium and will allow rapid testing of novel drugs and cell-based interventions in murine models.
Radiology. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17325064
To prospectively determine the feasibility of imaging vascular volume fraction (VVF) and its therapeutic inhibition in mouse models of cancer with three-dimensional fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT).
Dual Channel Optical Tomographic Imaging of Leukocyte Recruitment and Protease Activity in the Healing Myocardial Infarct
Circulation Research. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17379832
Inflammatory responses after myocardial infarction profoundly impact tissue repair. Yet, efficient tools to serially and noninvasively assess cellular and molecular functions in postinfarct inflammation are lacking. Here we use multichannel fluorescent molecular tomography (FMT) for spatiotemporal resolution of phagocytic and proteolytic activities mediated by macrophages and neutrophils in murine infarcts. We performed FMT imaging to compare the course of efficient and impaired healing in wild-type and FXIII-/- mice, respectively. Mice subjected to coronary ligation received simultaneous injections with Prosense-680, an activatable fluorescence sensor reporting on cathepsin activity, and CLIO-VT750, a magneto-fluorescent nanoparticle for imaging of phagocyte recruitment. On FMT, Prosense-680 infarct signal was 19-fold higher than background (P<0.05). Protease activity was higher in the infarcted lateral wall than in the remote, uninjured septum on ex vivo fluorescence reflectance imaging (contrast to noise ratio 118+/-24). CLIO-VT750 FMT signal coregistered with contrast enhancement in the hypokinetic infarct on MRI. Microscopic fluorescence signal colocalized with immunoreactive staining for cathepsin, macrophages and neutrophils. Flow cytometry of digested infarcts revealed monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils as the source of the fluorescence signal. Phagocytic activity peaked on day 6, and proteolytic activity peaked on day 4 after myocardial infarction. FMT detected impaired recruitment of phagocytes and protease activity in FXIII-/- mice (P<0.05). FMT is a promising noninvasive molecular imaging approach to characterize infarct healing. Spectrally resolved imaging agents allow for simultaneous assesment of key processes of in vivo cellular functions. Specifically, we show that in vivo FMT detects impaired healing in FXIII-/- mice.
[Portal Hypertension in Mansonic Schistosomiasis: Repercussions of Surgical Treatment on the Histomorphometric Profile of the Gastric Mucosa]
Revista Da Sociedade Brasileira De Medicina Tropical. Jan-Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17486259
The repercussions from surgical treatment for controlling portal hypertension and its effects on the gastric vasculature of young patients with mansonic schistosomiasis were investigated by digital image analysis. The study included five patients at the preoperative stage and 27 patients who had undergone surgical intervention at different times in the past: 0-2 years ago, n=4; 2-6 years ago, n=13, and more than 6 years ago, n=10. Endoscopic biopsies were taken from the mucosa of the gastric antrum and body endoscopic mucosa and the samples underwent routine histological tests after embedding in paraffin blocks. Histological thin sections were used for histomorphometric analysis of the following parameters: mean number of vessels per field, and mean diameter and thickness of the vessel walls. The results showed that, between the patients whose operation was not more than two years ago and those whose operation was more than six years ago, there was a significant decrease in the density and diameter of the vessels. These findings give support to the concept that the surgical treatment administered decreases specific histological alterations like hemorrhage and ectasia, over the long term.
Cancer Research. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17671203
Many altered pathways in cancer cells depend on growth factor receptors. In primary malignant gliomas, the amplification/alteration of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to play a significant role in enhancing glioma burden. In an effort to dissect the role of EGFR expression in glioma progression in vivo and evaluate targeted therapies for gliomas, we have genetically engineered glioma cells to visualize the dynamics of EGFR and targeted therapies in real time in vivo. Using engineered lentiviral vectors bearing fusions between EGFR and its exon 2 to 7 deleted variant (EGFRvIII) with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Renilla luciferase (Rluc), we show that there is a direct correlation between EGFR expression and glioma cell proliferation in the initial stages of glioma progression. To monitor and evaluate EGFR-targeted therapies, we have engineered (a) short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) and (b) clinically used monoclonal antibody, cetuximab. Using EGFR-GFP-Rluc/firefly luciferase (Fluc)-DsRed2 glioma model, we show that both shRNAs and cetuximab result in a considerable reduction in glioma cell proliferation in culture and glioma burden in vivo that can be monitored in real time at a cellular resolution. This study serves as a template to follow the role of growth factor receptor expression in tumor progression and to image therapeutic efficacy of targeted therapies in cancer.
A Near-infrared Cell Tracker Reagent for Multiscopic in Vivo Imaging and Quantification of Leukocyte Immune Responses
PloS One. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17957257
The complexity of the tumor microenvironment necessitates that cell behavior is studied in a broad, multi-scale context. Although tomographic and microscopy-based far and near infrared fluorescence (NIRF, >650 nm) imaging methods offer high resolution, sensitivity, and depth penetration, there has been a lack of optimized NIRF agents to label and track cells in their native environments at different scales. In this study we labeled mammalian leukocytes with VivoTag 680 (VT680), an amine reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester of a (benz) indolium-derived far red fluorescent probe. We show that VT680 diffuses into leukocytes within minutes, covalently binds to cellular components, remains internalized for days in vitro and in vivo, and does not transfer fluorescence to adjacent cells. It is biocompatible, keeps cells fully functional, and fluoresces at high intensities. In a tumor model of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) immunotherapy, we track and quantify VT680-labeled cells longitudinally at the whole-body level with fluorescence-mediated molecular tomography (FMT), within tissues at single cell resolutions by multiphoton and confocal intravital microscopy, and ex vivo by flow cytometry. Thus, this approach is suitable to monitor cells at multiple resolutions in real time in their native environments by NIR-based fluorescence imaging.
The Healing Myocardium Sequentially Mobilizes Two Monocyte Subsets with Divergent and Complementary Functions
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18025128
Healing of myocardial infarction (MI) requires monocytes/macrophages. These mononuclear phagocytes likely degrade released macromolecules and aid in scavenging of dead cardiomyocytes, while mediating aspects of granulation tissue formation and remodeling. The mechanisms that orchestrate such divergent functions remain unknown. In view of the heightened appreciation of the heterogeneity of circulating monocytes, we investigated whether distinct monocyte subsets contribute in specific ways to myocardial ischemic injury in mouse MI. We identify two distinct phases of monocyte participation after MI and propose a model that reconciles the divergent properties of these cells in healing. Infarcted hearts modulate their chemokine expression profile over time, and they sequentially and actively recruit Ly-6C(hi) and -6C(lo) monocytes via CCR2 and CX(3)CR1, respectively. Ly-6C(hi) monocytes dominate early (phase I) and exhibit phagocytic, proteolytic, and inflammatory functions. Ly-6C(lo) monocytes dominate later (phase II), have attenuated inflammatory properties, and express vascular-endothelial growth factor. Consequently, Ly-6C(hi) monocytes digest damaged tissue, whereas Ly-6C(lo) monocytes promote healing via myofibroblast accumulation, angiogenesis, and deposition of collagen. MI in atherosclerotic mice with chronic Ly-6C(hi) monocytosis results in impaired healing, underscoring the need for a balanced and coordinated response. These observations provide novel mechanistic insights into the cellular and molecular events that regulate the response to ischemic injury and identify new therapeutic targets that can influence healing and ventricular remodeling after MI.
Osteogenesis Associates with Inflammation in Early-stage Atherosclerosis Evaluated by Molecular Imaging in Vivo
Circulation. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18040026
Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular events; however, mechanisms of calcification in atherosclerosis remain obscure.
Activatable Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent Reports Myeloperoxidase Activity in Healing Infarcts and Noninvasively Detects the Antiinflammatory Effects of Atorvastatin on Ischemia-reperfusion Injury
Circulation. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18268141
Ischemic injury of the myocardium causes timed recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, which produce substantial amounts of local myeloperoxidase (MPO). MPO forms reactive chlorinating species capable of inflicting oxidative stress and altering protein function by covalent modification. We have used a small-molecule, gadolinium-based activatable sensor for magnetic resonance imaging of MPO activity (MPO-Gd). MPO-Gd is first radicalized by MPO and then either spontaneously oligomerizes or binds to matrix proteins, all leading to enhanced spin-lattice relaxivity and delayed washout kinetics. We hypothesized that MPO imaging could be used to measure inflammatory responses after myocardial ischemia locally and noninvasively in a murine model.
Transglutaminase Activity in Acute Infarcts Predicts Healing Outcome and Left Ventricular Remodelling: Implications for FXIII Therapy and Antithrombin Use in Myocardial Infarction
European Heart Journal. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18276618
The transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) emerges as a key enzyme in healing after myocardial infarction (MI). Here we assess the impact of transglutaminase-modulating therapies on healing and evolution of heart failure using a novel, non-invasive molecular imaging technique.
The Journal of Urology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18295253
In the surgical management of urolithiasis the goal of treatment is not only to remove calculi, but also prevent future stone formation by rendering the patient stone-free/fragment-free. Achieving this goal is often difficult with endoscopic procedures due to the inability to visualize small calculi well even with x-ray or ultrasound. We evaluated fluorescence probes as a novel method of identifying calculi in the urinary tract.
Bimodal Viral Vectors and in Vivo Imaging Reveal the Fate of Human Neural Stem Cells in Experimental Glioma Model
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18434519
Transplantation of genetically engineered cells into the CNS offers immense potential for the treatment of several neurological disorders. Monitoring expression levels of transgenes and following changes in cell function and distribution over time is critical in assessing therapeutic efficacy of such cells in vivo. We have engineered lentiviral vectors bearing fusions between different combinations of fluorescent and bioluminescent marker proteins and used bioluminescence imaging and intravital-scanning microscopy in real time to study the fate of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) at a cellular resolution in glioma-bearing brains in vivo. Using Renilla luciferase (Rluc)-DsRed2 or GFP-Rluc-expressing malignant human glioma model, transduced hNSCs were shown to migrate extensively toward gliomas, with hNSCs populating gliomas at 10 d after transplantation. Furthermore, transduced hNSCs survived longer in mice with gliomas than in normal brain, but did not modulate glioma progression in vivo. These studies demonstrate the utility of bimodal viral vectors and real-time imaging in evaluating fate of NSCs in diseased models and thus provide a platform for accelerating cell-based therapies for CNS disorders.
A Subpopulation of Mouse Esophageal Basal Cells Has Properties of Stem Cells with the Capacity for Self-renewal and Lineage Specification
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19033657
The esophageal epithelium is a prototypical stratified squamous epithelium that exhibits an exquisite equilibrium between proliferation and differentiation. After basal cells proliferate, they migrate outward toward the luminal surface, undergo differentiation, and eventually slough due to apoptosis. The identification and characterization of stem cells responsible for the maintenance of the esophageal epithelium remains elusive. Here, we employed Hoechst dye extrusion and BrdU label-retaining assays to identify in mice a potential esophageal stem cell population that localizes to the basal cell compartment. The self-renewing capacity of this population was characterized using a clonogenic assay and a 3D organotypic culture model. The putative esophageal stem cells were also capable of epithelial reconstitution in vivo in direct esophageal epithelial injury models. In both the 3D organotypic culture and direct mucosal injury models, the putative stem cells gave rise to undifferentiated and differentiated cells. These studies therefore provide a basis for understanding the regenerative capacity and biology of the esophageal epithelium when it is faced with injurious insults.
Real-time Assessment of Inflammation and Treatment Response in a Mouse Model of Allergic Airway Inflammation
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19033674
Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that degrade and remodel tissue extracellular matrix through production of proteolytic enzymes, release of proinflammatory factors to initiate and propagate inflammatory responses, and direct activation of mucus secretion and smooth muscle cell constriction. Thus, eosinophils are central effector cells during allergic airway inflammation and an important clinical therapeutic target. Here we describe the use of an injectable MMP-targeted optical sensor that specifically and quantitatively resolves eosinophil activity in the lungs of mice with experimental allergic airway inflammation. Through the use of real-time molecular imaging methods, we report the visualization of eosinophil responses in vivo and at different scales. Eosinophil responses were seen at single-cell resolution in conducting airways using near-infrared fluorescence fiberoptic bronchoscopy, in lung parenchyma using intravital microscopy, and in the whole body using fluorescence-mediated molecular tomography. Using these real-time imaging methods, we confirmed the immunosuppressive effects of the glucocorticoid drug dexamethasone in the mouse model of allergic airway inflammation and identified a viridin-derived prodrug that potently inhibited the accumulation and enzyme activity of eosinophils in the lungs. The combination of sensitive enzyme-targeted sensors with noninvasive molecular imaging approaches permitted evaluation of airway inflammation severity and was used as a model to rapidly screen for new drug effects. Both fluorescence-mediated tomography and fiberoptic bronchoscopy techniques have the potential to be translated into the clinic.
Combined Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Imaging of the Living Mouse Brain Reveals Glioma Response to Chemotherapy
NeuroImage. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19154791
Fluorescent molecular tomographic (FMT) imaging can noninvasively monitor molecular function in living animals using specific fluorescent probes. However, macroscopic imaging methods such as FMT generally exhibit low anatomical details. To overcome this, we report a quantitative technique to image both structure and function by combining FMT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We show that FMT-MR imaging can produce three-dimensional, multimodal images of living mouse brains allowing for serial monitoring of tumor morphology and protease activity. Combined FMT-MR tumor imaging provides a unique in vivo diagnostic parameter, protease activity concentration (PAC), which reflects histological changes in tumors and is significantly altered by systemic chemotherapy. Alterations in this diagnostic parameter are detectable early after chemotherapy and correlate with subsequent tumor growth, predicting tumor response to chemotherapy. Our results reveal that combined FMT-MR imaging of fluorescent molecular probes could be valuable for brain tumor drug development and other neurological and somatic imaging applications.
Optics Letters. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19183644
We present a normalized Born approach for fluorescence optical projection tomography that takes into account tissue absorption properties. This approach can be particularly useful to study fluorochrome distribution within tissue. We use the algorithm to three-dimensionally reconstruct and characterize a fluorescein isothiocyanate containing absorptive phantom and an infarcted mouse heart previously injected with a fluorescent molecular probe.
Assessment of Therapeutic Efficacy and Fate of Engineered Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19264968
The poor prognosis of patients with aggressive and invasive cancers combined with toxic effects and short half-life of currently available treatments necessitate development of more effective tumor selective therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as novel cell-based delivery agents; however, a thorough investigation addressing their therapeutic potential and fate in different cancer models is lacking. In this study, we explored the engineering potential, fate, and therapeutic efficacy of human MSCs in a highly malignant and invasive model of glioblastoma. We show that engineered MSC retain their "stem-like" properties, survive longer in mice with gliomas than in the normal brain, and migrate extensively toward gliomas. We also show that MSCs are resistant to the cytokine tumor necrosis factor apoptosis ligand (TRAIL) and, when engineered to express secreted recombinant TRAIL, induce caspase-mediated apoptosis in established glioma cell lines as well as CD133-positive primary glioma cells in vitro. Using highly malignant and invasive human glioma models and employing real-time imaging with correlative neuropathology, we demonstrate that MSC-delivered recombinant TRAIL has profound anti-tumor effects in vivo. This study demonstrates the efficacy of diagnostic and therapeutic MSC in preclinical glioma models and forms the basis for developing stem cell-based therapies for different cancers.
Arterial and Aortic Valve Calcification Abolished by Elastolytic Cathepsin S Deficiency in Chronic Renal Disease
Circulation. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19307473
Clinical studies have demonstrated that 50% of individuals with chronic renal disease (CRD) die of cardiovascular causes, including advanced calcific arterial and valvular disease; however, the mechanisms of accelerated calcification in CRD remain obscure, and no therapies can prevent disease progression. We recently demonstrated in vivo that inflammation triggers cardiovascular calcification. In vitro evidence also indicates that elastin degradation products may promote osteogenesis. Here, we used genetically modified mice and molecular imaging to test the hypothesis in vivo that cathepsin S (catS), a potent elastolytic proteinase, accelerates calcification in atherosclerotic mice with CRD induced by 5/6 nephrectomy.
Behavior of Endogenous Tumor-associated Macrophages Assessed in Vivo Using a Functionalized Nanoparticle
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19412430
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) invade the tumor stroma in many cancers, yet their role is incompletely understood. To visualize and better understand these critical cells in tumor progression, we screened a portfolio of rationally selected, injectable agents to image endogenous TAMs ubiquitously in three different cancer models (colon carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and soft tissue sarcoma). AMTA680, a functionally derivatized magneto-fluorescent nanoparticle, labeled a subset of myeloid cells with an "M2" macrophage phenotype, whereas other neighboring cells, including tumor cells and a variety of other leukocytes, remained unlabeled. We further show that AMTA680-labeled endogenous TAMs are not altered and can be tracked noninvasively at different resolutions and using various imaging modalities, e.g., fluorescence molecular tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and multiphoton and confocal intravital microscopy. Quantitative assessment of TAM distribution and activity in vivo identified that these cells cluster in delimited foci within tumors, show relatively low motility, and extend cytoplasmic protrusions for prolonged physical interactions with neighboring tumor cells. Noninvasive imaging can also be used to monitor TAM-depleting regimen quantitatively. Thus, AMTA680 or related cell-targeting agents represent appropriate injectable vehicles for in vivo analysis of the tumor microenvironment.
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19509266
Although viridins like wortmannin (Wm) have long been examined as anticancer agents, their ability to self-activate has only recently been recognized. Here, we describe the cytostatic effects of a self-activating viridin (SAV), which is an inactive, polymeric prodrug. SAV self-activates to generate a bioactive, fluorescent viridin NBD-Wm with a half-time of 9.2 hours. With cultured A549 cells, 10 micromol/L SAV caused growth arrest without inducing apoptosis or cell death, a cytostatic action markedly different from other chemotherapeutic agents (vinblastine, camptothecin, and paclitaxel). In vivo, a SAV dosing of 1 mg/kg once in 48 hours (i.p.) resulted in growth arrest of an A549 tumor xenograft, with growth resuming when dosing ceased. With a peak serum concentration of SAV of 2.36 micromol/L (at 2 hours post i.p. injection), the concentration of bioactive NBD-Wm was 41 nmol/L based on the partial inhibition of neutrophil respiratory burst. Therefore, SAV was present as an inactive prodrug in serum (peak = 2.36 micromol/L), which generated low concentrations of active viridin (41 nmol/L). SAV is a prodrug, the slow release and cytostatic activities of which suggest that it might be useful as a component of metronomic-based chemotherapeutic strategies.
Journal of Biomedical Optics. May-Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19566290
We interrogate the ability of free-space fluorescence tomography to image small animals in vivo using charge-coupled device (CCD) camera measurements over 360-deg noncontact projections. We demonstrate the performance of normalized dual-wavelength measurements that are essential for in-vivo use, as they account for the heterogeneous distribution of photons in tissue. In-vivo imaging is then showcased on mouse lung and brain tumors cross-validated by x-ray microcomputed tomography and histology.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19620715
There is a growing need for fast, highly sensitive and quantitative technologies to detect and profile unaltered cells in biological samples. Technologies in current clinical use are often time consuming, expensive, or require considerable sample sizes. Here, we report a diagnostic magnetic resonance (DMR) sensor that combines a miniaturized NMR probe with targeted magnetic nanoparticles for detection and molecular profiling of cancer cells. The sensor measures the transverse relaxation rate of water molecules in biological samples in which target cells of interest are labeled with magnetic nanoparticles. We achieved remarkable sensitivity improvements over our prior DMR prototypes by synthesizing new nanoparticles with higher transverse relaxivity and by optimizing assay protocols. We detected as few as 2 cancer cells in 1-microL sample volumes of unprocessed fine-needle aspirates of tumors and profiled the expression of several cellular markers in <15 min.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19644120
A current paradigm states that monocytes circulate freely and patrol blood vessels but differentiate irreversibly into dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages upon tissue entry. Here we show that bona fide undifferentiated monocytes reside in the spleen and outnumber their equivalents in circulation. The reservoir monocytes assemble in clusters in the cords of the subcapsular red pulp and are distinct from macrophages and DCs. In response to ischemic myocardial injury, splenic monocytes increase their motility, exit the spleen en masse, accumulate in injured tissue, and participate in wound healing. These observations uncover a role for the spleen as a site for storage and rapid deployment of monocytes and identify splenic monocytes as a resource that the body exploits to regulate inflammation.
Circulation. Heart Failure. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19718275
Optics Express. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20052155
We implement the use of a graphics processing unit (GPU) in order to achieve real time data processing for high-throughput transmission optical projection tomography imaging. By implementing the GPU we have obtained a 300 fold performance enhancement in comparison to a CPU workstation implementation. This enables to obtain on-the-fly reconstructions enabling for high throughput imaging.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19817443
The current lack of suitable probes has limited the in vivo imaging of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). ROS/RNS are often generated by ischemia-induced inflammation; defining the extent of tissue involvement or ROS/RNS-related damage would have a significant clinical impact. We present the preparation and demonstration of a fluorogenic sensor for monitoring peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) mediated hypochlorous acid (HOCl/OCl(-)) production. The sensor consists of a long circulating biocompatible nanoparticle that targets phagocytic cells in vivo and is coated with approximately 400 quenched oxazine fluorophores that are released by reaction with HOCl or ONOO(-) but are stable toward oxidants such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide. MPO-dependent probe activation is chloride ion dependent and is negated in flow cytometry studies of MPO inhibitor treated neutrophils. Fluorescence reflectance imaging and microscopic fluorescence imaging in mouse hearts after myocardial infarction showed probe release into neutrophil-rich ischemic areas, making this ROS/RNS sensor a novel prognostic indicator.
JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19833312
The aim of this study was to iteratively develop and validate an (18)F-labeled small vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 affinity ligand and demonstrate the feasibility of imaging VCAM-1 expression by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in murine atherosclerotic arteries.
Intraoperative Near-infrared Fluorescent Cholangiography (NIRFC) in Mouse Models of Bile Duct Injury
World Journal of Surgery. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20033407
Accidental injury to the common bile duct is a rare but serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Accurate visualization of the biliary ducts may prevent injury or allow its early detection. Conventional X-ray cholangiography is often used and can mitigate the severity of injury when correctly interpreted. However, it may be useful to have an imaging method that could provide real-time extrahepatic bile duct visualization without changing the field of view from the laparoscope. The purpose of the present study was to test a new near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent agent that is rapidly excreted via the biliary route in preclinical models to evaluate intraoperative real-time near infrared fluorescent cholangiography (NIRFC).
Journal of the American College of Cardiology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20378083
The aim of this study was to test whether blood monocytosis in mice with atherosclerosis affects infarct healing.
Myeloperoxidase-rich Ly-6C+ Myeloid Cells Infiltrate Allografts and Contribute to an Imaging Signature of Organ Rejection in Mice
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20577051
Rates of graft rejection are high among recipients of heart transplants. The onset and progression of clinically significant heart transplant rejection are currently monitored by serial biopsy, but this approach is highly invasive and lacks sensitivity. Here, we have developed what we believe to be a new technique to measure organ rejection noninvasively that involves the exploration of tissue-infiltrating leukocytes as biomarker sources for diagnostic imaging. Specifically, we profiled the myeloid response in a murine model of heart transplantation with the aim of defining and validating an imaging signature of graft rejection. Ly-6Chi monocytes, which promote inflammation, accumulated progressively in allografts but only transiently in isografts. Ly-6Clo monocytes, which help resolve inflammation, did not accumulate, although they composed the majority of the few remaining monocytes in isografts. The persistence of Ly-6Chi monocytes in allografts prompted us to screen for a Ly-6Chi monocyte-associated imaging marker. Low-density array data revealed that Ly-6Chi monocytes express 10-fold higher levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) than Ly-6Clo monocytes. Noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging of MPO with an MPO-activatable Gd-chelate revealed a spatially defined T1-weighted signal in rejected allografts but not in isografts or MPO-deficient allograft recipients. Flow cytometry, enzymography, and histology validated the approach by mapping MPO activity to Ly-6Chi monocytes and neutrophils. Thus, MPO imaging represents a potential alternative to the current invasive clinical standard by which transplants are monitored.
Arterial and Aortic Valve Calcification Inversely Correlates with Osteoporotic Bone Remodelling: a Role for Inflammation
European Heart Journal. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20601388
Westernized countries face a growing burden of cardiovascular calcification and osteoporosis. Despite its vast clinical significance, the precise nature of this reciprocal relationship remains obscure. We hypothesize that cardiovascular calcification progresses with inflammation and inversely correlates with bone tissue mineral density (TMD).
Pioglitazone Suppresses Inflammation in Vivo in Murine Carotid Atherosclerosis: Novel Detection by Dual-target Fluorescence Molecular Imaging
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20689078
To investigate the effects of pioglitazone (PIO), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, on plaque matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and macrophage (Mac) responses in vivo in a molecular imaging study.
Journal of Surgical Oncology. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20872807
The application of fluorescent molecular imaging to surgical oncology is a developing field with the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, the detection thresholds and other requirements for successful intervention remain poorly understood. Here we modeled and experimentally validated depth and size of detection of tumor deposits, trade-offs in coverage and resolution of areas of interest, and required pharmacokinetics of probes based on differing levels of tumor target presentation.
Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibition Prevents the Release of Monocytes from Their Splenic Reservoir in Mice with Myocardial Infarction
Circulation Research. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20930148
Monocytes recruited to ischemic myocardium originate from a reservoir in the spleen, and the release from their splenic niche relies on angiotensin (Ang) II signaling.
Intravital Molecular Imaging of Small-diameter Tissue-engineered Vascular Grafts in Mice: a Feasibility Study
Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19751103
Creating functional small-diameter tissue-engineered blood vessels has not been successful to date. Moreover, the processes underlying the in vivo remodeling of these grafts and the fate of cells seeded onto scaffolds remain unclear. Here we addressed these unmet scientific needs by using intravital molecular imaging to monitor the development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVG) implanted in mouse carotid artery.
In Vivo Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus Endocarditis by Targeting Pathogen-specific Prothrombin Activation
Nature Medicine. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21857652
Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the major causal pathogen of acute endocarditis, a rapidly progressing, destructive infection of the heart valves. Bacterial colonization occurs at sites of endothelial damage, where, together with fibrin and platelets, the bacteria initiate the formation of abnormal growths known as vegetations. Here we report that an engineered analog of prothrombin could be used to detect S. aureus in endocarditic vegetations via noninvasive fluorescence or positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. These prothrombin derivatives bound staphylocoagulase and intercalated into growing bacterial vegetations. We also present evidence for bacterial quorum sensing in the regulation of staphylocoagulase expression by S. aureus. Staphylocoagulase expression was limited to the growing edge of mature vegetations, where it was exposed to the host and co-localized with the imaging probe. When endocarditis was induced with an S. aureus strain with genetic deletion of coagulases, survival of mice improved, highlighting the role of staphylocoagulase as a virulence factor.
Intraoperative Near-infrared Fluorescent Cholangiography (NIRFC) in Mouse Models of Bile Duct Injury: Reply
World Journal of Surgery. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20645091
Encapsulated Therapeutic Stem Cells Implanted in the Tumor Resection Cavity Induce Cell Death in Gliomas
Nature Neuroscience. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22197831
Therapeutically engineered stem cells have shown promise for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) therapy; however, key preclinical studies are urgently needed for their clinical translation. In this study, we investigated a new approach to GBM treatment using therapeutic stem cells encapsulated in biodegradable, synthetic extracellular matrix (sECM) in mouse models of human GBM resection. Using multimodal imaging, we first showed quantitative surgical debulking of human GBM tumors in mice, which resulted in increased survival. Next, sECM encapsulation of engineered stem cells increased their retention in the tumor resection cavity, permitted tumor-selective migration and release of diagnostic and therapeutic proteins in vivo. Simulating the clinical scenario of GBM treatment, the release of tumor-selective S-TRAIL (secretable tumor necrosis factor apoptosis inducing ligand) from sECM-encapsulated stem cells in the resection cavity eradicated residual tumor cells by inducing caspase-mediated apoptosis, delayed tumor regrowth and significantly increased survival of mice. This study demonstrates the efficacy of encapsulated therapeutic stem cells in mouse models of GBM resection and may have implications for developing effective therapies for GBM.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22245738
Recognition and clearance of a bacterial infection are a fundamental properties of innate immunity. Here, we describe an effector B cell population that protects against microbial sepsis. Innate response activator (IRA) B cells are phenotypically and functionally distinct, develop and diverge from B1a B cells, depend on pattern-recognition receptors, and produce granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Specific deletion of IRA B cell activity impairs bacterial clearance, elicits a cytokine storm, and precipitates septic shock. These observations enrich our understanding of innate immunity, position IRA B cells as gatekeepers of bacterial infection, and identify new treatment avenues for infectious diseases.
Bile Acid and Inflammation Activate Gastric Cardia Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Barrett-like Metaplasia
Cancer Cell. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22264787
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) arises from Barrett esophagus (BE), intestinal-like columnar metaplasia linked to reflux esophagitis. In a transgenic mouse model of BE, esophageal overexpression of interleukin-1β phenocopies human pathology with evolution of esophagitis, Barrett-like metaplasia and EAC. Histopathology and gene signatures closely resembled human BE, with upregulation of TFF2, Bmp4, Cdx2, Notch1, and IL-6. The development of BE and EAC was accelerated by exposure to bile acids and/or nitrosamines, and inhibited by IL-6 deficiency. Lgr5(+) gastric cardia stem cells present in BE were able to lineage trace the early BE lesion. Our data suggest that BE and EAC arise from gastric progenitors due to a tumor-promoting IL-1β-IL-6 signaling cascade and Dll1-dependent Notch signaling.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22308361
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) can control cancer growth and exist in almost all solid neoplasms. The cells are known to descend from immature monocytic and granulocytic cells, respectively, which are produced in the bone marrow. However, the spleen is also a recently identified reservoir of monocytes, which can play a significant role in the inflammatory response that follows acute injury. Here, we evaluated the role of the splenic reservoir in a genetic mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma driven by activation of oncogenic Kras and inactivation of p53. We found that high numbers of TAM and TAN precursors physically relocated from the spleen to the tumor stroma, and that recruitment of tumor-promoting spleen-derived TAMs required signaling of the chemokine receptor CCR2. Also, removal of the spleen, either before or after tumor initiation, reduced TAM and TAN responses significantly and delayed tumor growth. The mechanism by which the spleen was able to maintain its reservoir capacity throughout tumor progression involved, in part, local accumulation in the splenic red pulp of typically rare extramedullary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, notably granulocyte and macrophage progenitors, which produced CD11b(+) Ly-6C(hi) monocytic and CD11b(+) Ly-6G(hi) granulocytic cells locally. Splenic granulocyte and macrophage progenitors and their descendants were likewise identified in clinical specimens. The present study sheds light on the origins of TAMs and TANs, and positions the spleen as an important extramedullary site, which can continuously supply growing tumors with these cells.
Circulation. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22144566
Atherosclerotic lesions are believed to grow via the recruitment of bone marrow-derived monocytes. Among the known murine monocyte subsets, Ly-6C(high) monocytes are inflammatory, accumulate in lesions preferentially, and differentiate. Here, we hypothesized that the bone marrow outsources the production of Ly-6C(high) monocytes during atherosclerosis.